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  • Let's say you've given up your law-abiding lifestyle to pursue a life of crime- you've

  • just made your first big score, perhaps from selling drugs, taking a bribe, or other corrupt

  • acts.

  • you can't just spend it or deposit it in your bank account without attracting

  • attention from authorities.

  • That pesky money trail might serve as evidence of

  • the crime you committed.

  • So you need to get that dirty money clean.

  • There are

  • three steps to any money laundering scheme.

  • First up,

  • placement, where funds are moved from direct association with the crime, then,

  • layering or disguising the money trail to foil any authorities, and finally,

  • integration, where the funds are once again available to spend without worry

  • of being caught.

  • So what are your options?

  • One option is forming a shell company.

  • It's fairly easy and there are plenty of law firms who can help.

  • It should take

  • them only a bit longer than signing up for a new email address.

  • Launderers may turn to historic tax havens like Switzerland, or places where

  • you can set up anonymous shell companies like the Cayman Islands or the U.S. states of Delaware

  • and Nevada.

  • Once a shell company is established,

  • make up some fake transactions for goods or services that you pay for with

  • your dirty money.

  • Suddenly that dirty money looks legitimate.

  • It also helps to

  • find people who work in banking who don't care if you're a shady

  • client.

  • After the fall of the Soviet Union launderers sought out weak spots

  • throughout Europe where oversight was poor.

  • Billions have been funneled through

  • banks in Cyprus, Malta and the Baltic nations of Estonia and Latvia

  • If you prefer to use the stock market you can try a technique called mirror

  • trading.

  • In this method you use your money to purchase shares.

  • And then you

  • sell shares worth the same amount somewhere abroad.

  • The trades functionally cancel each other out,

  • but you've successfully turned your

  • rubles into clean euros.

  • A similar method is a back-to-back deal, where, say,

  • a Russian takes out a loan in one country, say Austria, that's guaranteed by a deposit

  • of dirty money back home in Russia.

  • She then defaults on the loan, the bank in Austria seizes the Russian deposit, but she

  • still ends up with the proceeds of the loan, no strings attached.

  • Or maybe you like to visit

  • casinos.

  • Another method of money laundering is mixing dirty money in with

  • clean.

  • Cash businesses like restaurants and casinos are particularly attractive

  • to launderers.

  • A common scheme is to buy a bunch of casino chips, make a few small

  • wagers, then cash everything else out as winnings.

  • Or, you can just own the whole

  • casino.

  • Macau has been beset by laundering schemes despite China's

  • repeated attempts to stop it.

  • Or finally, there's smurfing- though you won't need

  • anything blue to get your green.

  • With this one you hire a bunch of associates

  • called Smurfs to individually deposit small chunks of the large haul you're

  • trying to cleanse, in different accounts, in different places.

  • Beware!

  • US banks are required to report any transaction over $10,000, so you

  • might need to find a lot of Smurfs.

  • So you can see there are lots of ways to

  • launder money.

  • Unfortunately for you, there's no guarantee that you won't get caught.

Let's say you've given up your law-abiding lifestyle to pursue a life of crime- you've

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B1 中級

マネーロンダリングの仕組みの違い (The Different Ways Money Laundering Works)

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    洪子雯 に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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