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  • Hi, I'm Medium Invader

  • from the classic video game Space Invaders,

  • and I want to tell you a little bit

  • about where video games came from.

  • A video game is an electronic game

  • that has an interface designed for human interaction

  • on a video device.

  • Simple.

  • Video games are used by scientists,

  • the military,

  • and people like you,

  • and their evolution has spread across arcades,

  • consoles,

  • computers,

  • smart phones,

  • and all kinds of other electronics.

  • These days video games are everywhere,

  • but they were actually made in science labs.

  • In fact, the earliest U.S. video game patent on record

  • was in 1948,

  • and at the time it was referred to

  • as a cathode-ray tube amusement device.

  • That's a mouthful!

  • Some of the earliest video games include

  • the Nimrod computer,

  • OXO,

  • Tennis for Two,

  • and my personal favorite, Spacewar!

  • But none of these early video games

  • were ever sold to the public

  • because they were either too huge

  • or too expensive

  • to get out of the lab.

  • This all changed when a man named Ralph Baer

  • looked at his television screen and wondered

  • how else it might be used.

  • In 1972, Baer's idea to get video games

  • out of the science lab and into the living room

  • led to the release of a game console

  • called Odyssey.

  • Odyssey allowed you to play a game on your TV.

  • At about the same time,

  • two other people, Nolan Bushnell and Ted Dabney,

  • were working on something similar

  • in a little company called Atari.

  • You might have heard of it,

  • and even if you haven't,

  • I'm sure that your Dad has.

  • Atari's first major game release was in 1972,

  • an arcade game called Pong.

  • It was an immediate hit,

  • and it's credited

  • as the first commercially successful video game.

  • Atari then released a home version of Pong in 1974.

  • By 1978, competition between Atari

  • and another game company called Midway

  • was heating up.

  • Midway had licensed an arcade game

  • for the Japanese company, Taito,

  • that put them on the map.

  • The game:

  • Space Invaders.

  • It featured iconic actors, like me,

  • and it went on to become

  • the second highest selling arcade game of all time.

  • Space Invaders also helped kick off

  • what is known as the Golden Age of Arcade Games.

  • In response, Atari followed

  • with the release of the arcade game Asteroids,

  • which ranked sixth on the list

  • of highest selling arcade games.

  • It was a good game,

  • but it's no Space Invaders.

  • By 1980, color came to arcade games,

  • and this was also the year

  • that another video gaming milestone was born.

  • Pac-Man, created by the Japanese company Namco,

  • was brought to the U.S. by Midway.

  • Important to the spread

  • of video games into popular culture,

  • Pac-Man was a character that could be licensed.

  • It wasn't long before it had a song on the charts,

  • a Saturday morning television show,

  • and all sorts of other products.

  • In just a year, Pac-Man arcade games

  • made over one billion dollars in quarters.

  • Then, in 1981, a company called Nintendo

  • started making waves in the U.S. video game market

  • with their release of Donkey Kong.

  • It was the earliest video game

  • to have a story line.

  • The story went a bit like this:

  • Donkey Kong is the pet

  • of a carpenter named Jumpman.

  • Jumpman mistreats his pet ape,

  • so the ape steals his girlfriend,

  • leaving the game player to assume the role

  • of Jumpman and rescue the girl.

  • Jumpman was eventually renamed to Mario.

  • Other iconic arcade games from the early 80s include

  • Frogger,

  • Dragon's Lair,

  • and Mario Brothers.

  • Perhaps the last iconic game considered

  • to be part of the Golden Age of Arcade Games

  • is Double Dragon.

  • It was the first really successful example

  • of the beat-them-up genre.

  • It was released in 1987,

  • and, like Donkey Kong,

  • it featured a damsel in distress storyline,

  • a storyline common in many video games.

  • By the mid-90s, the Golden Age of Arcade Games

  • was coming to an end,

  • and the home game console

  • was gaining in popularity.

  • While arcade games continued

  • to decline in sales over the years,

  • the popularity of video games was merely beginning,

  • and we'll talk about that

  • and a lot more

  • in part two of a brief history of video games.

Hi, I'm Medium Invader

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B1 中級

TED-ED】ビデオゲームの簡単な歴史(前編) - Safwat Saleem (【TED-Ed】A brief history of video games (Part I) - Safwat Saleem)

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