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  • Hello. I'm

  • Margot Politis. Welcome to Study English, IELTS preparation.

  • Today we have an environmental theme on Study English, but it's an environmental story with

  • a difference.

  • We find out about a new toilet system that has been developed to save the local environment

  • in a Tasmanian park.

  • We're going to be looking at how to talk about processes, so listen carefully to David Holman

  • talk about his new environmentally friendly toilet.

  • The liquid waste comes from the toilet behind me. There's a containment vessel for the solids.

  • From the bottom of the solids you drain off the liquid and it comes down here down this

  • pipe.

  • OK. The pipe tips into this tipping bucket arrangement and what this does is it fills

  • up to a point, and then it suddenly tips and that will measure each time it tips. So we

  • can calculate the amount of liquid effluent that's gone in.

  • As that fills up, you can see the towelling material here will come in contact with the

  • effluent, the air is drawn in through these holes and will actually direct the air in

  • onto the surface of the water, through the wick and out through the top.

  • OK, so David was talking about how his toilet, the Enviro-Loo, works.

  • He was describing a process. Today we're going to look at the type of language you'll need

  • to describe processes.

  • We'll listen to David again. This time, listen out for the types of verbs he uses.

  • The liquid waste comes from the toilet behind me. There's a containment vessel for the solids.

  • From the bottom of the solids you drain off the liquid and it comes down here down this

  • pipe.

  • OK. The pipe tips into this tipping bucket arrangement and what this does is it fills

  • up to a point, and then it suddenly tips and that will measure each time it tips. So we

  • can calculate the amount of liquid effluent that's gone in.

  • David uses a variety of verbs and tenses. But mostly he uses the simple present tense.

  • The simple present is often used to describe processes and procedures.

  • Let's look at some examples.

  • The liquid waste comes from the toilet behind me.

  • OK. The pipe tips into this tipping bucket arrangement, and what this does is it fills

  • up to a point and then it suddenly tips.

  • There's also another, more formal way of describing processes.

  • That's using the passive voice.

  • In academic writing, it's common to use the passive voice for actions in a process or

  • procedure. When you use the passive voice, your writing becomes impersonal and distant.

  • This is more formal, and is often more suitable in an academic setting.

  • Listen for a passive verb here.

  • As that fills up, you can see the towelling material here will come in contact with the

  • effluent, the air is drawn in through these holes.

  • He says 'is drawn in': the air is drawn in.

  • Notice there is no subject, no person or thing doing the action, it is just done. This is

  • called the passive voice.

  • This highlights the process or action, rather than the person or thing doing the action.

  • The passive is used when the important thing is not who did the action, but the action

  • itself.

  • This is true when you are describing processes. The process is the same, no matter who is

  • doing it, so we choose the passive voice.

  • Let's look at bit more closely at how the passive is formed.

  • Passive verbs are formed by using the verb to be plus the past participle of the verb.

  • Let's look at the verb to draw in, to bring something in.

  • The past participle is drawn. This is an irregular past participle.

  • So the passive form is to be drawn in.

  • The different forms of the passive vary according to the action, and when the action happened.

  • OK. So in formal writing, we use the passive form for processes. But David doesn't always

  • use the passive, because he's having a conversation with someone.

  • Let's look at one of David's more informal sentences, and see how we could change it

  • into a more formal description.

  • There's a containment vessel for the solids and from the bottom of the solids, you drain

  • off the liquid.

  • He says: From the bottom of the solids you drain off the liquid. Let's look at the main

  • part of that sentence:

  • You drain off the liquid.

  • The verb is drain off.

  • In a passive sentence, we'd say 'is drained off', the past participle with the present

  • tense form of to be.

  • To form the passive, we also need change the sentence around.

  • Most English sentences use the active form. That's subject, verb, object. But in the passive,

  • sentences begin with the object of the verb: object, verb, subject.

  • In this sentence, we know that 'drain off' is the verb, 'you' is the subject and 'the

  • liquid' is the object.

  • So to form a passive sentence, we'll need to turn the sentence around into object, verb,

  • subject. Notice that we add the word 'by'.

  • The liquid is drained off by you.

  • But in a process, we don't need to include the agent of the verb, so it usually gets

  • left out.

  • Our new, more formal sentence reads:

  • The liquid is drained off.

  • So let's go back to that full sentence

  • From the bottom of the solids, you drain off the liquid.

  • From the bottom of the solids, the liquid is drained off.

  • Here's another one:

  • We can calculate the amount of liquid that's gone in.

  • We can calculate the amount of liquid.

  • The subject is 'we'. This will be dropped in our passive sentence.

  • The object is 'the amount of liquid'.

  • The verb is 'can calculate'.

  • 'Calculate' has the past participle 'calculated'.

  • When there are auxiliary verbs like 'can', we use the infinitive form of the verb 'to

  • be'.

  • So the full verb phrase 'can calculate' becomes 'can be calculated'.

  • Remember that a passive sentence starts with the 'object', then the 'verb', so:

  • We can calculate the amount of liquid.

  • becomes:

  • The amount of liquid can be calculated.

  • OK, let's finish today by testing you on the passive.

  • Listen to the steps in a simple process.

  • This is how you make a cup of coffee. It's in a conversational style.

  • You fill the kettle with water. You turn on the kettle.

  • You boil the kettle. You pour the hot water into a mug.

  • You add some sugar. Then you can drink it.

  • OK. Let's start at the beginning.

  • You fill the kettle with water.

  • What's the verb? Fill. The subject? You. The object? The kettle.

  • The passive verb is 'is filled'.

  • The new sentence is:

  • The kettle is filled with water.

  • See if you can do the next one.

  • You turn on the kettle.

  • The verb is 'turn on'. The subject is 'you'.

  • The object is 'the kettle'.

  • The kettle is turned on.

  • You boil the water. The water is boiled.

  • You pour the hot water into a mug. The hot water is poured into a mug.

  • You add some sugar. Some sugar is added.

  • Then you can drink it. Then it can be drunk.

  • But we'd usually say: Then it's ready to be drunk.

  • So let's go through that again.

  • The kettle is filled with water. The kettle is turned on.

  • The water is boiled. The hot water is poured into a mug.

  • Some sugar is added. Then it's ready to be drunk.

  • And I think I'll go and make a cup of coffee right now.

  • Don't forget to practice these active and passive sentences.

  • And I'll see you next time for Study English. Bye.

Hello. I'm

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Study English - Series 1, Episode 7: Enviro-loo

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    大呆危   に公開 2018 年 06 月 24 日
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