Placeholder Image

字幕表 動画を再生する

  • Strictly speaking

  • the question for Freud is not:

  • 'how does one become a pervert?'

  • The question is:

  • 'how does one become sexually normal?'

  • because he was of the conviction

  • that human sexuality

  • is instrinsically,

  • is fundamentally

  • disturbed.

  • The first thing we need to understand is that

  • when Freud talked about sexuality

  • he employed

  • an enlarged concept of sexuality.

  • It no longer meant

  • genital, penetrative sexual acts

  • but any practice

  • that was invested with libido

  • that had an erotic charge for that person.

  • In a lot of contemporary theories about sexuality

  • people still speak using evolutionary theory

  • and say: 'you know, men like this

  • and women like that because we're sort of

  • designed to breed.'

  • But everybody knows

  • that it's not really like that.

  • Human beings are so much more complex than that

  • and more perverse, and more difficult

  • and look for totally other things.

  • They might not be interested in reproductive sex at all.

  • Which means that

  • we need to move away from thinking that

  • Freud's concept of sexuality

  • is all about people having sex.

  • It's about that too

  • but it's about much more than that.

  • Our sexuality is not bound up with

  • simply the task of reproduction,

  • but rather we can find pleasure and joy

  • as well as disturbance

  • all over the body.

  • What he had discovered very early on

  • was that young children experience

  • intense sexual desires.

  • Not in the adult form,

  • but in the form of that they get pleasure from

  • the 'oral drive', we would say,

  • from oral activities,

  • from anal activities,

  • from touching, from their skin,

  • from being tickled.

  • After a baby is born

  • the caregivers will focus on particular parts of the body.

  • There'll be an exchange of looks,

  • sustained eye contact with the baby.

  • There'll be feeding, which obviously

  • involves the mouth.

  • There will be speaking,

  • which involves the ears.

  • There will be all sorts of other

  • cleaning activity

  • bathing, changing nappies and so on.

  • All the things one imagines

  • in the care of children.

  • They are early forms

  • of what later becomes

  • organised into adult sexuality.

  • Adult sexuality

  • is quite a complex thing.

  • It includes

  • all the various forms of infantile sexuality

  • like the oral pleasures,

  • say, kissing,

  • anal pleasures, which may be

  • more or less repressed and acted on

  • touching, looking, being looked at.

  • But in adult sexuality

  • these are subordinated, usually,

  • to the main form of sexual activity,

  • which is genital sex,

  • and getting excitement and pleasure through that.

  • But then, if these infantile forms of sexuality

  • become the main sexual activity of the adult,

  • say, a voyeurist who gets off

  • just by watching somebody getting undressed

  • we could call this perversion.

  • But this watching is a normal part of

  • infantile sexuality.

  • So in a way he's making the point

  • that aspects of sexuality which

  • in an adult might be regarded as perverse

  • are there in infantile life.

  • Sexuality,

  • the way we think of it as an adult,

  • is a much more restricted version

  • of this sense of sensation

  • and enjoyment in the body

  • that is part of ordinary childhood.

  • So for Freud, perversion

  • is not really something that one acquires.

  • Perversion is something with which one is born

  • and, if all goes well

  • during the process of social development,

  • the perversion becomes contained

  • under the aegis of

  • processes of socialisation

  • but also under the aegises of shame and guilt

  • and the net result is

  • a form of sexuality that is

  • more normative, one could say.

  • But Freud is interested in

  • challenging the idea of a split between

  • the so-called 'normal' and 'abnormal'.

  • Freud made his first discoveries

  • by working with patients who were

  • suffering from some distressing,

  • debilitating symptoms,

  • so something 'abnormal', you could say.

  • But what he discovered

  • was that the underlying processes

  • were processes that are normal to every person.

  • So part of what's challenging in Freud

  • is that he doesn't allow us

  • comfortably to assume

  • that we are simply part of a

  • category called 'normal'

  • and that there's some other class of being

  • called the 'abnormal'

  • but that many of these processes and traits

  • are familiar, really, in everyone.

  • Freud showed that our sexuality

  • will be built up through our interactions

  • with our early caregivers.

  • Basically, the family.

  • And he's interested in how this develops

  • through phases that he describes:

  • he talks about the oral, the anal,

  • the genital, phallic, and so on.

  • Different zones of the body

  • that are particularly excitable

  • in the young child,

  • starting with the mouth,

  • that gets stimulated

  • when the child is being fed

  • and the child gets pleasure from it.

  • So we speak of an oral stage.

  • Then there would be the anal phase

  • which would be to do with

  • potty training or learning about how to

  • just sort of organise this thing.

  • You know, 'it's bad to do it this way',

  • 'it's good to do it that way'.

  • Something important about it.

  • You're just beginning to learn to speak.

  • You have to understand the messages

  • you're receiving about it.

  • When you pee, or when you poo,

  • or all that sort of thing

  • suddenly becomes something important

  • that needs to be thought about and dealt with.

  • And then comes a phase when

  • both boys and girls

  • become interested in the penis.

  • And that is what is called the phallic stage.

  • And it would be phallic for boys as well as girls.

  • It would be to do with sexuality

  • and dealing with what it is to get

  • satisfaction from that part of the body.

  • What means that

  • there's something interesting about it.

  • The interesting thing about those activities,

  • those 'phases', as they're called, is that

  • they're so obvious to parents

  • of young children.

  • You spend all your time with

  • poo poo and pee pee and willies

  • and then a few years later

  • everyone's forgotten it.

  • The parents have forgotten it

  • and the children have forgotten it.

  • Children in particular, at the age of nine,

  • would be deeply ashamed

  • to remember the things they got up to

  • when they were three or four.

  • Some ideas get pushed out of consciousness

  • and then become unavailable

  • but they don't just go away.

  • They still try to, you know,

  • they look for expression.

  • So they try to come out,

  • but they always come out

  • as something else.

  • Perhaps Freud's most radical idea here

  • was that the human symptom

  • is itself a form of sexual activity,

  • that it takes up an erotic charge

  • linked to themes of sexuality,

  • linked to one's early history.

  • Behind many neurotic symptoms

  • is some conflict that involves

  • a sexual desire.

  • One of the promises of psychoanalysis

  • is that those ideas can come out

  • as themselves sometimes,

  • and then they become much

  • less worrying, less frightening,

  • less disturbing.

  • So psychoanalytic work will often involve

  • unravelling those threads

  • to bring out the components,

  • these threads that make up the symptom.

  • And in doing that, in many cases,

  • though not all,

  • the symptom will evaporate.

Strictly speaking

字幕と単語

動画の操作 ここで「動画」の調整と「字幕」の表示を設定することができます

B1 中級

精神分析とは何か?第2回:セクシュアリティ (What is Psychoanalysis? Part 2: Sexuality)

  • 251 24
    Christina Yang に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日
動画の中の単語