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  • Catherine: Hello. This is 6 Minute English

  • and I'm Catherine.

  • Sam: And I'm Sam.

  • Catherine: Sam, how do you feel about

  • tipping?

  • Sam: Tipping? You mean giving extra

  • money to people

  • in certain jobs for doing their jobs?

  • Catherine: Well, I wouldn't put it quite like that.

  • But yes, it's giving money to waiters and

  • waitresses, hairdressers, taxi drivers -

  • money that is more than the actual bill.

  • Sam: It's a nightmare! I never know who

  • to tip, how to tip, by cash or by card, how

  • much to tipis it 10, 12.5, 20 per cent or

  • even if I should tip at all because in some

  • places a service charge is automatically

  • added to the bill.

  • Catherine: Yes, tipping is a really

  • complicated issue

  • which we will be looking at in this

  • programme.

  • But to start with, a question. What is the

  • biggest tip that we know somebody gave?

  • Is it… A: $10,000, is it… B: $250,000,

  • or is it… C: $3,000,000?

  • What do you think, Sam?

  • Sam: I'm going to go for $250,000.

  • Catherine: OK, we'll find out if you're right

  • at the end of the programme. Now, back

  • to the topic of tipping and in particular,

  • tipping people who work in restaurants.

  • William Beckett runs a number of

  • restaurants and he recently

  • appeared on the BBC Food Programme.

  • He was asked about his view of tipping.

  • Now as we hear him, listen out for this

  • information. In how many cities does he

  • say he currently has restaurants?

  • William Beckett: It is cultural, i.e. it differs

  • from place to place. We have restaurants

  • in London, we have a restaurant in

  • Manchester, we're also opening a

  • restaurant in New York and those

  • three cities have quite different attitudes

  • to tipping. In London, the norm is, it's

  • there, it's on your bill. That's not the

  • norm, for example, in Manchester and it's

  • not the norm in New York where we're

  • going to open a restaurant later this year.

  • Catherine: So, first, how many cities does

  • he currently have restaurants in?

  • Sam: That would be two. London and

  • Manchester.

  • He's going to open one in New York later

  • in the year, but it's not open yet.

  • Catherine: And what does he say about

  • tipping?

  • Sam: Well, he says that it is very cultural.

  • What is the norm in one city is not

  • necessarily the norm in another. 'The

  • norm' is an expression

  • that means, as you might guess, 'what is

  • normal, what is usual'.

  • Catherine: So in London, for example, a

  • service charge is usually added to the bill,

  • but in Manchester it isn't. So the policy in

  • London and Manchester differs which

  • means, again as you might guess,

  • it's different.

  • Sam: There's another short expression

  • that he used that I'd like to highlight.

  • Before he talks about how the policies

  • differ, he says 'i.e'. These two letters stand

  • for the Latin phrase 'id est'. Now we never

  • say 'id est' but we do write and say 'i.e'. We

  • use it to show that what comes next is using

  • different words to say what we have just

  • said or written. So he says, about tipping,

  • 'it's cultural' i.e. it differs from place to

  • place. 'It's cultural' is a more general

  • statement and 'it differs from place to

  • place' is a more specific definition of what

  • he means.

  • Catherine: So, one difference is that in

  • some places people prefer an automatic

  • service charge so that they don't have to

  • think about or try to calculate a tip. But in

  • other places, people hate that - they want

  • to decide who and how much to tip

  • themselves. But do people

  • actually make use of that freedom not to

  • tip? Here's William Becket again and this

  • he's time talking about New York.

  • William Beckett: New York exactly the

  • same. There's a tacit pressure to tip. But

  • theoretically you just stand up and walk

  • out. You don't, everybody tips 20% or,

  • there is a theory of an option.

  • But people like that.

  • Catherine: So he says there is 'a tacit

  • pressure to tip'.

  • What does he mean by that?

  • Sam: Something that is 'tacit' is not

  • spoken, not said, yet it is still understood.

  • So in New York no one tells you that you

  • have to tip, but everyone knows that you

  • have to.

  • Catherine: And because there is no

  • service charge on the bill and no one tells

  • you what to tip, you could just walk out

  • after paying. He says that's 'theoretically

  • possible'. That means although it may be

  • possible, it's actually very unlikely because

  • of the tacit pressure and the way we

  • behave.

  • Sam: But he does say people like that

  • freedom not to tip, even if they don't

  • actually use that freedom.

  • Catherine: Right, nearly vocabulary time,

  • but first, let's have the answer to our

  • question. Now Sam what is the biggest

  • tip we know someone gave?

  • Sam: I thought $250,000.

  • Catherine: Well it was actually, believe it

  • or not, a whopping $3,000,000. Yes!

  • Now, on with today's vocabulary review.

  • Sam: So we've been talking about tipping,

  • the practice of giving extra money to, for

  • example waitresses and waiters.

  • Catherine: 'To differ from' is a verb which

  • means 'to be different from'.

  • Sam: 'The norm' is what is usual or

  • normal.

  • Catherine: 'i.e.' is a short form of a Latin

  • expression and it means 'in other words'.

  • Sam: Something that is 'tacit' is not said

  • but is nevertheless understood.

  • Catherine: And if something is

  • 'theoretically possible' it can be done but

  • for different reasons it probably won't be.

  • And that is where we must leave it today.

  • Goodbye!

  • Sam: Bye everyone!

Catherine: Hello. This is 6 Minute English

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The art of tipping: Listen to 6 Minute English

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    Alex Chen   に公開 2019 年 08 月 11 日
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