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  • Hi everyone.


  • Two year ago, my life changed forever.

    2年前 私の人生は劇的に変化しました

  • My wife Kelsey and I


  • welcomed our daughter Lela into the world.


  • Now, becoming a parent is an amazing experience.


  • Your whole world changes over night.


  • And all of your priorities change immediately.


  • So fast that it makes it really difficult to process sometimes.


  • Now, you also have to learn a tremendous amount about being a parent

    また 親として たくさんのことを新たに学ぶ必要があります

  • like, for example, how to dress your child.


  • (Laughter)


  • This was new to me.


  • This is an actual outfit, I thought this was a good idea.


  • And even Lela knows that it's not a good idea. (Laughter)

    赤ん坊の娘にさえイケてないのが分かっているようです (笑)

  • So there is so much to learn and so much craziness all at once.


  • And to add to the craziness, Kelsey and I both work from home,


  • we're entrepreneurs, we run our own businesses.


  • So, Kelsey develops courses online for yoga teachers.


  • I'm an author.


  • And so, I'm working from home, Kelsey's working from home.


  • We have an infant and we're trying to make sure


  • that everything gets done that needs done.


  • And life is really, really busy.


  • And a couple of weeks into this amazing experience,


  • when the sleep deprivation really kicked in,


  • like around week eight,


  • I had this thought, and it was the same thought


  • that parents across the ages, internationally,

    あらゆる時代 あらゆる場所の親が抱いたであろう考えを

  • everybody has had this thought, which is:


  • I am never going to have free time ever again.

    「自分は もう2度と再び自由な時間なんて持てない!」

  • (Laughter)


  • Somebody said it's true.


  • It's not exactly true,


  • but it feels really, really true in that moment.


  • And this was really disconcerning to me,


  • because one of the things that I enjoy


  • more than anything else is learning new things.


  • Getting curious about something and diving in


  • and fiddling around and learning through trial and error.


  • And eventually becoming pretty good at something.

    最後には かなり上手くできるようになる

  • And without this free time,


  • I didn't know how I was ever going to do that ever again.


  • And so, I'm a big geek,


  • I want to keep learning things, I want to keep growing.


  • And so what I've decided to do was,


  • go to the library, and go to the bookstore,

    図書館や本屋に行って —

  • and look at what research says about

    素早く物事を学ぶ方法に 関する研究を

  • how we learn and how we learn quickly.


  • And I read a bunch of books, I read a bunch of websites.

    たくさんの本を読み ウェブサイトを見て

  • And tried to answer this question,


  • how long does it take to acquire a new skill?

    「新しいスキルを身に付けるには どれほどかかるか?」

  • You know what I found?

    私が見つけた答えが 分かりますか?

  • 10,000 hours!


  • Anybody ever heard this?


  • It takes 10,000 hours. If you want to learn something new,


  • if you want to be good at it,


  • it's going to take 10,000 hours to get there.


  • And I read this in book after book, in website after website.

    それをたくさんの本やウェブサイトで 繰り返し目にしました

  • And my mental experience of reading all of this stuff was like:

    それを見た時の私の心理が どんなだったかというと —

  • No!!


  • I don't have time! I don't have 10,000 hours.


  • I am never going to be able to learn anything new.

    もう新しいことなんて 絶対学べやしないでしょう

  • Ever again. (Laughter)


  • But that's not true.


  • So, 10,000 hours, just to give you a rough order of magnitude,

    1万時間が どれくらいの長さかというと

  • 10,000 hours is a full-time job for five years.

    フルタイムの仕事 5年分に相当するんです

  • That's a long time.


  • And we've all had the experience of learning something new,

    誰しも新しいことを 学んだことはありますが

  • and it didn't take us anywhere close to that amount of time, right?

    そんなに時間を費やした覚えは ありませんよね

  • So, what's up? There's something kinda funky going on here.

    どういうことなんでしょう? 何か変なことが起きているようです

  • What the research says and what we expect, and have experiences,

    研究結果と 我々の経験が

  • they don't match up.


  • And what I found, here's the wrinkle:


  • The 10,000 hour rule came out of studies of expert-level performance.

    1万時間というのは専門家レベルの能力の研究から 出て来たものだということです

  • There's a professor at Florida State University,

    1万時間の法則を 最初に唱えたのは

  • his name is K. Anders Ericsson.


  • He is the originator of the 10,00 hour rule.


  • And where that came from is, he studied professional athletes,

    そして彼が研究していたのは プロスポーツ選手や

  • world class musicians, chess grand masters.

    世界的な演奏家や チェスのグランドマスターでした

  • All of this ultra competitive folks in ultra-high performing fields.

    ものすごく競争の激しい世界で ものすごく優れた人たちが対象だったんです

  • And he tried to figure out how long does it take

    そういった分野で 頂点にたどり着くまでの

  • to get to the top of those kinds of fields.


  • And what he found is, the more deliberate practice,

    それで分かったのは 計画的に練習をし

  • the more time that those individuals spend

    必要な要素の 練習を積み重ね

  • practicing the elements of whatever it is that they do,

    時間と労力をかけるほど それが何であれ

  • the more time you spend, the better you get.

    上達していく ということです

  • And the folks at the tippy top of their fields

    そしてそれぞれの分野で 頂点にいる人達というのは

  • put in around 10,000 hours of practice.

    1万時間くらい練習を 積んでいたということです

  • Now, we were talking about the game of telephone a little bit earlier.

    さっき伝言ゲームの 話がありましたが

  • Here's what happened:

    起きたのは こういうことです

  • an author by the name of Malcolm Gladwell

    マルコム・グラッドウェル という作家が

  • wrote a book in 2007 called "Outliers: The Story of Success",

    2007年に『天才! 成功する人々の法則』 という本を書きましたが

  • and the central piece of that book was the 10,000 hour rule.

    その本の核になっていたのが 1万時間の法則でした

  • Practice a lot, practice well, and you will do extremely well,

    適切な方法でたくさん練習を積めば 技を極めて

  • you will reach the top of your field.


  • So, the message,

    元々のメッセージ —

  • what Dr. Ericsson was actually saying is,

    エリクソン博士が 実際に言っていたのは

  • it takes 10,000 hours to get at the top of an ultra competitive field

    ある種限られた範囲の 競争の激しい分野では

  • in a very narrow subject, that's what that means.

    頂点に立つのに1万時間かかる ということでした

  • But here's what happened: ever since Outliers came out,

    しかしその後 『天才』が出版され

  • immediately came out, reached the top of best seller lists,


  • stayed there for three solid months.


  • All of a sudden the 10,000 hour rule was everywhere.

    1万時間の法則が至るところで 語られるようになり

  • And a society-wide game of telephone started to be played.

    そして社会全体で 伝言ゲームが始まったのです

  • So this message, it takes 10,000 hours to reach the top of an ultra competitive field,

    「競争の激しい分野の頂点に立つには 1万時間かかる」という伝言が

  • became, it takes 10,000 hours to become an expert at something,

    「何かで専門家レベルになるには 1万時間かかる」になり

  • which became,


  • it takes 10,000 hours to become good at something,

    「何かに上手になるには 1万時間かかる」になり

  • which became,


  • it takes 10,000 hours to learn something.

    「何かを学ぼうと思ったら 1万時間かかる」になりました

  • But that last statement, it takes 10,000 hours to learn something,

    しかし最後の 「何かを学ぼうと思ったら1万時間かかる」—

  • is not true. It's not true.

    というのは 明らかに正しくありません

  • So, what the research actually says --

    研究者が実際に 言っているのは —

  • I spent a lot of time here at the CSU library

    勉強オタクの私は ここカリフォルニア州立大にある

  • in the cognitive psychology stacks 'cause I'm a geek.

    図書館の認知心理学の棚のところで 長い時間を過ごしましたが —

  • And when you actually look at the studies of skill acquisition,

    スキル習得に関する研究を 調べていると

  • you see over and over a graph like this.

    よく目にするのが こういうグラフです

  • Now, researchers, whether they're studying a motor skill,

    身体を使う 運動スキルについてであれ

  • something you do physically or a mental skill,

    頭を使う 知的スキルについてであれ

  • they like to study things that they can time.

    研究者というのは 時間測定できる課題を好んで研究します

  • 'Cause you can quantify that, right?


  • So, they'll give research participants a little task,

    それで研究者は被験者に 何かちょっとした作業を与えます

  • something that requires physical arrangement,


  • or something that requires learning a little mental trick,

    何かコツを学ぶ必要が あるようなことです

  • and they'll time how long a participant takes to complete the skill.

    そして被験者がその作業を 完了するまでの時間を計ります

  • And here's what this graph says, when you start --

    このグラフで分かるのは 作業を与えられた時 —

  • so when researchers gave participants a task, it took them a really long time,

    被験者は最初すごく 時間がかかるということです

  • 'cause it was new and they were horrible.

    初めてやることで 下手なためです

  • With a little bit of practice, they get better and better and better.

    それから練習するうちに どんどん上達します

  • And that early part of practice is really, really efficient.

    練習の初期においては 上達が非常に早いんです

  • People get good at things with just a little bit of practice.

    ほんの少しの練習で グッと上達することができます

  • Now, what's interesting to note is that,


  • for skills that we want to learn for ourselves,

    何かのスキルを 身に付けようという時

  • we don't care so much about time, right?

    早さというのは そんなに気にかけませんよね?

  • We just care about how good we are, whatever good happens to mean.

    私たちに関心があるのは どれだけ上手くなったかということです

  • So if we relabel performance time to how good you are,

    だからグラフの縦軸を 作業所要時間からスキル熟達度に変えると

  • the graph flips, and you get his famous and widely known,


  • this is the learning curve.

    かの有名な 学習曲線になります

  • And the story of the learning curve is when you start,

    学習曲線が示しているのは 始めたばかりの時は

  • you're grossly incompetent and you know it, right?

    すごく下手で 自分でも それが分かっているということです

  • (Laughter)


  • With a little bit of practice, you get really good, really quick.

    しかし少しの練習で かなり上手くなります

  • So that early level of improvement is really fast.

    はじめのうちはとても早く 上達します

  • And then at a certain point you reach a plateau,

    ある時点で 成長が鈍化して

  • and the subsequent games become much harder to get,


  • they take more time to get.


  • Now, my question is, I want that, right?

    私が知りたいのは あの時点です

  • How long does it take from starting something

    何かをやり始めて すごく下手な状態から

  • and being grossly incompetent and knowing it


  • to being reasonably good?

    どれくらいかかるのか ということです

  • In hopefully, as short a period of time as possible.

    できるだけ短い時間で 到達したい

  • So, how long does that take?


  • Here's what my research says: 20 hours.

    私が研究したところでは 20時間です

  • That's it. You can go from knowing nothing

    それだけです まったくのズブの素人というところから始めます

  • about any skill that you can think of.


  • Want to learn a language? Want to learn how to draw?


  • Want to learn how to juggle flaming chainsaws?

    火の付いたチェーンソーで ジャグリングできるようになりたい?

  • (Laughter)


  • If you put 20 hours of focused deliberate practice into that thing,

    計画的で集中的な練習に 20時間かけたなら

  • you will be astounded.


  • Astounded at how good you are.


  • 20 hours is doable,


  • that's about 45 minutes a day for about a month.

    十分実行可能な時間です 1日45分で1ヶ月です

  • Even skipping a couple days, here and there.


  • 20 hours isn't that hard to accumulate.

    20時間やるというのは そんなに大変なことじゃありません

  • Now, there's a method to doing this.

    ただし そのための 方法があります

  • Because it's not like you can just start fiddling around for about 20 hours

    20時間いい加減にやっても そんなに大きな上達は

  • and expect these massive improvements.


  • There's a way to practice intelligently.

    知的に練習する 必要があります

  • There's a way to practice efficiently,


  • that will make sure that you invest those 20 hours


  • in the most effective way that you possibly can.


  • And here's the method, it applies to anything:

    この方法は 何にでも適用できます

  • The first is to deconstruct the skill.


  • Decide exactly what you want to be able to do when you're done,

    正確に何ができるようになりたいか 決めたら

  • and then look into the skill and break it down into smaller pieces.

    そのスキルを細かく 分解していくんです

  • Most of the things that we think of as skills

    私たちがスキルとして 考えるものの多くは

  • are actually big bundles of skills that require all sorts of different things.

    様々な異なるスキルから 構成されています

  • The more you can break apart the skill,


  • the more you're able to decide,


  • what are the parts of this skill that would actually help me

    どの部分が 自分の目指すことに最も効果があるか

  • get to what I want?


  • And then you can practice those first.

    その部分を最初に 練習するんです

  • And if you practice the most important things first,

    重要なところから 練習していけば

  • you'll be able to improve your performance


  • in the least amount of time possible.


  • The second is, learn enough to self correct.


  • So, get three to five resources about what it is you're trying to learn.

    学ぼうとしていることについての情報源を 3〜5個手に入れます

  • Could be book, could be DVDs, could be courses, could be anything.

    本や DVDや コースや その他のものかもしれません

  • But don't use those as a way to procrastinate on practice.

    ただしそれを 練習を先延ばしする 口実にしてはいけません

  • I know I do this, right?

    私自身やりがちなので 分かります

  • Get like 20 books about the topic, like,


  • "I'm going to start learning how to program a computer

    「よし この20冊を 全部読破したら

  • when I complete these 20 books".

    プログラミングの 練習を始めるぞ!」

  • No. That's procrastination.


  • What you want to do is learn just enough

    実際に練習し —

  • that you can actually practice

    練習しながら 自己修正していく上で

  • and self correct or self edit as you practice.


  • So the learning becomes a way of getting better


  • at noticing when you're making a mistake

    間違った時に それと気付いて

  • and then doing something a little different.

    やり方を変えられるようになる ためにするんです

  • The third is to remove barriers to practice.


  • Distractions, television, internet.

    気を散らすもの テレビ インターネット

  • All of these things that get in the way

    これらはすべて 本腰を入れて物事に取り組む

  • of you actually sitting down and doing the work.


  • And the more you're able to use just a little bit of willpower


  • to remove the distractions that are keeping you from practicing,

    練習の邪魔になるものを 取り除くことで

  • the more likely you are to actually sit down and practice, right?

    実際に練習をする 公算が高くなります

  • And the fourth is to practice for at least 20 hours.


  • Now, most skills have what I call a frustration barrier.

    多くのスキルには 私が「苛立ちの壁」と呼ぶものがあります

  • You know, the grossly-incompetent- and-knowing-it part?

    目も当てられないほど下手で 自分でもそれが分かっている

  • That's really, really frustrating. We don't like to feel stupid.


  • And feeling stupid is a barrier to us actually sitting down and doing the work.

    マヌケだと感じることは 練習に取り組む妨げになります

  • So, by pre-committing to practicing whatever it is that you want to do


  • for at least 20 hours,

    とりあえず20時間練習する と決めることで

  • you will be able to overcome that initial frustration barrier

    最初に直面する苛立ちの壁を 越えることができ

  • and stick with the practice long enough to actually reap the rewards.

    結果が得られるだけ十分に長く 練習することになります

  • That's it! It's not rocket science.

    これだけです 難しいことじゃありません

  • Four very simple steps that you can use to learn anything.

    この簡単な4ステップは 何を学ぶのにも使えます

  • Now, this is easy to talk about in theory,

    理論について話すのは 簡単ですが

  • but it's more fun to talk about in practice.

    実践について話すのは もっと楽しいです

  • So one of the things that I've wanted to learn how to do for a long time

    私が長い間 学びたいと思っていたのは

  • is play the ukulele.


  • Has anybody seen Jake Shimabukuro's TEDTalk

    ジェイク・シマブクロの TEDTalkを見た人いますか?

  • where he plays the ukulele and makes it sound like --


  • he's like a ukulele god.


  • It's amazing.


  • I saw it, I was like, "That is so cool!"

    「あれ すごいカッコイイ!」

  • It's such a neat instrument. I would really like to learn how to play.

    「あの楽器いいな 弾けるようになりたいな」と思いました

  • And so I decided that to test this theory

    それでこの理論を 実証するために

  • I wanted to put 20 hours into practicing ukulele

    ウクレレを20時間練習して どういう結果になるか

  • and see where it got.