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  • The dispute between India and Pakistan over Kashmir is one of the longest-running conflicts in the world, and all started with the creation of the South Asian countries.


  • In 1947 Britain gave its Indian colonies independence, forming two nations Pakistan for the Muslims and India for everyone else.

    1947 年、イギリスはインド地域の植民地を独立させ、ムスリムのためにパキスタン、その他の人々のためにインドという 2 カ国を作りました。

  • August 15, 1947 found the partitioning going into effect.

    1947 年 8 月 15 日は、この 2 カ国が分離した日です。

  • (The) partition forced 14 million people on both sides of the new divide to migrate across the border.

    新たな国境をまたいだ両側には 1400 万人がおり、彼らは皆、国境を越えて移住せざるを得ませんでした。

  • This process was marked by ethnic and religious violence, causing between 1 and 2 million deaths.

    このプロセスは倫理的、宗教的暴力とされ、100 ~ 200 万人の死者を出しました。

  • Caught in the middle of it all was the hotly contested Kashmir, a scenic mountain region located on the border between the two countries and slightly bigger than the state of Kansas.


  • Under the partition plan provided by the Indian independence act, Kashmir was free to decide which country it would join.


  • Because it was a Muslim majority state, most wanted to join Pakistan.


  • But Kashmir's Hindu ruler Maharaja Hari Singh preferred to keep the region independent.


  • But Kashmirian Muslims weren't happy with this decision and began a revolution, which was later joined by armed tribesmen from Pakistan's Northwest Frontier Province.


  • In October 1947, Hari Singh turned to India for military assistance.

    1947 年 10 月、ハリ・シンはインドに軍事援助を求めました。

  • In exchange, he signed Kashmir over to India, pending a referendum which would allow the citizens to vote on the future status of the region.


  • Pakistan did not recognize the Instrument of Accession as a legal document, triggering the first war between India and Pakistan.


  • The fighting lasted until the United Nations helped broker a peace deal known as the Karachi agreement.


  • That agreement created what's now known as the line of control, a de facto border splitting Kashmir in two.

    この合意により、現在停戦ラインとして知られる境界線が作られました。これはカシミールを 2 つに分断する、事実上の国境線です。

  • But the violence continued.


  • In 1965 and 1971, two more Wars broke out and thousands have been killed in smaller military conflicts over the years.

    1965 年と 1971 年にはさらに 2 つの戦争が起き、小規模な軍事衝突によって何千人もが命を落としています。

  • Both countries had developed nuclear weapons by 1999, when Pakistani troops invaded indian-controlled Kashmir.

    両国とも、パキスタン部隊がインド支配下にあるカシミール地方に侵攻した 1999 年までには、核兵器を開発していました。

  • The conflict sparked concerns about a nuclear war.


  • But India won in a ground battle that killed hundreds on both sides.


  • For the past two decades, intermittent violence and reports of human rights violations by security forces have continued.

    過去 20 年間、暴力は断続的に続いており、人権侵害に関する治安部隊の報告も出ています。

  • Today both India and Pakistan claimed own Kashmir entirely, but India currently governs about 45%, the central and southern part, while Pakistan controls 35%, the Western Area.

    今日では、インドとパキスタンの両国がカシミールを完全に主権下に入れることを主張していますが、現状ではインドが中南部の 45 %、パキスタンが西部の 35 %を支配しています。

  • In the meantime, 20% the north eastern part of the region is heavily influenced by China.

    一方、北東部の 20 %は中国の影響を大きく受けています。

  • In 2003 the rivals agreed in principle to a ceasefire along the line of control.

    2003 年には原理上、停戦ラインに沿って休戦することに、両国が合意しました。

  • Flights which were previously severed resumed and a new bus service was started between the two border towns.

    かつて寸断されていた航路は再開され、国境をまたぐ 2 つの町の間では、バスも新たに運行を開始しました。

  • But over the years both sides have continued to square off again and again, accusing one another of violating the terms of the ceasefire and blaming each other for a number of attacks on each other's soil.


  • Hostilities reached a boiling point on February 14, 2019, a Pakistani-based terror group claimed responsibility for an attack involving a suicide bomber in Kashmir, which killed 40 Indian paramilitary police.

    この敵対心は、2019 年 2 月 14 日に重大局面を迎えました。40 人のインド準憲兵隊が死亡した自爆テロに関連する攻撃について、パキスタンに拠点を置くテロ集団が、関与した声明を発表したのです。

  • This was followed by a series of tit-for-tat airstrikes.


  • Pakistan then captured an Indian pilot but released him days later, calling it a gesture of peace.


  • However this has not yet diffused concerns from the international community as tensions between the two nuclear powers reached the highest level in decades.


The dispute between India and Pakistan over Kashmir is one of the longest-running conflicts in the world, and all started with the creation of the South Asian countries.


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B1 中級 日本語 パキスタン インド 両国 シン 国境 ムスリム

[英語で聞いてみよう]パキスタンとインドの対立 (Pakistan-India conflict: Why Kashmir is the centre of the dispute)

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    April Lu に公開 2019 年 04 月 21 日