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  • Hello and welcome to Study English. I'm Margot Politis.

  • Today on Study English, we're going to look at some of the features of formal, written

  • English.

  • In our clip, we'll hear from a man who believes that drinking water is the key to being healthy

  • and living a long time.

  • He's going to talk about how he came to his conclusion, and how he tried to get some support

  • for his project.

  • How does nature do it? What keeps body cells going and how can we improve on that process

  • so that we eliminate disease altogether and we live a long and healthy life? I don't think

  • death and disease is inevitable.

  • We stumbled on the fact that they weren't actually getting rid of carbon dioxide out

  • of their bodies, they were neutralising the carbon dioxide in their bodies, and we found

  • out it was from the water they were drinking.

  • When we looked at these animals and saw what they were doing, it was exactly as we'd hypothesised

  • and that was a great feeling, a real feeling of elation.

  • I tried and I tried and I tried to be conventional in that sense. I went to one hundred people.

  • I wrote one thousand letters. I spoke to the Australian Academy of Science. I spoke to

  • the American Academy of Science. I spoke to hospitals. I spoke to professors of medicine,

  • because I wanted to do work independently. I couldn't get anywhere, so I had to do it

  • other ways.

  • This is a food substance, this is something that's been drunk for thousands of years.

  • This is probably where the mythology of the fountain of youth came from. There would have

  • been natural springs somewhere bubbling out magnesium bicarbonate at an alkaline pH value.

  • And people that drank these springs lived longer.

  • But I want everybody to have the opportunity to live a long and healthy life, and that's

  • been my life's work, and we're getting somewhere, we're getting somewhere.

  • One of the most important areas for students to master is the difference between informal

  • spoken language and formal written English, including academic language.

  • There are many differences between formal and informal English.

  • Firstly, in written language, all words must be spelt correctly. There should be no words

  • in written English that you can't find in a dictionary.

  • Another important difference is that contractions are not used in formal written English. We

  • only use contractions in written English if we're trying to represent the way that people

  • speak.

  • The clip we've heard today is, of course, spoken English. Listen to part of it again

  • and see if you can identify the features of informal English.

  • But I want everybody to have the opportunity to live a long and healthy life, and that's

  • been my life's work, and we're getting somewhere, we're getting somewhere.

  • When Dr Beckett is speaking he uses a number of contractions.

  • He says, "That's been my life's work", and "We're getting somewhere".

  • That's is short for that is, and we're is short for we are.

  • So if we were writing these statements, we'd write:

  • That has been my life's work.

  • We are getting somewhere.

  • There are many common contractions. By using them in your spoken language, you will sound

  • more natural. But be careful to write them out in full in formal situations. Watch for

  • 'not' words like:

  • couldn't, could not

  • wouldn't, would not

  • shouldn't, should not

  • won't, will not and

  • don't, do not

  • Another common feature of informal English is the use of phrasal verbs, or two word verbs.

  • Phrasal verbs consist of a verb and a preposition. They are commonly used in spoken English,

  • and their meanings are idiomatic, giving the verb a special, new meaning.

  • Listen for some phrasal verbs in this clip.

  • We stumbled on the fact that they weren't actually getting rid of carbon dioxide out

  • of their bodies. They were neutralising the carbon dioxide in their bodies, and we found

  • out it was from the water they were drinking.

  • This is probably where the mythology of the fountain of youth came from.

  • He uses the phrasal verbs "stumbled on, get rid of, found out and came from.

  • In formal written English, it's best to use single word verbs.

  • So instead of saying:

  • They weren't getting rid of carbon dioxide,

  • we would write:

  • They weren't eliminating carbon dioxide,

  • and then we'd get rid of the contraction, so it would read:

  • They were not eliminating carbon dioxide.

  • Instead of saying:

  • We found out it was from the water,

  • we would write:

  • We discovered it was from the water.

  • This is probably where the myth came from.

  • This is probably where the myth originated.

  • Let's look at some other examples of common phrasal verbs.

  • Instead of look into, we would write investigate.

  • Instead of cut down, we would write reduce.

  • Keep on could be continue.

  • Point out could be indicate.

  • All of these words are more formal than using phrasal verbs.

  • Another important part of formal written English, is understanding how to use conjunctions.

  • Short sentences are less formal than compound or complex sentences. If you can, it's good

  • to try to link short sentences together.

  • Listen to this clip, then we'll try to turn it into good formal English using coordinating

  • conjunctions.

  • I went to one hundred people. I wrote a thousand letters. I spoke to the Australian Academy

  • of Science. I spoke to the American Academy of Science. I spoke to hospitals. I spoke

  • to professors of Medicine, because I wanted to do work independently. I couldn't get anywhere.

  • He uses a number of simple sentences in a row.

  • I spoke to the Australian Academy of Science. I spoke to the American Academy of Science.

  • I spoke to hospitals. I spoke to professors of Medicine.

  • These could become:

  • I spoke to the Australian Academy of Science, the American Academy of Science and hospitals.

  • I also spoke to professors of Medicine.

  • There are some rules to be aware of when you're using conjunctions.

  • In formal English, we don't start sentences with coordinating conjunctions.

  • Words like 'and' and 'but' are joining words. They are not used to begin sentences.

  • Listen to Dr Bechett again. Notice how he uses conjunctions to start his sentences.

  • There would have been natural springs somewhere bubbling out magnesium bicarbonate at an alkaline

  • pH value. And people that drank these springs lived longer. But I want everybody to have

  • the opportunity to live a long and healthy life, and that's been my life's work.

  • He uses the word 'and' to begin a sentence.

  • If we were writing a formal report or essay, we would have to find other words to replace

  • 'and'.

  • We could begin the sentence with:

  • furthermore

  • in addition, or

  • moreover

  • We could replace the word 'but' with the word 'however'.

  • You should make lists of these alternative words, so you use a variety of them in your

  • written language.

  • It's important to avoid repetition in your formal written English.

  • Of course repetition can be used to add emphasis in spoken English.

  • You might hear people say things like I really, really like that.

  • But in formal academic writing, you should find other ways of adding emphasis.

  • Listen to the way Russell uses repetition.

  • I tried and I tried and I tried to be conventional in that sense. I went to one hundred people.

  • I wrote one thousand letters. I spoke to the Australian Academy of Science. I spoke to

  • the American Academy of Science. I spoke to hospitals. I spoke to professors of medicine,

  • because I wanted to do work independently. I couldn't get anywhere.

  • Russell says, "I tried and I tried and I tried".

  • To make this sentence more formal, you could either just drop the repeated verb, or use

  • an adverb like repeatedly.

  • We could just write:

  • I tried or,

  • I tried repeatedly

  • Another way you can make your language more formal is to use the prefix re- to indicate

  • a repeated action. This doesn't apply to all verbs.

  • Look at this sentence.

  • He played and played the song again and again.

  • We could write formally:

  • He replayed the song repeatedly.

  • And why don't you try practising ways of making spoken language more formal, or looking at

  • ways that you can take formal, written language, and turn it into conversational English!

  • That's all for today, I hope I'll see you next time on Study English. Bye bye.

Hello and welcome to Study English. I'm Margot Politis.

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Study English - Series 1, Episode 17: Water and ageing

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    大呆危   に公開 2018 年 06 月 24 日
重要英単語

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