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  • It's really really great to be here.

  • You have the power to change the world.

  • I’m not saying that to be cliché,

  • you really have the power to change the world.

  • Deep inside of you, every single one of you

  • has the most powerful device known to man.

  • And that's an idea.

  • So a single idea, from the human mind,

  • it could start the ground swell,

  • it could be a flash point for a movement,

  • and it can actually rewrite our future.

  • But an idea is powerless,

  • if it stays inside of you.

  • If you never pull that idea out for others to contend with,

  • it will die with you.

  • Now maybe some of you guys are trying to convey your idea,

  • and it wasn't adopted, it was rejected

  • and some other mediocre or average idea was adopted.

  • And the only difference between those two is in the way it was communicated.

  • Because if you communicate an idea in a way that resonates,

  • change will happen, and you can change the world.

  • In my family, we collect these vintage European posters.

  • Every time we go to Maui, we go to the dealer there,

  • and he turns these great big posters.

  • I love them. They all have one idea,

  • and one really clear visual that conveys the idea.

  • They are about the size of a mattress. They are really big,

  • they're not as thick as a mattress, but they are big.

  • And the guy will tell the stories as he turns the pages.

  • And there was one time I was flanked by my two kids,

  • and he turns the page and this poster is underneath,

  • and right when I leaned forward and say,

  • "Oh my god, I love this poster,"

  • both of my kids jumped back and they are like "Oh my god, mom, it's you."

  • And this is the poster. (Laughter)

  • See I'm like "Fire it up!"

  • The thing I loved about this poster was the irony.

  • Here's this chick all fired up, headed into battle,

  • as the standard there, –

  • and she's holding these little Suavitos baking spices,

  • like something so seemingly insignificant,

  • though she's willing to risk, you know,

  • life and limb to promote this thing.

  • So if you are to swap out, swap out those little Suavitos baking spices

  • with a presentation.

  • Yeah, it's me, pretty fired up.

  • I was fired up about presentations back when it wasn't cool

  • to be fired up about presentations.

  • I really think they have the power to change the world

  • when you communicate effectively through them.

  • And changing the world is hard.

  • It won't happen with just one person with one single idea.

  • That idea has got to spread, or it won't be effective.

  • So it has to come out of you

  • and out into the open for people to see.

  • And the way that ideas are conveyed the most effectively is through story.

  • You know, for thousands of years, illiterate generations

  • would pass on their values and their culture from generation to generation,

  • and they would stay intact.

  • So there's something kind of magical about a story structure

  • that makes it so that when it's assembled,

  • it can be ingested and then recalled

  • by the person who's receiving it.

  • So basically a story, you get a physical reaction,

  • your heart can race, your eyes can dilate,

  • you could talk about, "Oh I got a chill down my spine"

  • or, "I could feel it in the pit of my stomach".

  • We actually physically react when someone is telling us a story.

  • So even though the stage is the same, a story can be told,

  • but once a presentation is told, it completely flatlines.

  • And I wanted to figure out why.

  • Why is it that we physically sit with wrapped attention during a story,

  • but it just dies for a presentation.

  • So I wanted to figure out, how do you incorporate story into presentations.

  • So we've had thousands of presentations

  • back at the shophundreds of thousands of presentations actually,

  • so I knew the contexts of a really bad presentation.

  • I decided to study cinema, and literature,

  • and really dig in and figure out what was going on

  • and why it was broken.

  • So, I want to show you some of the findings

  • that led up to what I think of – I've uncovered as a presentation form.

  • So it was obvious to start with Aristotle,

  • he had a three act structure, a beginning, a middle and an end,

  • studied poetics and rhetoric,

  • and a lot of presentations don't even have that in its most simple form.

  • And then when I moved on to studying hero archetypes

  • I thought, "OK, the presenter is the hero,

  • they are up on the stage, they're the star of the show."

  • It's really easy to feel that way, as the presenter, that you are the star of the show.

  • I realized right away, that that's really broken.

  • Because I have an idea, I can put it out there,

  • but if you guys don't grab that idea and hold it as dear,

  • the idea goes nowhere and the world is never changed.

  • So in reality, the presenter isn't the hero,

  • the audience is the hero of our idea.

  • So if you look at Joseph Campbell's Hero's Journey,

  • just in the front part, there was some really interesting insights there.

  • So there is this likable hero in an ordinary world,

  • and they get this call to adventure.

  • So the world is kind of brought out of balance.

  • And at first they're resistant,

  • they're like "I don't know if I want to jump into this"

  • and then a mentor comes along

  • and helps them move from their ordinary world

  • into a special world.

  • And that's the role of the presenter.

  • It's to be the mentor. You are not Luke Skywalker, you're Yoda.

  • You're the one that actually helps the audience

  • move from one thing and into your new special idea,

  • and that's the power of story.

  • So in its most simple structure, it's a three part structure of the story.

  • You have a likable hero, who has a desire,

  • they encounter a roadblock, and ultimately

  • they emerge, transform, and that's the basic structure.

  • But it wasn't until I came across a Gustav Freytag's pyramid

  • he drew this shape in 1863.

  • Now he was a German dramatist,

  • he was a German dramatist

  • and he believed there is a five act structure,

  • which has an exposition, a rising action, a climax, a falling action and a denouement,

  • which is the unraveling or the resolution of the story.

  • I love this shape. So we talk about shapes.

  • Story has an arc, well an arc is a shape.

  • We talk about classical music, having a shapeliness to it.

  • So I thought, hey, if presentations had a shape, what would that shape be?

  • And how did the greatest communicators use that shape

  • or do they use a shape?

  • So I'll never forget, it was a Saturday morning.

  • After all this study, – it was a couple of years of study

  • I drew a shape.

  • And I was like,

  • "Oh my gosh, if this shape is real,

  • I should be able to take two completely different presentations,

  • and overlay it and it should be true."

  • So I took the obvious,

  • I took Martin Luther King's "I Have a Dream" speech,

  • and I took Steve Jobs' 2007 iPhone launch speech,

  • I overlaid it over it, and it worked.

  • I sat in my office, just astounded. I actually cried a little,

  • because I was like, "I've been given this gift,"

  • and here it is,

  • this is the shape of a great presentation.

  • Isn't it amazing? (Mock sob; laughter) I was crying.

  • So I want to walk you through it, 'cause it's actually pretty astounding.

  • There is a beginning, a middle and an end and I want to walk you through it.

  • Because the greatest communicators of all times, – I went through speeches, everything, –

  • actually I can overlay the shape,

  • even the Gettysburg Address follows the shape.

  • So the beginning of any presentation, you need to establish what is.

  • You know, here's the status quo, here's what's going on.

  • And then you need to compare that to what could be.

  • Now you need to make that gap as big as possible,

  • because there is this commonplace of the status quo,

  • and you need to contrast that with the loftiness of your idea.

  • So it's like you know, here's the past, here's the present,

  • but look at our future.

  • Here's a problem,

  • but look at that problem removed.

  • Here's a roadblock,

  • let's annihilate the roadblock.

  • You need to really amplify that gap.

  • This would be like the inciting incident in a movie.

  • That's when suddenly the audience has to contend with what you just put out there

  • and they have to say "Wow,

  • do I want to agree with this and align with it or not?"

  • And in the rest of your presentation should support that.

  • So the middle goes back and forth,

  • it traverses between what is and what could be, what is and what could be.

  • Because what you are trying to do

  • is make the status quo and the normal unappealing,

  • and you're wanting to draw them towards what could be in the future with your idea adopted.

  • Now, on your way to change the world, people are gonna resist,

  • they are not going to be excited, they may love the world the way it is.

  • So you'll encounter resistance.

  • That's why you have to move back and forth,

  • that's similar to sailing.

  • When you're sailing against the wind, and there is wind resistance,

  • you have to move your boat back and forth, and back and forth.

  • That's so you can capture the wind.

  • You have to actually capture the resistance coming against you when you are sailing.

  • Now interesting, if you capture the wind just right, and you set your sail just right,

  • your ship will actually sail faster than the wind itself

  • it is a physics phenomenon.

  • So by planting in there, the way they're gonna resist between what is and what can be,

  • is actually going to draw them towards your idea quicker than should you not do that.

  • So after you've moved back and forth between what is and what could be,

  • the last turning point is a call-to-action which every presentation should have

  • but at the very end.

  • You need to describe the world as a new bliss,

  • "This is utopia with my idea adopted."

  • "This is the way the world is going to look,

  • when we join together and we solve this big problem."

  • You need to use that as your ending,

  • in a very poetic and a dramatic way.

  • So, interestingly, when I was done, I was like, "You know what?

  • I could use this as an analysis tool."

  • I actually transcribe speeches

  • and I would actually map out,

  • how much they map to this tool.

  • So I want to show you some of that today,

  • and I want to start with the very two people that I used when I first did.

  • Here's Mr. Jobs, completely has changed the world.

  • Changed the world of personal computing, he has changed the music industry,

  • and now he is on his way to change the device,

  • the mobile device industry.

  • So he has definitely changed the world.

  • And this is the shape of his iPhone launch 2007,

  • when he launched his iPhone.

  • It's a ninety-minute-talk and you can see he starts with what is,

  • traverses back and forth and ends with what could be.

  • So I want to zoom in on this:

  • the white line is him speaking, he's talking.

  • And the next color line you see popped up there, that's when he cuts to video.

  • So he's adding some variety and he cuts to demo.

  • So it's not just him talking the whole time.

  • And these lines are representative there.

  • And then towards the end you'll see a blue line, which will be the guest speaker.

  • So this is where it gets kind of interesting:

  • every tick mark here is when he made them laugh.

  • And every tick mark here is when he made them clap.

  • They are so involved physically,

  • they are physically reacting to what he is saying, which is actually fantastic,

  • because then now you have the audience in your hand.

  • So he kicks off what could be,

  • with "This is a day I've been looking forward to for two and a half years."

  • So he is launching a product

  • that he's known about already for a couple of years.

  • So this is not a new product to him.

  • But look at this, he does this other thing:

  • he marvels.

  • He marvels at his own product.

  • He marvels himself more than the audience laughs or claps.

  • So he is like, "Isn't this awesome? Isn't this beautiful?"

  • He is modeling for the audience what he wants them to feel.

  • So he is actually doing a job of compelling them to feel a certain way.

  • So he kicks off with what could be,

  • with "Every once in a while, a revolutionary product comes along that changes everything."