Placeholder Image

字幕表 動画を再生する

  • How y'all doing?

  • Good.

  • I came here to give you a science lesson

  • about animal mating systems

  • and why defining monogamy has been a challenge for scientists.

  • But you won't need a textbook or to download an online lecture.

  • All you'll simply need to do is revisit the song \"OPP\"

  • by Naughty by Nature.

  • (Laughter)

  • It was released in 1991.

  • Now, \"OPP\" is a call-and-response song.

  • So throughout the talk, I'm going to put lyrics up on the screen,

  • and I'm going to recite some

  • and I'm going to prompt you

  • when it's your turn to do the response, OK?

  • (Cheers)

  • Now, I know some people in this audience know this song,

  • so I need you to lead the way with the tempo and the rhythm,

  • if that's alright, OK?

  • Right, y'all ready?

  • You down with OPP?

  • Audience: Yeah, you know me!

  • DNL: You down with OPP?

  • Audience: Yeah, you know me!

  • DNL: You down with OPP?

  • Audience: Yeah, you know me!

  • DNL: That was perfect.

  • Thank you.

  • \"OPP, how can I explain it?

  • I'll take it frame by frame it.

  • To have y'all jumping shout and singing it

  • O is for other, P is for people. scratch your temple.

  • The last P, well, that's not that simple.\"

  • Now, in the song, the MC hints that it's a five-letter word,

  • but to keep it rated PG,

  • he simply refers to it as \"property.\"

  • (Laughter)

  • The song is about cheating on your significant other.

  • Now, around the time that this song was in heavy rotation,

  • biologists were in deep discussion about whether bird species,

  • notably songbirds and waterfowl were actually monogamous or not.

  • See, for decades, generations of science students

  • were taught that well over 90 percent of the bird species were monogamous.

  • A male and female mating faithfully for life.

  • That was until the late 1980s,

  • when a new laboratory technique came on the scene,

  • which could copy DNA from a small tissue or fluid sample

  • and decode the genetics of individuals.

  • Now, before that technique,

  • we were never ever certain about,

  • 100 percent, who the parents of baby birds were.

  • All we had were our field notes.

  • And we would know which adults lived in a nest

  • and which ones fed the baby birds.

  • Well, come to find out, study after study kept coming in

  • and we found so much evidence of infidelity --

  • (Laughter)

  • among bird species,

  • particularly these songbirds

  • that we thought were the pinnacle of monogamy.

  • It would have made Maury Povich jealous for the ratings.

  • (Laughter)

  • It rocked biology and ornithology so hard,

  • we had to modify and expand the entire definition of monogamy.

  • Now, it was so bad that this was the headline

  • of the \"New York Times\" science section,

  • August, 1990.

  • \"Mating for Life? It's not for the Birds or the Bees.\"

  • (Laughter)

  • We had to come up with new definitions.

  • The situation where an individual would change partners,

  • either between breeding seasons

  • or just simply because they didn't like their partner anymore?

  • We now call this \"serial monogamy.\"

  • (Laughter)

  • I didn't know it was going to be this funny.

  • (Laughter)

  • The situation where we know the male and female pair together

  • and all the babies belong to both partners?

  • We call that \"genetic monogamy.\"

  • And we now recognize that it only holds true

  • for about 14 percent of the songbird species,

  • which we were very certain were truly monogamous.

  • And with this reclassification,

  • we realized that in a lot of those field observations

  • where we saw a male and female sharing a nest,

  • comaintaining a territory, even provisioning offspring together,

  • often included a few baby birds that did not belong to the male partner.

  • We call this \"social monogamy.\"

  • (Laughter)

  • And the mechanism responsible?

  • Extra-pair copulation.

  • \"It's OPP, time for other people's what you get it

  • there's no room for relationship, there's just room to ...\"

  • Audience: \"Hit it!\"

  • \"How many brothers out there know just what I'm getting at?

  • Who thinks it's wrong because I was splitting and cohitting that.

  • Well if you do, that's OPP\"

  • Actually, that's EPC

  • Which is the abbreviation for extra-pair copulation.

  • (Laughter)

  • Now, we define extra-pair copulation as the mating outside of a pair bond.

  • And just like we were discovering via science,

  • it can lead to babies that don't belong to the male partner.

  • Alright?

  • Now, I first learned about EPCs years later,

  • after all the science news broke while I was in graduate school.

  • And as we were taking a class,

  • talking about current discoveries and mating systems,

  • this topic comes up.

  • And as my professor's going through the definition

  • and recounting all the dramatic turns of events

  • that lead to these new revelations,

  • I'm sitting in class and a familiar song starts bopping in my head.

  • I'm like, \"You down with OPP?

  • Yeah, you know me!\"

  • (Laughter)

  • I mean, that's exactly what that song was about:

  • EPCs.

  • And what I recognized

  • is that this gives us an opportunity to revisit this song.

  • Let's switch the lyrics up.

  • So say EPC.

  • Audience: EPC.

  • DNL: Say it, EPC!

  • Audience: EPC!

  • \"I like to say it with pride

  • now, when you do it, do it well, and make sure that it counts.

  • You're not down with a discount.\"

  • You down with EPC?

  • Audience: Yeah, you know me!

  • Now, I had always been playing songs in my head

  • while I was in science class,

  • kind of tapping into this index of pop culture and hip-hop songs.

  • But when I would share my analogies with my science professors,

  • all of whom were older white men,

  • I often got blank and confused stares as responses.

  • (Laughter)

  • But when I would share this with people from communities like mine,

  • or other colleagues -- so, diverse communities --

  • this hip-hop science remix was a hit.

  • That's because I was either talking to people who looked and sounded like me,

  • or at the very least, you know, listened to some of the same songs.

  • We were sharing a common cultural lexicon.

  • And with that lexicon, I was able to bring new science terms to them,

  • and together, we were sharing a new comprehension of science for the culture.

  • Now, hip-hop song references

  • are a really good tool for teaching content to students from hip-hop culture

  • or urban communities.

  • And I use it intentionally to connect to those students,

  • tapping into vocabulary that they already know

  • and systems that they already comprehend.

  • And what it does in that process is it ratifies them, us, our culture

  • as knowledge purveyors.

  • I use hip-hop to frame and communicate science

  • because I'm intentionally communicating science to broader audiences

  • that public science outreach has traditionally overlooked.

  • And in the process,

  • I am affirming the genius

  • that thrives in the young minds of people from every hood everywhere.

  • So let me ask you one last time,

  • you down with EPC?

  • Audience: Yeah, you know me!

  • DNL: You down with EPC?

  • Audience: Yeah, you know me!

  • DNL: You down with EPC?

  • Audience: Yeah, you know me!

  • DNL: Who's down with EPC?

  • Audience: All the homies!

  • Thank you.

  • (Applause and cheers)

How y'all doing?

字幕と単語

B1 中級

【TED】How hip-hop helps us understand science | Danielle N. Lee

  • 339 4
    林宜悉   に公開 2019 年 05 月 14 日
動画の中の単語

前のバージョンに戻す