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  • As a roboticist, I get asked a lot of questions.

  • "When we will they start serving me breakfast?"

  • So I thought the future of robotics would be looking more like us.

  • I thought they would look like me,

  • so I built eyes that would simulate my eyes.

  • I built fingers that are dextrous enough to serve me ...

  • baseballs.

  • Classical robots like this

  • are built and become functional

  • based on the fixed number of joints and actuators.

  • And this means their functionality and shape are already fixed

  • at the moment of their conception.

  • So even though this arm has a really nice throw --

  • it even hit the tripod at the end--

  • it's not meant for cooking you breakfast per se.

  • It's not really suited for scrambled eggs.

  • So this was when I was hit by a new vision of future robotics:

  • the transformers.

  • They drive, they run, they fly,

  • all depending on the ever-changing, new environment and task at hand.

  • To make this a reality,

  • you really have to rethink how robots are designed.

  • So, imagine a robotic module in a polygon shape

  • and using that simple polygon shape

  • to reconstruct multiple different forms

  • to create a new form of robot for different tasks.

  • In CG, computer graphics, it's not any news --

  • it's been done for a while, and that's how most of the movies are made.

  • But if you're trying to make a robot that's physically moving,

  • it's a completely new story.

  • It's a completely new paradigm.

  • But you've all done this.

  • Who hasn't made a paper airplane, paper boat, paper crane?

  • Origami is a versatile platform for designers.

  • From a single sheet of paper, you can make multiple shapes,

  • and if you don't like it, you unfold and fold back again.

  • Any 3D form can be made from 2D surfaces by folding,

  • and this is proven mathematically.

  • And imagine if you were to have an intelligent sheet

  • that can self-fold into any form it wants,

  • anytime.

  • And that's what I've been working on.

  • I call this robotic origami,

  • "robogami."

  • This is our first robogami transformation

  • that was made by me about 10 years ago.

  • From a flat-sheeted robot,

  • it turns into a pyramid and back into a flat sheet

  • and into a space shuttle.

  • Quite cute.

  • Ten years later, with my group of ninja origami robotic researchers --

  • about 22 of them right now --

  • we have a new generation of robogamis,

  • and they're a little more effective and they do more than that.

  • So the new generation of robogamis actually serve a purpose.

  • For example, this one actually navigates through different terrains autonomously.

  • So when it's a dry and flat land, it crawls.

  • And if it meets sudden rough terrain,

  • it starts rolling.

  • It does this -- it's the same robot --

  • but depending on which terrain it meets,

  • it activates a different sequence of actuators that's on board.

  • And once it meets an obstacle, it jumps over it.

  • It does this by storing energy in each of its legs

  • and releasing it and catapulting like a slingshot.

  • And it even does gymnastics.

  • Yay.

  • (Laughter)

  • So I just showed you what a single robogami can do.

  • Imagine what they can do as a group.

  • They can join forces to tackle more complex tasks.

  • Each module, either active or passive,

  • we can assemble them to create different shapes.

  • Not only that, by controlling the folding joints,

  • we're able to create and attack different tasks.

  • The form is making new task space.

  • And this time, what's most important is the assembly.

  • They need to autonomously find each other in a different space,

  • attach and detach, depending on the environment and task.

  • And we can do this now.

  • So what's next?

  • Our imagination.

  • This is a simulation of what you can achieve

  • with this type of module.

  • We decided that we were going to have a four-legged crawler

  • turn into a little dog and make small gaits.

  • With the same module, we can actually make it do something else:

  • a manipulator, a typical, classical robotic task.

  • So with a manipulator, it can pick up an object.

  • Of course, you can add more modules to make the manipulator legs longer

  • to attack or pick up objects that are bigger or smaller,

  • or even have a third arm.

  • For robogamis, there's no one fixed shape nor task.

  • They can transform into anything, anywhere, anytime.

  • So how do you make them?

  • The biggest technical challenge of robogami is keeping them super thin,

  • flexible,

  • but still remaining functional.

  • They're composed of multiple layers of circuits, motors,

  • microcontrollers and sensors,

  • all in the single body,

  • and when you control individual folding joints,

  • you'll be able to achieve soft motions like that

  • upon your command.

  • Instead of being a single robot that is specifically made for a single task,

  • robogamis are optimized to do multi-tasks.

  • And this is quite important

  • for the difficult and unique environments on the Earth

  • as well as in space.

  • Space is a perfect environment for robogamis.

  • You cannot afford to have one robot for one task.

  • Who knows how many tasks you will encounter in space?

  • What you want is a single robotic platform that can transform to do multi-tasks.

  • What we want is a deck of thin robogami modules

  • that can transform to do multiples of performing tasks.

  • And don't take my word for it,

  • because the European Space Agency and Swiss Space Center

  • are sponsoring this exact concept.

  • So here you see a couple of images of reconfiguration of robogamis,

  • exploring the foreign land aboveground, on the surface,

  • as well as digging into the surface.

  • It's not just exploration.

  • For astronauts, they need additional help,

  • because you cannot afford to bring interns up there, either.

  • (Laughter)

  • They have to do every tedious task.

  • They may be simple,

  • but super interactive.

  • So you need robots to facilitate their experiments,

  • assisting them with the communications

  • and just docking onto surfaces to be their third arm holding different tools.

  • But how will they be able to control robogamis, for example,

  • outside the space station?

  • In this case, I show a robogami that is holding space debris.

  • You can work with your vision so that you can control them,

  • but what would be better is having the sensation of touch

  • directly transported onto the hands of the astronauts.

  • And what you need is a haptic device,

  • a haptic interface that recreates the sensation of touch.

  • And using robogamis, we can do this.

  • This is the world's smallest haptic interface

  • that can recreate a sensation of touch just underneath your fingertip.

  • We do this by moving the robogami

  • by microscopic and macroscopic movements at the stage.

  • And by having this, not only will you be able to feel

  • how big the object is,

  • the roundness and the lines,

  • but also the stiffness and the texture.

  • Alex has this interface just underneath his thumb,

  • and if he were to use this with VR goggles and hand controllers,

  • now the virtual reality is no longer virtual.

  • It becomes a tangible reality.

  • The blue ball, red ball and black ball that he's looking at

  • is no longer differentiated by colors.

  • Now it is a rubber blue ball, sponge red ball and billiard black ball.

  • This is now possible.

  • Let me show you.

  • This is really the first time this is shown live

  • in front of a public grand audience,

  • so hopefully this works.

  • So what you see here is an atlas of anatomy

  • and the robogami haptic interface.

  • So, like all the other reconfigurable robots,

  • it multitasks.

  • Not only is it going to serve as a mouse,

  • but also a haptic interface.

  • So for example, we have a white background where there is no object.

  • That means there is nothing to feel,

  • so we can have a very, very flexible interface.

  • Now, I use this as a mouse to approach skin,

  • a muscular arm,

  • so now let's feel his biceps,

  • or shoulders.

  • So now you see how much stiffer it becomes.

  • Let's explore even more.

  • Let's approach the ribcage.

  • And as soon as I move on top of the ribcage

  • and between the intercostal muscles,

  • which is softer and harder,

  • I can feel the difference of the stiffness.

  • Take my word for it.

  • So now you see, it's much stiffer in terms of the force

  • it's giving back to my fingertip.

  • So I showed you the surfaces that aren't moving.

  • How about if I were to approach something that moves,

  • for example, like a beating heart?

  • What would I feel?

  • (Applause)

  • This can be your beating heart.

  • This can actually be inside your pocket

  • while you're shopping online.

  • Now you'll be able to feel the difference of the sweater that you're buying,

  • how soft it is,

  • if it's actually cashmere or not,

  • or the bagel that you're trying to buy,

  • how hard it is or how crispy it is.

  • This is now possible.

  • The robotics technology is advancing to be more personalized and adaptive,

  • to adapt to our everyday needs.

  • This unique specie of reconfigurable robotics

  • is actually the platform to provide this invisible, intuitive interface

  • to meet our exact needs.

  • These robots will no longer look like the characters from the movies.

  • Instead, they will be whatever you want them to be.

  • Thank you.

  • (Applause)

As a roboticist, I get asked a lot of questions.

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【TED】Origami robots that reshape and transform themselves | Jamie Paik

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    林宜悉   に公開 2019 年 08 月 16 日
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