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  • Hello, and welcome again to Study English, IELTS Preparation. I'm Margot Politis.

  • If you've been on a flight recently, you will have heard about the danger of sitting still

  • for a long time in an aeroplane, apart from the danger of boredom that is!

  • The danger is from a condition called deep vein thrombosis, or DVT.

  • Today on Study English we'll listen to a doctor talk about DVT, then we're going to look at

  • how to talk about things that might happen in the future.

  • Deep vein thrombosis is where a clot forms in the calf veins and occasionally in the

  • veins of the leg, sometimes in the veins of the pelvis, and this is a great concern because

  • the clot may dislodge, travelling with the flow of blood into the right side of the heart

  • and from there into the lung.

  • When we're travelling on long haul flights, several things happen. First of all, we're

  • stationery. We're not moving our legs, so there's no physiological compression of the

  • calf muscles. Blood tends to sit in the veins and may clot.

  • Number two, the environment is dry. We dehydrate, we may drink some alcohol. We dehydrate even

  • further. Alcohol's a diuretic agent, and it results in us actually drying out, and that

  • makes the blood a little bit thicker and stickier, and these factors lead to clotting.

  • Sometimes, in perhaps particularly the economy section of an aeroplane, we may be a little

  • bit cramped and our leg may be slightly compressed on the seat. This could further prevent blood

  • flow back to the heart and trap blood in the leg, where clotting may occur.

  • Dr Crantock was talking about things that that could happen, may happen, or perhaps

  • will happen in the future.

  • Perhaps is an adverb. It is a word like maybe or possibly. It gives a statement the sense

  • that the speaker is not sure if the thing will happen.

  • Perhaps I will means the same as possibly I will, or maybe I will.

  • May and could are modal verbs.

  • May has a number of meanings. The most common use is when you are asking permission.

  • May I come in? Yes you may.

  • But the other use of may is to talk about possibilities in the future.

  • I may come in tomorrow means in the future, I will possibly come in, but it's not definite.

  • Could has a number of meanings too.

  • The first is ability.

  • "When I was little I could swim," means when I was young, I was able to swim.

  • But could is also used to express future possibilities.

  • It could rain tomorrow. It's not definite, but it might rain.

  • Dr Crantok is talking about what can happen sometimes on flights, but it won't definitely

  • happen. Listen again:

  • Sometimes, in perhaps particularly the economy section of the aeroplane, we may be a little

  • bit cramped and our leg may be slightly compressed on the seat. This could further prevent blood

  • flow back to the heart and trap blood in the leg, where clotting could occur.

  • So for speculating, or thinking about what will happen in the future, we can use adverbials

  • like possibly or perhaps:

  • we can use modal verbs like may and could

  • and we can use phrases like I guess, I imagine, I suspect.

  • So in the clip he says blood clotting could occur.

  • We can also say:

  • Blood clotting may occur.

  • Blood clotting will perhaps occur.

  • Blood clotting will possibly occur.

  • I suspect blood clotting will occur.

  • Notice that the adverbials can occur in a number of places in the sentence.

  • Blood clotting will perhaps occur.

  • Perhaps blood clotting will occur.

  • Blood clotting perhaps will occur.

  • Blood clotting will occur perhaps.

  • Listen to Dr Crantock and the way he structures his argument. Listen for a topic sentence,

  • and for the way he lists the different ideas.

  • When we're travelling on long haul flights, several things happen. First of all, we're

  • stationery. We're not moving our legs, so there's no physiological compression of the

  • calf muscles. Blood tends to sit in the veins and may clot.

  • Number two, the environment is dry. We dehydrate, we may drink some alcohol. We dehydrate even

  • further. Alcohol's a diuretic agent, and it results in us actually drying out, and that

  • makes the blood a little bit thicker and stickier, and these factors lead to clotting.

  • The first sentence is the topic sentence. He said: When we're travelling on long haul

  • flights, several things happen.

  • So we know from this topic sentence, that he is going to tell us about travelling on

  • long haul flights.

  • But there are lots of things you can say about travelling on long haul flights. So he says

  • something else in this sentence that gives us more information. He says several things

  • happen.

  • This phrase is called the controlling idea. Every topic sentence has a controlling idea.

  • It tells us what the focus of the paragraph will be.

  • So he's going to be discussing several things that happen on long haul flights.

  • In the rest of the paragraph, he lists some of the things that happen. He raises the points

  • one by one, and discusses them in detail.

  • When we're travelling on long haul flights, several things happen. First of all, we're

  • stationery. We're not moving our legs, so there's no physiological compression of the

  • calf muscles. Blood tends to sit in the veins and may clot.

  • Number two, the environment is dry. We dehydrate, we may drink some alcohol. We dehydrate even

  • further. Alcohol's a diuretic agent, and it results in us actually drying out, and that

  • makes the blood a little bit thicker and stickier, and these factors lead to clotting.

  • Dr Crantock says first of all, we're stationary.

  • This is the first factor in his argument. People are stationary, or sitting still.

  • He says: Number two, the environment is dry. This indicates it is the second factor in

  • his argument.

  • Moving on through the argument, you can keep discussing factors by using transition signals

  • such as:

  • another factor is

  • in addition or additionally

  • furthermore

  • above all

  • You could also use next, but this is quite informal as well.

  • The last reason or item in the list could be introduced by lastly or finally.

  • It is good practice to watch out for these transition devices when listening to someone

  • talk. They'll help you follow an argument more clearly.

  • Finally for today, let's look at some definitions. Doctor Crantock gives a definition of the

  • condition he is talking about, because it's an unusual medical term.

  • Deep vein thrombosis is where a clot forms in the calf veins and occasionally in the

  • veins of the leg, sometimes in the veins of the pelvis.

  • He says: Deep vein thrombosis is where a clot forms in the calf veins.

  • This is common pattern for giving a definition.

  • First, name the thing being defined. In this case, it's deep vein thrombosis

  • Secondly, use the verb to be: is or are.

  • Here, we'd say:

  • Deep vein thrombosis is

  • Thirdly, we can write the class. What kind of thing is it? In this case, DVT is a medical

  • condition.

  • So we might have:

  • Deep vein thrombosis is a condition.

  • Next we use a word like which, who, where, or that.

  • Deep vein thrombosis is a condition where

  • And finally we give the characteristics of the thing. This could be a physical description,

  • or a description of behavior. In the case of a medical condition, this would most commonly

  • be the symptoms or effects of the condition.

  • Deep vein thrombosis is a condition where blood clots form in veins.

  • Let's try a couple of examples.

  • What is a computer? It stores and processes information.

  • A computer, is, a machine, that, stores and processes information.

  • What is an accountant? Well we have the phrase analyse and deal with finances.

  • An accountant is a person who analyses and deals with finances.

  • And what is the time? The time is something that we have run out of for today.

  • See you next time on Study English. Bye bye.

Hello, and welcome again to Study English, IELTS Preparation. I'm Margot Politis.

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B1 中級

スタディイングリッシュ - シリーズ1 第16話:DVT (Study English - Series 1, Episode 16: DVT)

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    大呆危 に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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