Placeholder Image

字幕表 動画を再生する

  • Hello and welcome again to Study English, IELTS Preparation. I'm Margot Politis.

  • Today we're going to look at classification - how things are sorted into classes or groups.

  • We'll listen to an archaeologist talking about artefacts, things left behind from the past,

  • and what sorts of groups they belong to.

  • And we'll finish by doing some pronunciation practice on final 's' sounds.

  • Well, these are all artefacts from the cesspits at Casseldon Place and there's a real assortment

  • of different types.

  • Some of the artefacts we've got relate to, I guess, the leisure time activity, the pastimes,

  • people might've had.

  • There are some gaming tokens. This is a lead disc with a horse figurine on it as well.

  • It would've been used as some sort of betting token.

  • The dice there, the bone dice as well. There's a couple of dominoes - one's made out of bone,

  • one, we think's made out of slate.

  • Some of the other pieces, we've got a lead rifle that would've been part of a child's

  • toy soldier set.

  • Yeah, these bones, again, from the cesspits of Casseldon, and quite clearly, it's been

  • cut. These aren't natural breaks at all. These are what we refer to as butchering marks.

  • So we're not just learning what sort of animals were eaten at Casseldon, we're also learning

  • about the cuts of meat being provided, whether it's been done locally by individual house

  • owners, or whether they're going to a local butcher.

  • I think the artefacts from Casseldon Place and the other results of the archaeological

  • process are important because they give us a really rare insight into the way Melbourne

  • operated in its early years.

  • The speaker, Jeremy Smith, is discussing the artefacts he's found in Melbourne. Let's look

  • at how he classifies or sorts out these artefacts for us.

  • First, the 'opening statement' tells us what is being classified. This is an orientation.

  • Then the things are classified according to certain criteria. They're put into groups.

  • Finally, at the end of the classification, there's a summary, or a comment on the groups

  • and their significance.

  • Let's listen to Jeremy's opening statement or orientation.

  • Well, these are all artefacts from the cesspits at Casseldon Place and there's a real assortment

  • of different types.

  • So the topic of this classification is the artefacts from Casseldon Place.

  • We are told that there is a real assortment of different types.

  • From this opening statement, we would expect the rest of the passage to be about the different

  • types of artefacts found there, and that's exactly what's given.

  • Listen to how the first type is introduced.

  • Some of the artefacts we've got relate to, I guess, the leisure time activity, the pastimes,

  • that people might've had.

  • The first category is of artefacts relating to leisure time activity, or pastimes.

  • This is the first group or class of the classification.

  • To make this clearer to the reader or listener, he could have used signals to show this was

  • the first category.

  • He could have said:

  • Firstly, we have artefacts that relate to leisure time activities.

  • What's the next group?

  • Some of the other pieces, we've got a lead rifle that would've been part of a child's

  • toy soldier set.

  • So the second category is children's toys.

  • Again, he could have introduced this by saying second, or secondly.

  • Secondly, we have children's toys.

  • And what about the third, or final category?

  • Yeah, these bones, again, from the cesspits of Casseldon, and quite clearly, it's been

  • cut.

  • The third category is to do with bones, evidence of what people ate.

  • So, "Thirdly, we have bones."

  • So after describing the different classes or groups, Jeremy summarises by saying why

  • the artefacts are important.

  • I think the artefacts from Casseldon Place and the other results of the archaeological

  • process are important because they give us a really rare insight into the way Melbourne

  • operated in its early years.

  • This is a summary statement. He finishes by giving a comment on the importance of the

  • classification.

  • Here he is saying the artefacts are important because of the rare insight they give us.

  • They show what life was like in Melbourne many years ago.

  • OK, now we're going to look at something completely different- the pronunciation of the letter

  • 's' at the end of words.

  • But first, let's look at when you'll find an 's' on the end of words.

  • Well firstly, there's the natural 's'. Some words are always spelt with a final 's'.

  • Secondly, the letter 's' is added to plural nouns,

  • thirdly, it's added to 3rd person singular verbs in the present tense,

  • Finally, it's added to the possessive pronoun it, and possessive nouns.

  • OK, so there are lots of times when you'll see and 's' on the end of words. For words

  • where it's added on, it has three different pronunciations. Let's classify them!

  • The first pronunciation of the final -s is 'uz'.

  • It's pronounced this way after sounds such as s, z, sh, ch and j.

  • Listen for an example in the passage.

  • Some of the other pieces, we've got a lead rifle that would've been part of a child's

  • toy soldier set.

  • Did you hear it? The example was pieces, pieces.

  • The 's' on the end is pronounced 'uz' because it followed an 'ess' sound.

  • Other examples are:

  • buzzes

  • wishes

  • churches

  • judges.

  • The second way 's' is pronounced at the end of a word is 'sss'. It's pronounced this way

  • after voiceless consonants 'puh', 'tuh', 'kuh', 'ff' and 'th'.

  • Some examples from the text are:

  • artifacts

  • types

  • breaks

  • marks

  • and cuts

  • The rest of the time, that is after voiced consonants such as 'buh' 'duh' 'guh' 'lll',

  • 'r', 'v', 'th' [hard] 'm', 'n' and after 'vowels and diphthongs', the final 's' is pronounced

  • 'zzz'.

  • Examples from the text are:

  • There's

  • pastimes

  • tokens

  • dominoes

  • child's

  • bones

  • animals

  • years

  • Now listen to the clip again, and try to hear the difference between these different final

  • 's' sounds.

  • Yeah, these bones, again, from the cesspits of Casseldon, and quite clearly, it's been

  • cut. These aren't natural breaks at all. These are what we refer to as butchering marks.

  • Its is a word that even native English speakers have a lot of trouble with.

  • Its can be written without an apostrophe, and with an apostrophe.

  • But what's the difference?

  • Well, with an apostrophe, it's is a contraction of it is, or it has.

  • Without an apostrophe its is a possessive pronoun.

  • The other possessive pronouns are: my, your, his, her, our and their.

  • These are used to show possession. For example: Is that your dog?

  • What is its name?

  • Remember that possessive pronouns NEVER have an 's' added to them, but possessive nouns

  • do.

  • Is that Simon's dog?

  • Apostrophes can often cause trouble for English language learners.

  • They are used with contractions and with possessives.

  • Don't EVER use an apostrophe to make nouns plural.

  • There are many students at school.

  • NOT

  • There are many student's at school.

  • And don't confuse the contraction of a noun and is with the possessive form of the noun.

  • They look the same, but they mean very different things.

  • "Mary's dog is ill," means the dog that belongs to Mary is ill.

  • "Mary's ill today," means Mary is ill. Here, Mary's is a contraction of Mary is.

  • OK, now let's listen to one last clip, then we'll see if you can add some apostrophes.

  • Some of the other pieces, we've got a lead rifle that would've been part of a child's

  • toy soldier set.

  • He says:

  • Some of the other pieces we've got are a lead rifle that would've been part of a child's

  • toy soldier set.

  • We've is a contraction of we have, so that needs an apostrophe.

  • Would've is a contraction of would have, so that needs one too.

  • And the last one?

  • A child's toy soldier set. The toy soldier set belongs to the child. It's a possessive

  • 's', so that needs an apostrophe too.

  • And don't forget to practice your pronunciation and punctuation at home whenever you can.

  • You'll get the hang of it quickly, I'm sure.

  • And thanks for joining me for Study English, IELTS Preparation. Bye bye.

Hello and welcome again to Study English, IELTS Preparation. I'm Margot Politis.

字幕と単語

B1 中級

Study English - Series 1, Episode 26: Archaeology

  • 199 1
    大呆危   に公開 2018 年 06 月 24 日
動画の中の単語

前のバージョンに戻す