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  • [MUSIC]

  • Look at this chart.

  • The figures show percent changes in maternal mortality over a century long

  • period, starting in 1784.

  • And if you focus on AKH Vienna, you'll see that there was actually a precipitous drop

  • somewhere in the mid-century.

  • When we isolate for several factors, we discover that it probably had something to

  • do with the discovery of the infectious properties of medical equipment by Dr.

  • Ignaz Semmelweis in the mid-century.

  • This had a major effect on women everywhere.

  • [LAUGH] >> That opening was just awful.

  • [LAUGH] I started tuning Garett out probably within the first few

  • seconds of his speech and I'm guessing most of you did too.

  • So, why are openings so important?

  • Well, it turns out, multiple studies have shown that we have about ten seconds

  • to make a good first impression.

  • That means if our first slide and our first few sentences out of our

  • mouth don't capture our audience attention, we've probably lost them.

  • Now, is Akash Karia's book How to Deliver a Great TED Talk, he suggests

  • three techniques to open your speech to capture your audience's attention.

  • Now one technique is to open with a story.

  • Melody Hobson started her TED talk with a story about being mistaken for

  • a server at an event in which she was a panelist.

  • Our brains are wired for storytelling.

  • When we hear a story, we create a connection between us and the speaker.

  • It makes that speech that much more memorable for us.

  • Another technique is to begin with a quote.

  • Elizabeth Pasany started her Ted talk with a quote,

  • people do stupid things, that's what spreads HIV.

  • The quote was short, relevant, provocative but not one that's been overused.

  • And it was impactful, because it was from an authority on HIV, and it was her words.

  • A third technique is to start your talk with a question.

  • Kelli McGonigal began her TED talk with questions on how much stress

  • each person in the audience had experienced in the past year.

  • By asking questions and giving people the time to think of a response,

  • she engaged her audience and made her talk more relevant for them.

  • Now, you don't need to utilize all of these techniques in your speech, but

  • incorporating just one of these elements into your talk

  • will help you capture your audience's attention, and

  • make it more memorable, impactful, and engaging from the start.

  • So Garrett, do you wanna give it another shot?

  • >> Sure.

  • I'll try.

  • Imagine it's 1849 and you're lying in a hospital bed.

  • It's actually a very uncomfortable bed, more like a cart.

  • And you look to your left and to your right and you see a row of women who,

  • like you, have been pregnant for about nine months, and

  • you know that today is going to be a very important day in your life.

  • A nurse carts you into a smaller room, it's very cramped, and you smell iodine.

  • It's a pungent horrible odor.

  • You hear cries and screams from a hallway, and

  • you wonder as the doctor comes in with giant forceps and

  • this scary metal device, is this going to be my last day on earth?

  • Actually the question is a very relevant one.

  • If you're a woman in Vienna in 1849 and you're expecting a child,

  • your chance of dying in the next 48 hours is one in five.

  • That means that if there are 50 women giving birth,

  • 10 of them will be dead within the next 48 hours.

  • But that all changed in the next year with the discovery

  • of the infectious properties of medical equipment.

  • That sharing medical equipment from corpses to live women giving birth

  • caused infection, which killed mothers.

  • This caused maternal mortality rates to drop to one in 50.

  • It was very significant.

  • But this was all contingent on the communication skills of

  • one doctor named Ignaz Semmelweis.

  • Now I think that we can all agree that that was a much better opening.

  • Strong openings allow us to connect with our audience, and

  • set the tone for the rest of our presentation.

  • Strong closings, however, are no less important.

  • Allow me to demonstrate by finishing the story.

  • Dr. Semmelweis was an early pioneer of antiseptic practices in hospitals.

  • However, he waited ten years to publish his results.

  • His results were rejected by the medical community because they had no

  • basis in current theory.

  • He castigated his colleagues, accusing them of murder.

  • And they, in turn, conspired to have him committed

  • to a mental institution where he died two weeks later of an infection.

  • Thank you so much.

  • It's been a pleasure presenting for you today.

  • >> Woah, woah, woah.

  • >> [LAUGH] >> Wait a minute.

  • Dr. Semmelweis' story may have had an abrupt and bad ending,

  • but that's no way to end a presentation.

  • >> [LAUGH] >> Conclusions are just as

  • important as introductions.

  • Oftentimes, we spend so much time designing and preparing our beginnings but

  • then we rush through and forget our endings.

  • But, the last words out of your mouth are gonna be what your audience remember

  • when they walk out of the door, so your conclusion should contain your

  • central message, so it's freshest in your listener's mind.

  • In his book,

  • Karia also gives us three techniques we can use to end presentations effectively.

  • Can anyone tell me where this quote is from?

  • >> Abraham Lincoln?

  • >> That's right.

  • This is the last line of the Gettysburg Address.

  • In this speech, which is now cited as one of the most famous speeches in all of

  • history, Lincoln ended and left his listeners with a message

  • of hope as big and bright as the civil war was dark and painful.

  • 200 years later, we still remember this message of hope.

  • The first pass that Karia gives

  • us to end with hope for a better future.

  • Second, sell the benefits.

  • 1,000 songs in your pocket.

  • We all remember this catchphrase from Steve Jobs,

  • Apple product launch that we watched earlier this quarter.

  • By repeating this line with 1,000 pop songs in your pocket,

  • over and over, he made sure that his audience knew the benefit

  • they would get if they bought that iPod nano.

  • And three, call to action.

  • Ultimately, your conclusion should have some sort of instructions for

  • your audience to take away and act on.

  • Whether that's to learn CPR, to submit your self-critique on time or to wash your

  • hands before surgery, your call to action should be simple and easy to remember.

  • >> Simple and easy to remember.

  • That's not exactly how I would describe the previous slide.

  • [LAUGH] When I say the words,

  • business presentation, what connotations come to mind?

  • Boring, difficult to remember, maybe death by PowerPoint?

  • We can do much better than that.

  • By using these simple techniques,

  • we can create beginnings that compel our audiences and

  • endings that leave our audiences with what we want them to remember.

  • To me, the moral of the story of Doctor Semmelweis is that

  • how we communicate really matters.

  • He was right, but he failed to persuade.

  • The way you communicate is important.

  • Your life may not depend on it, but

  • your effectiveness as a business person surely does.

  • [MUSIC]

[MUSIC]

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A2 初級

トークの開閉方法 (How To Open and Close A Talk)

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    annaliu9999 に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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