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  • Nine years ago,


  • my sister discovered lumps in her neck and arm


  • and was diagnosed with cancer.


  • From that day, she started to benefit

    その日から 彼女は

  • from the understanding that science has of cancer.

    科学による がんに関する理解の 恩恵を受けることになりました

  • Every time she went to the doctor,


  • they measured specific molecules


  • that gave them information about how she was doing

    それは彼女の調子はどうか 次にどうすべきかの

  • and what to do next.


  • New medical options became available every few years.

    数年ごとに新しい医学的選択が 可能になっていきました

  • Everyone recognized that she was struggling heroically

    彼女が生物学的な疾患と 毅然と戦っていることを

  • with a biological illness.


  • This spring, she received an innovative new medical treatment

    この春 彼女は臨床試験として

  • in a clinical trial.


  • It dramatically knocked back her cancer.


  • Guess who I'm going to spend this Thanksgiving with?

    今度の感謝祭を私が誰と過ごすか 当ててみてください

  • My vivacious sister,


  • who gets more exercise than I do,


  • and who, like perhaps many people in this room,

    そして この会場の皆様と同様に

  • increasingly talks about a lethal illness


  • in the past tense.


  • Science can, in our lifetimes -- even in a decade --

    科学は我々が生きている内に いや10年以内にも

  • transform what it means to have a specific illness.

    特定の疾患に対する考え方を 変えてしまう可能性があります

  • But not for all illnesses.


  • My friend Robert and I were classmates in graduate school.

    ロバートと私は大学院で クラスメイトでした

  • Robert was smart,


  • but with each passing month,


  • his thinking seemed to become more disorganized.


  • He dropped out of school, got a job in a store ...

    大学院を中退し ショップ店員をしましたが

  • But that, too, became too complicated.

    店の仕事さえ 難し過ぎてできなくなりました

  • Robert became fearful and withdrawn.

    ロバートはおびえ 引っ込み思案になりました

  • A year and a half later, he started hearing voices

    1年半後 彼には いろいろな声が聞こえるようになり

  • and believing that people were following him.

    誰かに後を付けられていると 思い込むようになりました

  • Doctors diagnosed him with schizophrenia,


  • and they gave him the best drug they could.


  • That drug makes the voices somewhat quieter,

    薬のおかげで 声は幾分静かになりました

  • but it didn't restore his bright mind or his social connectedness.

    でも彼の明晰な頭脳と社会的繋がりは 回復しませんでした

  • Robert struggled to remain connected


  • to the worlds of school and work and friends.


  • He drifted away,


  • and today I don't know where to find him.


  • If he watches this,


  • I hope he'll find me.


  • Why does medicine have so much to offer my sister,

    なぜ医学は 私の妹には多大な恩恵をもたらし

  • and so much less to offer millions of people like Robert?

    何百万もの ロバートのような患者には ほとんど何ももたらせないのでしょう

  • The need is there.


  • The World Health Organization estimates that brain illnesses

    世界保健機関の推定では 脳の疾患

  • like schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depression

    例えば統合失調症や双極性障害や うつ病が

  • are the world's largest cause of lost years of life and work.

    人生や仕事にかける時間を奪う 最大の要因であると発表しています

  • That's in part because these illnesses often strike early in life,

    理由の一端として このような疾患は 人生の早い時期に発症し

  • in many ways, in the prime of life,

    いろいろな意味で 人生の最良の時に発症するからです

  • just as people are finishing their educations, starting careers,


  • forming relationships and families.


  • These illnesses can result in suicide;

    これらの疾患は自殺という結果を招く 可能性があり

  • they often compromise one's ability to work at one's full potential;

    全力で働く能力を しばしば損なってしまいます

  • and they're the cause of so many tragedies harder to measure:

    多くの計り知れない悲劇の 原因にもなります

  • lost relationships and connections,


  • missed opportunities to pursue dreams and ideas.

    夢や発想の追求を 断念せざるを得なかったりします

  • These illnesses limit human possibilities


  • in ways we simply cannot measure.

    計り知れない仕方で 制限します

  • We live in an era in which there's profound medical progress

    今 我々がいる時代は 意味深い医学的進歩が

  • on so many other fronts.

    多くの領域にまで見られる そういった時代です

  • My sister's cancer story is a great example,


  • and we could say the same of heart disease.

    心臓病についても 同じことが言えるでしょう

  • Drugs like statins will prevent millions of heart attacks and strokes.

    スタチンのような薬剤は 何百万もの心臓発作や脳卒中を防ぎます

  • When you look at these areas of profound medical progress


  • in our lifetimes,


  • they have a narrative in common:


  • scientists discovered molecules that matter to an illness,

    体内でこの分子を検出し 測定する方法を開発し

  • they developed ways to detect and measure those molecules in the body,

    薬物である 別の分子を使って

  • and they developed ways to interfere with those molecules

    この分子の働きを妨げる方法を 開発します

  • using other molecules -- medicines.


  • It's a strategy that has worked again and again and again.

    脳においては このような戦略には限界がありました

  • But when it comes to the brain, that strategy has been limited,

    現時点では 脳がどのように機能するのか

  • because today, we don't know nearly enough, yet,


  • about how the brain works.

    それぞれの疾患にどの細胞が 影響するのか

  • We need to learn which of our cells matter to each illness,

    これらの細胞のどの分子が疾患に影響するのか 知る必要があります

  • and which molecules in those cells matter to each illness.

    それが皆様に今日お伝えしたい 使命なのです

  • And that's the mission I want to tell you about today.

    私の研究室では脳の問題を ビッグデータの問題へと

  • My lab develops technologies with which we try to turn the brain


  • into a big-data problem.

    生物学者になる前の私は コンピュータと数学の分野で働いていました

  • You see, before I became a biologist, I worked in computers and math,


  • and I learned this lesson:

    あるシステムの機能に関して 膨大な量の適切なデータを

  • wherever you can collect vast amounts of the right kinds of data


  • about the functioning of a system,

    そのシステムがどう機能するのかを 理解するために

  • you can use computers in powerful new ways

    コンピュータを強力で新しい方法で 使えるという教訓です

  • to make sense of that system and learn how it works.

    今日では ビッグデータを使った手法は

  • Today, big-data approaches are transforming


  • ever-larger sectors of our economy,

    生物学や医学においても 同様なことが可能でしょう

  • and they could do the same in biology and medicine, too.

    しかし 適切な種類のデータを 得る必要があります

  • But you have to have the right kinds of data.


  • You have to have data about the right things.

    そのためには しばしば 新しい技術と発想が必要とされます

  • And that often requires new technologies and ideas.

    この使命こそ 私の研究室の科学者たちの やる気に火を付けるのです

  • And that is the mission that animates the scientists in my lab.

    今日は 我々の仕事から得た 短い話を2つしたいと思います

  • Today, I want to tell you two short stories from our work.

    脳問題をビッグデータ問題に 捉え直す上で

  • One fundamental obstacle we face


  • in trying to turn the brain into a big-data problem

    脳が何十億という細胞から 構成されているという事実です

  • is that our brains are composed of and built from billions of cells.

    細胞はジェネラリスト(万能型)ではなく スペシャリスト(専門家)なのです

  • And our cells are not generalists; they're specialists.


  • Like humans at work,


  • they specialize into thousands of different cellular careers,


  • or cell types.

    実際 体内のそれぞれの型の細胞は

  • In fact, each of the cell types in our body


  • could probably give a lively TED Talk


  • about what it does at work.

    しかし科学者にとってさえ どの位の種類の細胞型が存在するか

  • But as scientists, we don't even know today


  • how many cell types there are,

    そのトークのタイトルが 何になるのかも想像がつきません

  • and we don't know what the titles of most of those talks would be.

    今や 細胞型について 多くの重要なことが分かっています

  • Now, we know many important things about cell types.

    それぞれ 大きさや形が 驚くほど異なっています

  • They can differ dramatically in size and shape.

    ある細胞は 他の細胞が反応しない分子に反応して

  • One will respond to a molecule that the other doesn't respond to,


  • they'll make different molecules.

    科学ではこれらに関する洞察を 大抵の場合

  • But science has largely been reaching these insights

    その都度に得てきました— 一度に1つの細胞型

  • in an ad hoc way, one cell type at a time,


  • one molecule at a time.

    この過程全てを素早く体系的に 実現したいと思っていました

  • We wanted to make it possible to learn all of this quickly and systematically.

    つい最近まで こんな感じでした

  • Now, until recently, it was the case

    脳の一部やどこかの臓器にある 全分子のリストが

  • that if you wanted to inventory all of the molecules


  • in a part of the brain or any organ,

    まず 細胞がスムージーのようになるまで すりつぶす必要がありました

  • you had to first grind it up into a kind of cellular smoothie.


  • But that's a problem.


  • As soon as you've ground up the cells,

    平均的な細胞の内容物しか 研究できません

  • you can only study the contents of the average cell --


  • not the individual cells.

    大都市ニューヨークがどう機能するのか 理解するところを想像してみてください

  • Imagine if you were trying to understand how a big city like New York works,


  • but you could only do so by reviewing some statistics

    統計データを見返すことぐらいしか できませんよね

  • about the average resident of New York.

    もちろん 多くは知り得ないでしょう

  • Of course, you wouldn't learn very much,

    なぜなら 興味深く 重要で エキサイティングなことは

  • because everything that's interesting and important and exciting


  • is in all the diversity and the specializations.


  • And the same thing is true of our cells.

    我々は脳の研究を 細胞スムージーではなく

  • And we wanted to make it possible to study the brain not as a cellular smoothie

    細胞のフルーツサラダとして 実現したかったのです

  • but as a cellular fruit salad,


  • in which one could generate data about and learn from


  • each individual piece of fruit.


  • So we developed a technology for doing that.


  • You're about to see a movie of it.


  • Here we're packaging tens of thousands of individual cells,


  • each into its own tiny water droplet


  • for its own molecular analysis.

    細胞が水滴に入ると 小さなビーズが出迎えます

  • When a cell lands in a droplet, it's greeted by a tiny bead,

    ビーズには何百万もの DNAバーコード分子が含まれています

  • and that bead delivers millions of DNA bar code molecules.


  • And each bead delivers a different bar code sequence


  • to a different cell.


  • We incorporate the DNA bar codes

    それぞれの細胞のRNA分子と 反応させます

  • into each cell's RNA molecules.

    RNAは その細胞が使う特定の遺伝子の転写物です

  • Those are the molecular transcripts it's making

    結合した分子をもとに 何十億もの塩基配列を決定し

  • of the specific genes that it's using to do its job.

    その配列から どの細胞のどの遺伝子に

  • And then we sequence billions of these combined molecules


  • and use the sequences to tell us


  • which cell and which gene


  • every molecule came from.

    分析では水滴(droplets)を 細胞の分離に使うからです

  • We call this approach "Drop-seq," because we use droplets

    DNA配列を使って タグ付けとリスト作りをし

  • to separate the cells for analysis,


  • and we use DNA sequences to tag and inventory

    今や 実験をする時には

  • and keep track of everything.


  • And now, whenever we do an experiment,

    今日 この科学分野において

  • we analyze tens of thousands of individual cells.

    ますます課題になることは この膨大なデータセットから

  • And today in this area of science,

    少しでも多く そして 少しでも早く学ぶことです

  • the challenge is increasingly how to learn as much as we can

    少しでも多く そして 早く学ぶことです

  • as quickly as we can

    ドロップシークを開発していた頃 よくこう言われました

  • from these vast data sets.

    「君たちは 主要な脳研究プロジェクトから 意見を求められる立場になるね」

  • When we were developing Drop-seq, people used to tell us,


  • "Oh, this is going to make you guys the go-to for every major brain project."

    誰もが大量の胸躍るデータを産み出す時こそ 科学は最高なのです

  • That's not how we saw it.

    それで我々は25ページの 実験法指示書を作りました

  • Science is best when everyone is generating lots of exciting data.

    科学者なら誰でもゼロから ドロップシークの構築が可能になります

  • So we wrote a 25-page instruction book,


  • with which any scientist could build their own Drop-seq system from scratch.


  • And that instruction book has been downloaded from our lab website


  • 50,000 times in the past two years.

    ドロップシーク実験から得た データの分析ができるのです

  • We wrote software that any scientist could use


  • to analyze the data from Drop-seq experiments,

    これもこの2年で 3万回もダウンロードされました

  • and that software is also free,


  • and it's been downloaded from our website 30,000 times in the past two years.


  • And hundreds of labs have written us about discoveries that they've made

    今や このテクノロジーによって 人の細胞の一大地図が作られようとしています

  • using this approach.


  • Today, this technology is being used to make a human cell atlas.

    それぞれの細胞型の活動時に使用される 特定の遺伝子の一大地図になると思われます

  • It will be an atlas of all of the cell types in the human body

    さて我々が直面するもう一つの課題について 話したいと思います

  • and the specific genes that each cell type uses to do its job.

    脳問題をビッグデータ問題として 捉え直す試みです

  • Now I want to tell you about a second challenge that we face


  • in trying to turn the brain into a big data problem.


  • And that challenge is that we'd like to learn from the brains

    でも 脳は人が生きている間 身体の一部として入手することはできません

  • of hundreds of thousands of living people.

    分子を入手できないのなら どのように 病原分子を発見したら良いのでしょうか

  • But our brains are not physically accessible while we're living.

    その答えは 情報を最も多く含む分子であるタンパク質は

  • But how can we discover molecular factors if we can't hold the molecules?

    DNAにコード化されているという 事実から得られます

  • An answer comes from the fact that the most informative molecules, proteins,

    DNAは全てのタンパク質を作るために 細胞が従うレシピのようなものです

  • are encoded in our DNA,


  • which has the recipes our cells follow to make all of our proteins.

    そのため それぞれの細胞型が それぞれのタンパク質を発現する

  • And these recipes vary from person to person to person


  • in ways that cause the proteins to vary from person to person


  • in their precise sequence

    全てはDNAにコード化されています すなわち遺伝子による調節です

  • and in how much each cell type makes of each protein.


  • It's all encoded in our DNA, and it's all genetics,

    ビッグBとリトルb遺伝子のことを 覚えていますか

  • but it's not the genetics that we learned about in school.

    ビッグB遺伝子を受け継いでいれば 茶色の目でしたね

  • Do you remember big B, little b?


  • If you inherit big B, you get brown eyes?

    こんなに単純な遺伝的形質というのは めったにないのです

  • It's simple.

    目の色でさえ 単一ではなく 多くの色素分子によって決定されます

  • Very few traits are that simple.


  • Even eye color is shaped by much more than a single pigment molecule.

    何千もの遺伝子の相互作用によって 決定されます

  • And something as complex as the function of our brains

    それぞれの遺伝子は 意味を持つ仕方で

  • is shaped by the interaction of thousands of genes.


  • And each of these genes varies meaningfully

    我々はそれぞれ この多様性の ユニークな組み合わせなのです

  • from person to person to person,


  • and each of us is a unique combination of that variation.


  • It's a big data opportunity.


  • And today, it's increasingly possible to make progress

    人々が膨大な数に上る 遺伝学的研究に

  • on a scale that was never possible before.


  • People are contributing to genetic studies

    世界中の科学者が お互いに研究データを共有し

  • in record numbers,


  • and scientists around the world are sharing the data with one another

    我々が最近発見した 統合失調症の遺伝学について

  • to speed progress.


  • I want to tell you a short story about a discovery we recently made


  • about the genetics of schizophrenia.

    統合失調症の遺伝子研究に 自らのDNAを提供してくれたからです

  • It was made possible by 50,000 people from 30 countries,


  • who contributed their DNA to genetic research on schizophrenia.

    統合失調症を発症するリスクに対して ゲノムが与える もっとも大きな影響は

  • It had been known for several years


  • that the human genome's largest influence on risk of schizophrenia

    ゲノムの一部に 由来するということでした

  • comes from a part of the genome

    しかしどの遺伝子が原因なのか はっきりとわかっていませんでした

  • that encodes many of the molecules in our immune system.

    私の研究室のある科学者がコンピュータで DNAを分析する新たな方法を開発して

  • But it wasn't clear which gene was responsible.


  • A scientist in my lab developed a new way to analyze DNA with computers,


  • and he discovered something very surprising.


  • He found that a gene called "complement component 4" --

    異なる人のゲノム内には別の型として存在し 数十もの種類があります

  • it's called "C4" for short --

    これらの異なる型が 異なる量のC4タンパク質を

  • comes in dozens of different forms in different people's genomes,


  • and these different forms make different amounts


  • of C4 protein in our brains.

    統合失調症のリスクも増大する ということを突き止めました

  • And he found that the more C4 protein our genes make,

    現段階でC4は複雑な系の中での たった1つの危険因子でしかありません

  • the greater our risk for schizophrenia.


  • Now, C4 is still just one risk factor in a complex system.

    とても重要な分子についての 情報なのです

  • This isn't big B,

    長い間 C4のような補体タンパク質は

  • but it's an insight about a molecule that matters.


  • Complement proteins like C4 were known for a long time

    このタンパク質は 付箋的な役割の分子として

  • for their roles in the immune system,


  • where they act as a kind of molecular Post-it note