字幕表 動画を再生する 英語字幕をプリント When I was a young man... growing up in New York City... I refused to pledge allegiance to the flag. Of course I was sent to the principal's office. And he asked me "Why don't you want to Pledge Allegiance"? Everybody does!' I said, "Everybody once believed the earth was flat... but that doesn't make it so". I explained that America owed everything it has... to other cultures... and other nations... and that I would rather pledge allegiance... to the earth... and everyone on it. Needless to say, it wasn't long... before I left school entirely... and I set up a lab in my bedroom. There I began to learn about science... and nature. I realized then... that the universe is governed by laws... and that the human being... along with society itself... was not exempt from these laws. Then came the crash of 1929. Which began what we now call... "The Great Depression". I found it difficult to understand why millions... were out of work homeless, starving... while all the factories were sitting there. The resources were unchanged. It was then that I realized that the rules of the economic game... were inherently invalid. Shortly after came World War II... where various nations took turns... systematically destroying each other. I later calculated that all the destruction... and wasted resources... spent on that war... could have easily provided for every... human need on the planet. Since that time I have watched humanity... set the stage for its own extinction. I have watched as the precious finite resources... are perpetually wasted and destroyed... in the name of profit and free-markets. I have watched the social values of society be reduced... into a base artificiality of materialism... and mindless consumption. And I have watched as the monetary powers... control the political structure... of supposedly free societies. I'm 94 years old now. And I'm afraid my disposition... is the same as it was... 75 years ago. This shit's got to go. So you're a scientist and somewhere along the way, hammered into your head... is the inevitable "nature versus nurture"... and that's at least up there with Coke versus Pepsi... or Greeks versus Trojans. So, nature versus nurture: This, by now... utterly over-simplifying view of... where influences are... influences how a cell deals with... an energy crisis up to... what makes us who we are on the most individualistic... levels of personality. And what you've got is this complete false dichotomy... built around nature as deterministic... at the very bottom of all the causality. Life is DNA and the code of codes... and the Holy Grail, and everything is driven by it... At the other end is a much more... social science perspective which is... We are 'social organisms'... and biology is for slime molds. Humans are free of biology... and obviously both views are nonsense. What you see instead is that... it is virtually impossible to understand... how biology works... outside of the context of environment. One of the most crazy... yet widespread and... potentially dangerous notions is: "Oh, that behavior is genetic". Now what does that mean? It means all sorts of subtle stuff if you... know modern biology, but for most people... out there, what it winds-up meaning is: A deterministic view of life, one rooted in biology and genetics, genes equal things that cannot be changed, genes equal things that are... inevitable and you might as well not... waste resources trying to fix, might as well not put societal energies into trying... to improve because it's inevitable and it's unchangeable... and that is sheer nonsense. It is widely though that conditions like... ADHD are genetically programmed... That conditions like schizophrenia are genetically programmed. The truth is the opposite. Nothing is genetically programmed. There are very rare diseases... a small handful... extremely sparsely represented in the population... that are truly genetically determined. Most complex conditions... might have a predisposition that has a genetic component... but a predisposition is not the same as a predetermination. The whole search for the source of diseases in the genome... was doomed to failure before anybody even thought of it... because most diseases are not genetically predetermined. Heart disease, cancers, strokes... rheumatoid conditions, autoimmune conditions in general... mental health conditions, addictions... none of them are genetically determined. Breast cancer, for example, out of 100 women with breast cancer... only seven will carry the breast cancer genes. 93 do not... and out of 100 women who do have the genes... not all of them will get cancer. Genes are not just things that make us behave... in a particular way regardless of our environment. Genes give us different ways of responding to our environment. And, in fact, it looks as if some of the early... childhood influences and the kind of child rearing... affect gene expression... actually turning on or off different genes... to put you on a different developmental track... which may suit the kind of world you've got to deal with. So for example. A study done in Montreal with suicide victims... looked at autopsies of the brains of these people... and it turned out that if a suicide victim... these are usually young adults... had been abused as a child, the abuse actually... caused a genetic change in the brain... that was absent in the brains of people who had not been abused. That's an epigenetic effect. Epigenetic means on top of, so that... the epigenetic influence is what happens... environmentally to either activate or deactivate certain genes. In New Zealand, there was a study... that was done in a town called Dunedin... in which a few thousand individuals... were studied from birth into their 20s. What they found was that they could identify... a genetic mutation, an abnormal gene... which did have some relation to... the predisposition to commit violence... but only if the individual had also... been subjected to severe child abuse. In other words, children with this abnormal gene would... be no more likely to be violent than anybody else... and, in fact, they actually had a lower rate of violence... than people with normal genes... as long as they weren't abused as children. Great additional example of the ways... in which genes are not "be all-end all". A fancy technique where you can... take a specific out of a mouse... and that mouse and its descendants will not have that gene. You have "knocked out" that gene. So there's this one gene that encodes... for a protein that has something to do... with learning and memory and with this fabulous demonstration... you "knock out" that gene and you... have a mouse that doesn't learn as well. "Oh! A genetic basis for intelligence"! What was much less appreciated in that landmark study... that got picked up by the media left and right... is take those genetically impaired mice... and raise them in a much more enriched stimulating environment than your normal mice in a lab cage... and they completely overcame that deficit. So, when one says in a contemporary sense that... "oh, this behavior is genetic"... to the extent that that's even a valid sort of phrase to use... what you're saying is: There is a... genetic contribution to how this... organism responds to environment, genes may influence the... readiness with which an organism will... deal with a certain environmental challenge. You know, that's not the version most people have in their minds... and not to be too 'soap-boxing'... but run with the old... version of "It's genetic"! And it's not that far from the history of eugenics... and things of that sort. It's a widespread misconception... and it's a potentially fairly dangerous one. One reason that the... biological explanation for violence... one reason that hypothesis is... potentially dangerous, it's not just misleading... it can really do harm... is because if you believe that... you could very easily say: "Well, there's nothing we can do... to change the predisposition... people have to becoming violent, all we can do is punish them - lock them up or execute them... but we don't need to worry about changing the... social environment or the social preconditions... that may lead people to become violent because... that's irrelevant". The genetic argument allows us the luxury of ignoring... past and present historical and social factors... and in the words of Louis Menand... who wrote in the New Yorker... Very astutely, he said: "It's all in the genes... an explanation for the way things are... that does not threaten the way things are. Why should someone feel unhappy or engage in antisocial behavior when that person is living in the freest and most prosperous nation on Earth? It can't be the system. There must be a flaw in the wiring somewhere". Which is a good way of putting it. So, the genetic argument is simply a cop-out which allows us to ignore the social and economic and political factors... that, in fact, underlie... many troublesome behaviors. Addictions are usually considered to be a drug-related issue... but looking at it more broadly... I define addiction as any behavior... that is associated with craving... with temporary relief... and with long-term negative consequences... along with an impairment of control over it so that the person... wishes to give it up or promises to do so... but can't follow through... and when you understand that, you see that... there are many more addictions... than simply those related to drugs. There's workaholism; addiction to shopping; To the Internet, to video games... There's the addiction to power. People that have power but they... want more and more, nothing is ever enough for them. Acquisition, corporations that must own more and more. The addiction to oil... or at least to the wealth and to the products made... accessible to us by oil. Look at the negative consequences on the environment.