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  • Last summer, I was hiking through the Austrian mountains.

  • And there, on top, I saw this beautiful, stone, remote hut,

  • and it had solar panels on it.

  • And every time I see solar panels, I get very enthusiastic.

  • It's this technology that takes sunlight, which is free and available,

  • and turns that into electricity.

  • So this hut, in the middle of nowhere, on a beautiful location,

  • was self-sufficient.

  • But why do solar panels always have to be so ugly?

  • (Laughter)

  • My name is Marjan Van Aubel and I'm a solar designer.

  • I work in the triangle of design, sustainability and technology.

  • I strive for extreme efficiency,

  • meaning that I develop materials that expand in size

  • or work with solar cells that use the properties of colors

  • to generate electricity.

  • My work is in museums all over the world, such as MoMA.

  • And, I mean, it all went quite well,

  • but it always felt that something was missing.

  • And it was, until I read the book called the \"Solar Revolution,\"

  • where it says that within one hour we receive enough sunlight

  • to provide the world with enough electricity

  • for an entire year.

  • One hour.

  • And since then, I realized I just want to focus on solar.

  • Scientists all over the world

  • have been focusing on making solar panels more efficient and cheaper.

  • So the price of solar has dropped enormously.

  • And this is because China started producing them on a large scale.

  • And also their efficiency has increased a lot.

  • They now even have an efficiency of 44.5 percent.

  • But if you think about the image of solar cells,

  • it's kind of stayed the same for the last 60 years.

  • It's still this technology just stacked onto something.

  • And solar cells need to be much better integrated into our environment.

  • Climate change is the biggest problem of our time.

  • And we can't rely on the others -- the government, the engineers --

  • to make positive changes.

  • We all can contribute towards change.

  • Like I said, I'm a designer

  • and I would like to change things through design.

  • Let me give you some examples of my work.

  • I'm collaborating with Swarovski, the crystal company.

  • And if you cut crystals in a certain way,

  • you are able to bend and direct the light onto a certain place.

  • So I use these crystals to focus the light onto a solar panel,

  • making them more efficient, but using aesthetics.

  • So you take the solar crystal with you in the light,

  • there's a battery in the solar cell,

  • you put it in a docking station

  • and you are able to power these chandeliers.

  • So you're literally bringing the light indoors.

  • I got completely hooked on solar when I came across this technology

  • called dye-sensitized solar cells,

  • colored solar cells,

  • and they are based on photosynthesis in plants.

  • Where the green chlorophyl converts light into sugar for plants,

  • these cells convert light into electricity.

  • The best thing is, they even work indoors.

  • So different colors have different efficiency,

  • depending on their place on the color spectrum.

  • So, for example, red is more efficient than blue.

  • So if I hear this as a designer:

  • a colored surface, a glass colored surface,

  • color that's mostly just used for esthetics,

  • now gets an extra function and is able to harvest electricity,

  • I think, where can we apply this, then?

  • This is Current Table,

  • where the whole tabletop consists of these colored solar cells.

  • There are batteries in the legs

  • where you can charge your phone through USB ports.

  • And in my work, it's always very important,

  • the balance between efficiency and aesthetics.

  • So that's why the table is orange,

  • because it is a very stable color for indoors.

  • And this is always the most asked question I get:

  • \"OK, great, but how many phones can I charge from this, then?\"

  • And before I go to this complicated answer of like,

  • \"Well, where is the table, does it have enough light,

  • is it next to a window?\"

  • The table now has sensors that read the light intensity of the room.

  • So through an app we developed

  • you can literally follow how much light it's getting,

  • and how full the battery is.

  • I'm actually proud, because yesterday we installed a table

  • at Stichting Doen's offices in Amsterdam

  • and, right at this moment,

  • our Queen Maxima is charging a phone from this table.

  • It's cool.

  • (Applause)

  • So the more surface you have, the more energy you can harvest.

  • These are Current Windows,

  • where we replaced all windows in a gallery in London, in Soho,

  • with this modern version of stained glass.

  • So people from the street could come and charge their phones

  • through the window ledges.

  • So I'm giving extra functions to objects.

  • A window doesn't have to be just a window anymore.

  • It can also function as a little power station.

  • So, here I am, talking about how much I love solar,

  • but I don't have solar panels on my roof.

  • I live in the center of Amsterdam,

  • I don't own the house and it's a monument,

  • so it's not possible and not allowed.

  • So how can you make solar cells more accessible and for everyone,

  • and not only for the people that can afford a sustainable lifestyle?

  • We now have the opportunity

  • to integrate solar on the place where we directly need it.

  • And there are so many amazing technologies out there.

  • If I look around now, I see every surface as an opportunity.

  • For example, I was driving in the train through the Westland,

  • the area in the Netherlands with all the greenhouses.

  • There I saw all this glass and thought,

  • what if we integrate those with transparent solar glass?

  • What if we integrate traditional farming

  • that requires a lot of energy

  • together with high-tech and combine those?

  • With this idea in mind, I created Power Plant.

  • I had a team of architects and engineers,

  • but let me first explain how it works.

  • We use transparent solar glass

  • to power its indoor climate.

  • We use hydroponics that pumps around nutrified water,

  • saving 90 percent of water usage.

  • By stacking up in layers, you are able to grow more yield per square meter.

  • Extra light, besides sunlight, coming from these colored LED lights

  • also enhances plant growth.

  • As more and more people will live in big cities,

  • by placing Power Plants on the rooftops

  • you don't have to fly it in from the other side of the world,

  • you are able to grow it on the location itself.

  • Well, the big dream is to build these in off-grid places --

  • where there's no access to water, electricity --

  • as an independent ecosystem.

  • For this year's Design Biennial,

  • I created the first four-meter high model of the power plant,

  • so you could come in and experience how plants grow.

  • So it's a double harvest of sunlight,

  • so both for the solar cells and for the plants.

  • It's like a future botanical garden,

  • where we celebrate all these modern technologies.

  • And the biggest compliment I got was, \"But where are the solar panels?\"

  • And that's when I think design really works,

  • when it becomes invisible and you don't notice it.

  • I believe in solar democracy:

  • solar energy for everyone, everywhere.

  • My aim is to make all surfaces productive.

  • I want to build houses where all the windows, curtains, walls,

  • even floors are harvesting electricity.

  • Think about this on a big scale:

  • in cities, there are so many surfaces.

  • The sun is still available for everyone.

  • And by integrating solar on the place where we need it,

  • we now have the opportunity to make solar cells accessible for everyone.

  • I want to bring solar close to the people with you,

  • but beautiful and well designed.

  • Thank you.

Last summer, I was hiking through the Austrian mountains.

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B1 中級

TED】マルヤン・ファン・オーベル。太陽光発電の美しい未来 (太陽光発電の美しい未来|マルヤン・ヴァン・オーベル) (【TED】Marjan van Aubel: The beautiful future of solar power (The beautiful future of solar power | Marjan van Aubel))

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    林宜悉 に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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