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  • Ever since computers were invented,

  • we've been trying to make them smarter and more powerful.

  • From the abacus, to room-sized machines,

  • to desktops, to computers in our pockets.

  • And are now designing artificial intelligence to automate tasks

  • that would require human intelligence.

  • If you look at the history of computing,

  • we've always treated computers as external devices

  • that compute and act on our behalf.

  • What I want to do is I want to weave computing, AI and internet as part of us.

  • As part of human cognition,

  • freeing us to interact with the world around us.

  • Integrate human and machine intelligence

  • right inside our own bodies to augment us, instead of diminishing us or replacing us.

  • Could we combine what people do best, such as creative and intuitive thinking,

  • with what computers do best,

  • such as processing information and perfectly memorizing stuff?

  • Could this whole be better than the sum of its parts?

  • We have a device that could make that possible.

  • It's called AlterEgo, and it's a wearable device

  • that gives you the experience of a conversational AI

  • that lives inside your head,

  • that you could talk to in likeness to talking to yourself internally.

  • We have a new prototype that we're showing here,

  • for the first time at TED, and here's how it works.

  • Normally, when we speak,

  • the brain sends neurosignals through the nerves

  • to your internal speech systems,

  • to activate them and your vocal cords to produce speech.

  • One of the most complex cognitive and motor tasks

  • that we do as human beings.

  • Now, imagine talking to yourself

  • without vocalizing, without moving your mouth,

  • without moving your jaw,

  • but by simply articulating those words internally.

  • Thereby very subtly engaging your internal speech systems,

  • such as your tongue and back of your palate.

  • When that happens,

  • the brain sends extremely weak signals to these internal speech systems.

  • AlterEgo has sensors,

  • embedded in a thin plastic, flexible and transparent device

  • that sits on your neck just like a sticker.

  • These sensors pick up on these internal signals

  • sourced deep within the mouth cavity,

  • right from the surface of the skin.

  • An AI program running in the background

  • then tries to figure out what the user's trying to say.

  • It then feeds back an answer to the user

  • by means of bone conduction,

  • audio conducted through the skull into the user's inner ear,

  • that the user hears,

  • overlaid on top of the user's natural hearing of the environment,

  • without blocking it.

  • The combination of all these parts, the input, the output and the AI,

  • gives a net subjective experience of an interface inside your head

  • that you could talk to in likeness to talking to yourself.

  • Just to be very clear, the device does not record or read your thoughts.

  • It records deliberate information that you want to communicate

  • through deliberate engagement of your internal speech systems.

  • People don't want to be read, they want to write.

  • Which is why we designed the system

  • to deliberately record from the peripheral nervous system.

  • Which is why the control in all situations resides with the user.

  • I want to stop here for a second and show you a live demo.

  • What I'm going to do is, I'm going to ask Eric a question.

  • And he's going to search for that information

  • without vocalizing, without typing, without moving his fingers,

  • without moving his mouth.

  • Simply by internally asking that question.

  • The AI will then figure out the answer and feed it back to Eric,

  • through audio, through the device.

  • While you see a laptop in front of him, he's not using it.

  • Everything lives on the device.

  • All he needs is that sticker device to interface with the AI and the internet.

  • So, Eric, what's the weather in Vancouver like, right now?

  • What you see on the screen

  • are the words that Eric is speaking to himself right now.

  • This is happening in real time.

  • Eric: It's 50 degrees and rainy here in Vancouver.

  • Arnav Kapur: What happened is that the AI sent the answer

  • through audio, through the device, back to Eric.

  • What could the implications of something like this be?

  • Imagine perfectly memorizing things,

  • where you perfectly record information that you silently speak,

  • and then hear them later when you want to,

  • internally searching for information,

  • crunching numbers at speeds computers do,

  • silently texting other people.

  • Suddenly becoming multilingual,

  • so that you internally speak in one language,

  • and hear the translation in your head in another.

  • The potential could be far-reaching.

  • There are millions of people around the world

  • who struggle with using natural speech.

  • People with conditions such as ALS, or Lou Gehrig's disease,

  • stroke and oral cancer,

  • amongst many other conditions.

  • For them, communicating is a painstakingly slow and tiring process.

  • This is Doug.

  • Doug was diagnosed with ALS about 12 years ago

  • and has since lost the ability to speak.

  • Today, he uses an on-screen keyboard

  • where he types in individual letters using his head movements.

  • And it takes several minutes to communicate a single sentence.

  • So we went to Doug and asked him

  • what were the first words he'd like to use or say, using our system.

  • Perhaps a greeting, like, "Hello, how are you?"

  • Or indicate that he needed help with something.

  • What Doug said that he wanted to use our system for

  • is to reboot the old system he had, because that old system kept on crashing.

  • (Laughter)

  • We never could have predicted that.

  • I'm going to show you a short clip of Doug using our system for the first time.

  • (Voice) Reboot computer.

  • AK: What you just saw there

  • was Doug communicating or speaking in real time for the first time

  • since he lost the ability to speak.

  • There are millions of people

  • who might be able to communicate in real time like Doug,

  • with other people, with their friends and with their families.

  • My hope is to be able to help them express their thoughts and ideas.

  • I believe computing, AI and the internet

  • would disappear into us as extensions of our cognition,

  • instead of being external entities or adversaries,

  • amplifying human ingenuity,

  • giving us unimaginable abilities and unlocking our true potential.

  • And perhaps even freeing us to becoming better at being human.

  • Thank you so much.

  • (Applause)

  • Shoham Arad: Come over here.

  • OK.

  • I want to ask you a couple of questions, they're going to clear the stage.

  • I feel like this is amazing, it's innovative,

  • it's creepy, it's terrifying.

  • Can you tell us what I think ...

  • I think there are some uncomfortable feelings around this.

  • Tell us, is this reading your thoughts,

  • will it in five years,

  • is there a weaponized version of this, what does it look like?

  • AK: So our first design principle, before we started working on this,

  • was to not render ethics as an afterthought.

  • So we wanted to bake ethics right into the design.

  • We flipped the design.

  • Instead of reading from the brain directly,

  • we're reading from the voluntary nervous system

  • that you deliberately have to engage to communicate with the device,

  • while still bringing the benefits of a thinking or a thought device.

  • The best of both worlds in a way.

  • SA: OK, I think people are going to have a lot more questions for you.

  • Also, you said that it's a sticker.

  • So right now it sits just right here?

  • Is that the final iteration,

  • what the final design you hope looks like?

  • AK: Our goal is for the technology to disappear completely.

  • SA: What does that mean?

  • AK: If you're wearing it, I shouldn't be able to see it.

  • You don't want technology on your face, you want it in the background,

  • to augment you in the background.

  • So we have a sticker version that conforms to the skin,

  • that looks like the skin,

  • but we're trying to make an even smaller version

  • that would sit right here.

  • SA: OK.

  • I feel like if anyone has any questions they want to ask Arnav,

  • he'll be here all week.

  • OK, thank you so much, Arnav.

  • AK: Thanks, Shoham.

Ever since computers were invented,

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【TED】How AI could become an extension of your mind | Arnav Kapur

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    林宜悉   に公開 2019 年 06 月 06 日
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