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  • So now that I was 4,000 dollars in the hole, I did two things.


  • The first is that I unlinked my credit card

    貯金すべきだと 誰もが思っています

  • from my car-sharing apps.

    それでも 貯金をする人は 減っています

  • Instead, I linked a debit card that only had 300 dollars a month.

    シリーズ 働き方

  • If I needed more,


  • I had to go through the whole process of adding a new card,

    問題は そのやり方です

  • and we know that every click, every barrier, changes our behavior.


  • We all know that saving is important

    貯金にまつわる行動には 賢さも

  • and is something that we should be doing.


  • And yet, overall, we're doing less and less of it.


  • [The Way We Work]


  • We know what we need to do.

    ある研究では ひとつのグループに

  • The question is: How do we do it?


  • And that's what I'm here to teach you.

    別のグループでは 週あたりで提示しました

  • Your savings behavior isn't a question of how smart you are

    週あたりで収入を 把握したグループの方が

  • or how much willpower you have.

    1か月を通じて うまくやりくりできたのです

  • The amount we save depends on the environmental cues around us.


  • Let me give you an example.


  • We ran a study in which, in one group,

    収入を把握する条件を 変えただけだということです

  • we showed people their income on a monthly basis.

    このような環境要因には 影響力があります

  • In another group, we showed people their income on a weekly basis.

    ですから もうご存じのヒントを 教えることはしません

  • And what we found was that people who saw their income on a weekly basis

    預金口座の開設方法や 退職後に備えた貯金の仕方は

  • were able to budget better throughout the month.


  • Now, it's important to know

    お教えしたいのは 貯金しようという意志を

  • that we didn't change how much money people were receiving,


  • we just changed the environment in which they understood their income.


  • And environmental cues like this have an impact.


  • So I'm not going to share tricks with you that you already know.


  • I'm not going to tell you how to open up a savings account

    「予め決めたことの力を 利用しよう」

  • or how to start saving for your retirement.

    基本的に 私たちは 2通りの自分を考えます

  • What I am going to share with you is how to bridge this gap

    今の自分と 将来の自分です

  • from your intentions to save


  • and your actions.


  • Are you ready?


  • Here's number one:


  • harness the power of pre-commitment.

    でも忘れがちなのは 将来の自分が

  • Fundamentally, we think about ourselves in two different ways:


  • our present self and our future self.

    貯金をするのに最適なタイミングは 確定申告後です

  • In the future, we're perfect.

    そこで ABテストをしました

  • In the future, we're going to save for retirement,

    第1グループには 確定申告前の

  • we're going to lose weight,


  • we're going to call our parents more.


  • But we oftentimes forget that our future self

    「税金の還付があったら どのくらい貯金したいですか?」

  • is exactly the same person as our present self.


  • We know that one of the best times to save is when you get your tax return.

    還付があるかも いくら戻ってくるかも 分からないのですから

  • So we tried an A/B test.


  • In the first group, we texted people in early February,

    第2グループには 還付を受けた直後に尋ねました

  • hopefully before they even filed for their taxes.


  • And we asked them,


  • "If you get a tax refund, what percentage would you like to save?"

    還付を受けたばかりの 第2グループは

  • Now this is a really hard question.


  • They didn't know if they would receive a tax refund or how much.

    確定申告前の2月に聞いた 第1グループでは

  • But we asked the question anyway.

    貯金したい額に 17%ではなく27%と多い金額を

  • In the second group, we asked people right after they received their refund,


  • "What percentage would you like to save?"


  • Now, here's what happened.

    将来の自分を 思い描いているからです

  • In that second condition, when people just received their tax refund,

    将来の自分は27% 貯金できるはずです

  • they wanted to save about 17 percent of their tax refund.

    貯金にまつわる行動における 大きな変化は

  • But in the condition when we asked people before they even filed their taxes,

    決定する環境を 変えたことによって生まれます

  • savings rates increased from 17 percent to 27 percent


  • when we asked in February.


  • Why?

    今の自分には ちょっと難しいことを

  • Because you're committing for your future self,

    将来の自分に約束できることを 考えてみましょう

  • and of course your future self can save 27 percent.

    前もって貯金額を決めるアプリを 使ってみてください

  • These large changes in savings behavior


  • came from the fact that we changed the decision-making environment.

    第2に 「変化の時を 味方につけよう」

  • We want you to be able to harness that same power.

    年配者がハウスシェアできる ウェブサイトで

  • So take a moment


  • and think about the ways in which you can sign up your future self

    ソーシャルメディアに 2つの広告を出し

  • for something that you know today will be a little bit hard.


  • Sign up for an app that lets you make savings decisions in advance.

    1つのグループでは 「老齢に差し掛かったあなた

  • The trick is, you have to have that binding contract.


  • Number two: use transition moments to your advantage.


  • We did an experiment with a website

    もう1つのグループでは もっと具体的に

  • that helps older adults share their housing.


  • We ran two ads on social media,


  • targeted to the same population of 64-year-olds.


  • In one group, we said, "Hey, you're getting older.


  • Are you ready for retirement?

    変化が訪れつつあることを 強調しました

  • House sharing can help."


  • In the second group, we got a little bit more specific

    変化を強調しただけで クリック率や登録率が

  • and said, "You're 64 turning 65.


  • Are you ready for retirement?

    心理学で「フレッシュスタート効果」 と呼ばれるものです

  • House sharing can help."

    新しい年や 新しい季節の始まりには

  • What we're doing in that second group

    行動するモチベーションが 上がるのです

  • is highlighting that a transition is happening.

    今すぐ 次の誕生日の前日に

  • All of a sudden,


  • we saw click-through rates, and ultimately sign-up rates, increase

    金銭関連で一番やりたいことを 考えるんです

  • when we highlight that.


  • In psychology, we call this the "fresh start effect."


  • Whether it's the start of a new year or even a new season,

    「ちょっとした 日々の支出を管理しよう」

  • your motivation to act increases.

    いくつかの調査を行って 判明したのは

  • So right now, put a meeting request on your calendar

    銀行の手数料の次に 人々が後悔する出費は

  • for the day before your next birthday.


  • Identify the one financial thing you most want to do.

    外食費は ほぼ毎日する出費で

  • And commit yourself to it.


  • The third and final trick:

    コーヒーやら ブリトーやら...

  • get a handle on small, frequent purchases.

    どんどん積み重なって 貯金できなくなるのです

  • We've run a few different studies

    私がニューヨークに 住んでいた頃

  • and found that the number one purchase people say they regret, after bank fees,


  • is eating out.

    ライドシェアリング・アプリに 2,000ドルも費やしていました

  • It's a frequent purchase we make almost every day,

    ニューヨークの家賃よりも 多い金額でした

  • and it's death by a thousand cuts.


  • A coffee here, a burrito there ...

    でも翌月も2,000ドル 使ってしまいました

  • It adds up and decreases our ability to save.

    情報だけでは 行動は変わらなかったのです

  • Back when I lived in New York City,


  • I looked at my expenses

    4,000ドルも使ってしまったので 2つのことをしました

  • and saw that I spent over 2,000 dollars on ride-sharing apps.

    まず クレジットカード情報を

  • It was more than my New York City rent.


  • I vowed to make a change.

    代わりに月々300ドルしか使えない デビットカードを登録しました

  • And the next month, I spent 2,000 dollars again --


  • no change, because the information alone didn't change my behavior.

    新しいカードを追加する手順を 踏まなければなりません

  • I didn't change my environment.

    クリックや妨げるものが多いと 行動は変わります

  • We aren't machines.


  • We don't carry around an abacus every day,


  • adding up what we're spending, in comparison to what we wanted.

    実際の支出を加算して 使える金額と比較し続けられません

  • But what our brains are very good at


  • is counting up the number of times we've done something.

    自分がしたことの 回数を数え上げることです

  • So I gave myself a limit.


  • I can only use ride-sharing apps three times a week.

    ライドシェアリングの利用回数を 週3回までにしました

  • It forced me to ration my travels.


  • I got a handle on my car-sharing expenses to the benefit of my husband,

    夫のためにライドシェアリングの 費用を管理できたのは

  • because of the environmental changes that I did.


  • So get a handle on whatever that purchase is for you,

    何の支出にお金を 使いがちかを見極めて

  • and change your environment to make it harder to do so.

    そうしにくいように 環境を変えてみましょう

  • Those are my tips for you.


  • But I want you to remember one thing.


  • As human beings, we can be irrational when it comes to saving

    人間ですから 貯金や 支出や予算を立てるとなると

  • and spending and budgeting.


  • But luckily, we know this about ourselves,

    でも幸い 自覚していますし

  • and we can predict how we'll act under certain environments.

    ある環境でどう振る舞うかを 予測することもできます

  • Let's do that with saving.

    貯金についても そうしましょう

  • Let's change our environment to help our future selves.

    将来の自分のために 環境を変えてみませんか

So now that I was 4,000 dollars in the hole, I did two things.



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A2 初級 日本語 TED 貯金 グループ 支出 退職 将来

TED】ウェンディ・デ・ラ・ロサ:お金を貯めるための3つの心理トリック (お金を貯めるための3つの心理トリック|The Way We Work, a TED series) (【TED】Wendy De La Rosa: 3 psychological tricks to help you save money (3 psychological tricks to help you save money | The Way We Work, a TED series))

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    林宜悉 に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日