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  • Hello, I'm Margot Politis. Welcome again to Study English, IELTS preparation.

  • Today, we're going to look at cycles, at phrasal verbs, and then we'll finish with a bit of

  • punctuation.

  • But now, here's a man who is a microbiologist and a mushroom grower.

  • He's talking about mushrooms, and the part they play in the carbon cycle.

  • They occur naturally in the forests as wood degrading fungi. That's their job. When trees

  • die, they grow on the tree. They break down the lignin and the cellulose, which is the

  • most resistant form of carbon, and they break it down, produce mushrooms and, in turn, you

  • end up with organic matter going back into the soil, and so the carbon cycle in the forest

  • goes on.

  • The speaker, Noel Arrold, is talking about how mushrooms grow naturally.

  • They are an important part of the carbon cycle, but what is a cycle?

  • A cycle is a process that is repeated over and over. It goes around and around.

  • But how do we know this from listening to Noel?

  • When trees die, they grow on the tree. They break down the lignin and the cellulose, which

  • is the most resistant form of carbon, and they break it down, produce mushrooms and,

  • in turn, you end up with organic matter going back into the soil, and so the carbon cycle

  • in the forest goes on.

  • He says: and so the carbon cycle in the forest goes

  • on.

  • By saying the cycle goes on he is telling us that this process happens again and again.

  • At the end of the description, you need to signal that the process goes back to the beginning

  • again.

  • We can say:

  • The process goes on.

  • The process begins again.

  • The process repeats itself.

  • In a cycle, there is no real end or beginning, because the process just keeps going.

  • When describing a cycle, we need to start somewhere, then describe, in order, each part

  • of the cycle.

  • There are many different ways of describing the stages of a cycle. We can use transitional

  • signals like when, once, then, or next. When speaking, you can also use pauses and intonation

  • to describe a cycle. In written language, this becomes punctuation.

  • Listen to Noel Arrold again describing the different parts of the cycle.

  • When trees die, they grow on the tree.

  • He says:

  • When trees die, they grow on the tree.

  • When trees die comma, they grow on the tree.

  • The first part of the cycle is that the trees die.

  • The second part is that when the trees die, fungi grow on the trees.

  • That's the next stage.

  • When trees die, they grow on the tree.

  • They break down the lignin and the cellulose, which is the most resistant form of carbon,

  • and they break it down, produce mushrooms.

  • OK, he says that the fungi break down the lignin and the cellulose. They break down

  • the tree.

  • So the third stage is that the fungi break down the tree.

  • Fourth, they produce mushrooms.

  • When trees die, they grow on the tree.

  • They break down the lignin and the cellulose, which is the most resistant form of carbon,

  • and they break it down, produce mushrooms and, in turn, you end up with organic matter

  • going back into the soil.

  • He says in turn organic matter goes back into the soil.

  • In turn signals the next stage of the process. In turn means next, or because of that.

  • That's the fifth stage. The organic matter goes back into the soil.

  • And then what happens?

  • When trees die, they grow on the tree.

  • They break down the lignin and the cellulose, which is the most resistant form of carbon,

  • and they break it down, produce mushrooms and, in turn, you end up with organic matter

  • going back into the soil, and so the carbon cycle in the forest goes on.

  • The carbon cycle in the forest goes on.

  • The organic matter helps new trees to grow again, and then those trees die. We're back

  • to the first stage again. This is the carbon cycle.

  • OK, now we're going to look at some phrasal verbs.

  • Phrasal verbs consist of a verb followed by a preposition. This forms a new verb, one

  • sometimes related to the original verb, but sometimes not.

  • Phrasal verbs are idiomatic. There's no pattern to the meanings they take, and they often

  • have a number of different meanings.

  • You often can't just guess the meanings of phrasal verbs, you have to learn them.

  • Let's look at the phrasal verbs in this clip.

  • They break down the lignin and the cellulose which is the most resistant form of carbon,

  • and they break it down, produce mushrooms and, in turn you, end up with organic matter

  • going back into the soil, and so the carbon cycle in the forest goes on.

  • There were four phrasal verbs.

  • They were:

  • break down end up

  • and two using go - go back and go on.

  • Notice that sometimes the preposition will give you an indication as to what the phrasal

  • verb might mean.

  • Let's look at these four.

  • See if you can match the meanings.

  • break up end up

  • go on go back

  • and finish continue

  • decompose return

  • Well break up means to decompose, go back means to return, go on means to continue,

  • and end up means to finish.

  • But notice that break up can sometimes mean finish as well - we can break up from school.

  • In formal writing, we would be more likely to use words like continue or return, than

  • phrasal verbs, which tend to be less formal. Phrasal verbs are difficult to learn because

  • there are so many of them.

  • Look at go. We've already seen it with go back and go on, but there's many, many more,

  • and remember, most of these have more than one meaning.

  • It takes a lot of time to get used to all the phrasal verbs and what they mean. You

  • need to listen carefully to people speaking, and the way they use phrasal verbs.

  • Another important thing to do is to write them down in groups - and buy a good phrasal

  • verb dictionary.

  • So pay attention to those phrasal verbs. Learning them in groups can be fun, and your spoken

  • English will sound much more natural.

  • Now we're going to look at some writing tips.

  • For variety, it's important that you use a lot of different of sentence types, of different

  • lengths. The difficult thing is finding the balance.

  • You can join together short sentence using conjunctions, but what do you do with sentences

  • that are too long?

  • This sentence has many ideas, all joined together with 'and'.

  • How many 'ands' are there in the sentence?

  • They break down the lignin and the cellulose, which is the most resistant form of carbon,

  • and they break it down, produce mushrooms and, in turn, you end up with organic matter

  • going back into the soil, and so the carbon cycle in the forest goes on.

  • There are four 'ands'. This sentence is too long, and should be edited. The ideas can

  • be broken down into smaller groups and shorter, clearer sentences.

  • There are several ways of doing this. We can use punctuation, conjunctions and connectors.

  • So let's have a look. Here's the full sentence.

  • We can start by using punctuation.

  • Use a comma to separate clauses.

  • Use full stops to separate complete ideas and you can replace some of the 'ands' with

  • full stops, but remember the new sentence must now start with a capital letter.

  • Now we have a clear paragraph, expressing a number of ideas with different kinds of

  • sentences.

  • And the carbon cycle goes on, but we can't go on - it's time to end this episode of Study

  • English, but I'll see you next time. Bye bye.

Hello, I'm Margot Politis. Welcome again to Study English, IELTS preparation.

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B1 中級

スタディイングリッシュ - シリーズ1 第12話「カーボンサイクル (Study English - Series 1, Episode 12: Carbon Cycle)

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    大呆危 に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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