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  • What I'm really here to do today is talk to you about micromanagement

    翻訳: Yuko Yoshida 校正: Masaki Yanagishita

  • and what I learned about micromanagement

    今日は マイクロマネジメントについて お話ししたいと思います

  • by being a micromanager over the last few years of my life.

    ここ数年 自ら マイクロマネージャになってみて

  • But first off, what is micromanagement?

    マイクロマネジメントについて 学んだことをご紹介しますが

  • How do we really define it?

    そもそもマイクロマネジメントとは 何でしょう?

  • Well, I posit that it's actually taking great, wonderful, imaginative people --


  • like all of you --

    私に言わせれば 頭脳明晰で独創的な人たち―

  • bringing them in into an organization


  • and then crushing their souls --


  • (Laughter)


  • by telling them what font size to use.


  • In the history of mankind,


  • has anyone ever said this?

    人類史上 こんなことを言った人が いるでしょうか?

  • "John, we were never going to close that deal with Times New Roman,

    「だから この契約は明朝体じゃ 絶対にダメだったんだ

  • but because you insisted on Helvetica --


  • bam!


  • Dotted line --


  • millions of dollars started to flow.


  • That was the missing piece!"


  • No one's ever said that, right?


  • There's actually physical manifestations that we probably see in ourselves

    マイクロマネジメントを受けると 実際に肉体的に影響が現れるのを

  • by being micromanaged.


  • Think about the most tired you've ever been in your life, right?

    人生で一番疲れたときのことを 思い出してください

  • It probably wasn't when you stayed the latest at work,

    おそらく それは すごく遅くまで残業したときでも

  • or it wasn't when you came home from a road trip,


  • it was probably when you had someone looking over your shoulder,

    むしろ 誰かに肩越しにのぞきこまれて

  • watching your each and every move.


  • Kind of like my mother-in-law when she's over right?


  • (Laughter)


  • I'm like, "I got this," you know?


  • And so there's actually data to support this.

    実際 これを裏付けるデータもあるんです

  • There was a recent study in the UK.


  • They took 100 hospital employees,


  • put an activity tracker on them


  • and then let them go about their next 12-hour shift all alone,

    各自12時間のシフトを こなしてもらいました

  • just a regular 12-hour shift.


  • At the end of the shift, they asked them, "Do you feel fatigued?"

    シフトが終わったあと 疲れたか尋ねたところ

  • And what they found was actually really interesting.

    とても興味深いことが 分かったのです

  • It wasn't necessarily the people who moved the most

    疲労感が最も大きかった人は 必ずしも

  • that felt the most fatigued,


  • but it was the folks that didn't have control over their jobs.


  • So if we know that micromanagement isn't really effective,

    では マイクロマネジメントが あまり効果的でないと分かっているのに

  • why do we do it?

    なぜ してしまうんでしょうか?

  • Is it that the definition is wrong?


  • I posited that micromanagement

    さきほど マイクロマネジメントは

  • is just bringing in great, wonderful, imaginative people


  • and then crushing their souls,


  • so is it that we actually want to hire --

    もしかして 私たちが 本当に雇いたいのは―

  • deep down inside of us --


  • dull and unimaginative people?


  • It's one of those questions you probably don't even need to ask.


  • It's like, "Do you want to get your luggage stolen at the airport?"

    「空港で荷物を盗まれたいか?」 というのと同じで

  • Probably not, but I've never been asked, right?

    答えはノーでしょうが 聞かれたことはありません

  • So has anyone asked you, as a manager,

    マネージャのあなたに こう尋ねた人はいますか?

  • "Do you want to hire dull and unimaginative people?"

    「おバカで独創性のない人を 雇いたいですか?」

  • So, I don't know, this is TED, we better back it up with data.

    ここはTEDですから 裏付けとなるデータが必要ですね

  • We actually asked hundreds of people around the country --

    実際に 全国の数百人に尋ねてみました

  • hundreds of managers across the country --


  • do you want to hire dull and unimaginative people?

    おバカで独創性のない人を 雇いたいか聞いたのです

  • Alright, it's an interesting question.


  • Well, interesting results as well.


  • So, 94% said no --


  • (Laughter)


  • we don't want to hire dull and unimaginative people.

    おバカで独創性のない人なんて 雇いたくないですよね

  • Six percent probably didn't understand the question --

    残る6%は 質問の意味を理解できなかったんでしょう

  • (Laughter)


  • but, bless their hearts,

    でも 彼らにも幸あれ

  • maybe they do just want to hire dull and unimaginative people.

    本当に おバカで独創性のない人を 雇いたいのかもしれません

  • But 94 percent said they did not, and so why do we do this still then?

    では 94%の人は否定しているのに なぜマイクロマネジメントを?

  • Well, I posit that it's something really, really simple

    きっと その答えはすごくシンプルで 私たち皆が

  • that all of us deep down inside know and have actually felt.

    心の奥底では分かっていて 実際に感じてきたことだと思います

  • So when we get hired into an organization --


  • it could be a club, it could be a law firm,

    それがクラブであれ 法律事務所であれ

  • it could be a school organization, it could be anything --

    学校組織であれ 何であれ

  • no one ever jumps to the top of the totem pole, right?

    いきなり序列のてっぺんに 乗っかることはありませんよね

  • You start at the very bottom.


  • Doing what?

    で 何をするか?

  • Doing work.


  • You actually do the work, right?


  • And if you're really good at doing the work,

    もし その仕事の出来が すごく良かったら

  • what do you get rewarded with?


  • More work, right?


  • Yeah, that's right, you guys are all great micromanagers.

    さすが 皆さん マイクロマネジメントの良き実践者ですね

  • (Laughter)


  • You do more work,


  • and then pretty soon, if you're really good at it,

    それも うまくやったら ほどなく―

  • you do a little bit of work still,


  • but actually, you start to manage people doing the work.

    その仕事をする人たちを 管理するようになります

  • And if you're really good at that, what happens after that?

    それも うまくやったら 次はどうなりますか?

  • You start managing the people who manage the people doing the work,

    その仕事をする人を管理する人たちを 管理するようになり

  • and it's at that point in time,


  • you start to lose control over the output of your job.

    自分の業績に対する コントロールを失い始めます

  • I've actually witnessed this firsthand.

    私自身 じかに体験したことです

  • So, I started a company called Boxed in our garage,

    私はガレージで Boxedという会社を始めました

  • and this was it -- I know it doesn't seem like much --

    ここです どうってことないような場所ですね

  • you know, there's a pressure washer in the back --


  • this is "living the dream."


  • And my wife was really proud of me when we started this,

    事業を始めたとき 妻は私をとても誇りに思ってくれました

  • or that's what she said, she was really proud of me --

    少なくとも そう言ってくれていました―

  • and so she would give me a hug, and I'm pretty sure she had her phone up

    私を抱きしめながら 妻は携帯電話を眺め こう思っていたでしょう

  • and she was thinking, "Oh, is John from Harvard still single?"


  • It was kind of like a lemonade stand gone wrong in the beginning,

    会社は 子どもの模擬店に 毛が生えた程度のものでしたが

  • but we actually went up and said mobile commerce is going to be big,

    軌道に乗ってきて こう考えました 「モバイルコマースが拡大し

  • and actually consumer packaged goods were going to change over time,

    実際 消費者向け商品も 次第に様相を変えつつある

  • so let's take these big, bulky packs that you don't want to lug home --

    家に持ち帰るのが大変な かさばる まとめ売り商品―

  • so not the two-pack of Oreo cookies but the 24-pack

    クッキーなら 2パックではなく24パック

  • and not the 24-pack of toilet paper but the 48-pack --

    トイレットペーパーなら 24ロールではなく48ロールといった

  • and let's ship it to you much like a warehouse club would do

    会員制の大型ディスカウントショップに あるものを

  • except they wouldn't ship it to you.


  • So that's what we basically did.


  • We had a really slow printer

    でもプリンターが遅くて 時間がかかってしようがないので

  • and what we did was actually say, "OK, this printer is taking forever, man.

    待つ間に 送り状の裏側に お客さまを喜ばせる ひと言を

  • Let's scribble something that would delight the customer


  • on the back of these invoices."


  • So we'd say, "Hey, keep smiling," you know?


  • "Hey, you're awesome,"

    「スナック菓子 楽しんで」

  • or, "Hey, enjoy the Doritos,"

    「このスポーツ飲料 イイよね」

  • or, "We love Gatorade, too."


  • Stuff like that.

    これによって仕事も 単調でなくなり始めました

  • And so it started breaking up the monotony of the job as well

    当時 私は商品のピッキングと梱包を すべてしていて

  • because I was picking and packing all of the boxes,

    それもガレージにいるときは 1日8~12時間

  • and that's all you basically do for eight, nine, 10, 12 hours a day

    ずっと やるわけです

  • when you're sitting in the garage.


  • And so an interesting thing happened.


  • So we actually started to grow.


  • And so, you know, over the last --


  • actually just even 36 months after that,


  • we ended up selling hundreds of millions of dollars worth of stuff,


  • and we actually grew really, really quickly.

    その間に 私の役割も 変わっていきました

  • But during that time, my role started to change, too.

    確かにガレージ時代も 私はCEOでしたが

  • So, yes, I was the CEO in the garage;

    ピッキングに梱包と すべての実務をしていました

  • I was picking and packing, doing all the work,

    でも 私はそれを卒業し

  • but then I graduated

    ピッキングや梱包をする人を 管理する立場になったのです

  • to actually managing the people who picked and packed,

    そして すぐに私は ピッキングと梱包担当を

  • and then pretty soon I managed the people

    管理する人を 管理するようになりました

  • who managed the people picking and packing.

    今でも 私が管理するのは ピッキングと梱包をする人を

  • And even now, I manage the C-staff who manage the departments

    管理する部門を管理する 最高責任者たちです

  • who manage the people who manage the people picking and packing.

    そして このとき 私はコントロールを失ったのです

  • And it is at that point in time, I lost control.

    私たちは ちょっとしたメモを添えて お客さまを喜ばせていました

  • So I thought, OK, we were delighting all of these customers with these notes.

    気に入ってもらえましたが もう私が書くわけにもいきません

  • They loved them, but I can't write these notes anymore,

    だったら どうするのか

  • so you know what I'm going to do?

    私は 担当者に メモをどうやって書くか指示します

  • I'm going to tell these folks how to write these notes.

    ペンの種類や色 書く内容や

  • What pen to use, what color to use, what you should write,


  • what font you should use,


  • don't mess up the margins,

    これは この大きさで あれは あの大きさという風に

  • this has to be this big, this has to be that big.

    すると 配送センターの仕事を 単調でないようにして

  • And pretty soon this goal of raising morale

    士気を上げるつもりが マイクロマネジメントになり

  • by breaking up the monotony in the fulfillment center

    人事に不平不満が 寄せられるようになりました

  • actually became micromanagement, and people started complaining to HR.

    「このCEOは いちいち口を挟んでくるよ

  • It's like, "Dude, this CEO guy has got to get out of my hair, OK?


  • I know how to write a damn note."


  • (Laughter)

    ですから そのとき こうしたのです

  • So it was at that point in time, we said, "OK, you know?

    こんなに優秀で 素晴らしい人を雇ったんだから

  • We hired these great, wonderful people,


  • let's give them the mission that's 'delight the customer,'

    それを実現するツールを与えればいい それがこのメモだ さあ取りかかれと

  • let's give them the tool to do so, and that's these notes -- have at it."

    その結果は とても驚くべきものでした

  • And so what we found was actually pretty startling.

    ノートに とても華やかな 壁画のようなものを描き始めた人もいます

  • Some folks actually took the notes

    おむつを注文した人には こんな面白いメモが届きます

  • and actually started drawing these really ornate minimurals on them.


  • When folks ordered diapers, you'd get really fun notes like this:

    そして 次の注文でサイズが上がったら こう書きます

  • "Say 'hi' to the baby for us!"


  • And you know, the next size up, if they bought a bigger size,

    これで 皆ご執心になりました

  • they'd write, "Growing up so fast."

    でも 当時 何度か 度を超したこともありました

  • And so people really, really took to it.

    いつも「ありがとね」としか 書かない人が出てきたのです

  • But it was at that time that it also went off the rails a few times.

    その上司がいつも「ありがとね」しか 書かない人だったようで

  • And so we had someone just writing, "Thx, thx," all the time,

    「ありがとね」は止めよう となりました

  • and it's like, "Alright, dude, my boss used to write that to me,"

    他方で 面白いことも起こりました

  • so, let's not write "Thx" anymore.


  • But you also had interesting things on the other side.

    お話ししたとおり ここでは何でも まとめ売りです

  • People got a little too creative.

    大量のおむつや 大量のトイレットペーパー

  • And so, like I said before, we sell everything in bulk:


  • the big packs of diapers, big packs of toilet paper,

    避妊具も まとめ売りです

  • the big packs of Doritos and Oreo cookies.


  • We also sell the big packs of contraception,


  • and so --


  • this is getting a little hairy.


  • (Laughter)

    皆さんは大人ですから― コンドーム40個ですよ

  • So we sell the 40-pack of condoms, right?

    それで コンドーム40個入りを 4箱注文した人がいたのです

  • We're all adults in this room -- 40-pack of condoms.


  • So, someone ordered four 40-packs of condoms --


  • (Laughter)


  • And that's all they ordered,

    梱包担当は 「喜ばしてやろうじゃないか」と

  • so, 160 condoms,


  • the packer was like, "I know how to delight the customer."


  • (Laughter)


  • "This guy ..."

    「楽観主義 サイコー」

  • This is what they wrote:


  • [Everyone loves an optimist]


  • (Laughter)

    解雇か昇進か判断しかねましたが 彼はまだ ここで働いています

  • (Applause)

    「楽観主義 サイコー」

  • We didn't know whether to fire him or to promote him, but he's still there.

    でも こんな風に ちょっと行き過ぎがあると

  • So, "Everyone loves an optimist."

    私は少し複雑な気持ち(conflicted)に なるわけです

  • But here is where it went a little bit off the rails

    それで― [CONFLIC]

  • and I felt a little bit conflicted in all of this.

    スライドにひどいタイプミス? [CONFLIC]

  • And --

    いや ステージのこのへんに 赤い「TED」の文字があるから

  • oh, there's a really bad typo --


  • so if there was only a red T-E-D on stage that I counted on being here,


  • it wouldn't be a typo, right?


  • (Laughter)

    ユーモアのセンスは からきしダメなのに

  • (Applause)


  • I promised you I had a really bad sense of humor,

    それで 私は すごい複雑な気持ちになります

  • and now I'm gratifying that.

    当時 私たちは 本来業務から外れたことをしていて

  • So I told you. But I really was conflicted, right?


  • At this point in time, we started doing things

    それで思いました 失敗させておいて良いのか?

  • that actually weren't part of our core mission


  • and people started failing at it.


  • And so, I thought, should we let them fail?


  • Should we continue to let them do this?


  • I don't know --

    失敗は そんなに悪いことなのか?

  • I didn't know at that moment,

    失敗を賞賛すべき と言うのではありません

  • but I thought this:

    シリコン・バレーでは 失敗を称賛する流れがありますが

  • Is failure really that bad?

    皆が皆 そこまですべきかは疑問です

  • I'm not saying we should celebrate failure.

    というのも 取締役会で

  • There's a lot of talk in Silicon Valley that says, "Let's celebrate failure."

    「先期はしくじったな 次もこの調子で!」 なんて言う人はいませんよね

  • No, I don't know if we would go all the way there,


  • because like, in our board meetings,

    もし そんな発言が出る組織があれば

  • our board members are never like, "Hey, Chieh, you failed last quarter,

    ぜひご連絡ください 会議に参加したいものです

  • keep doing that, buddy, OK?"

    私生活では 失敗を喜ぶ人はあまりいないと思いますが

  • No one's ever said that.

    失敗というものは 賢くて想像力に富み

  • If you're part of an organization like that,


  • give me a call, I want to sit in on that meeting.

    本気で完遂しようとする人にとっては 長い目で見れば 欠かせないことです

  • In private, I don't think many people celebrate failure,

    ですから 失敗は ミッション成功に向かう上での

  • but failure, I posit, is actually pretty necessary


  • for the folks truly in the long-term,


  • for the smart and imaginative people

    よく言われているように 失敗が増えることだったとして

  • truly trying to fulfill the mission that you give them at hand.

    それが そんなに悪いことでなかったら

  • And so failure can actually be seen as a milestone


  • along that mission towards success.

    私たちが体験したメリットは 素晴らしいものでした

  • And if the downside of not micromanaging


  • is potentially this perceived notion that you might fail more often,

    「うちの配送センターは 建設に何億円もかかっているが

  • and if it's really not that bad,


  • what is the upside?

    同じことを もっと効率的に

  • Well, we saw the upside and it's pretty great.

    何億ものお金を使わずに できないだろうか?」