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  • At the height of their power, infamous Caribbean pirates like Blackbeard and Henry Morgan commanded as many as ten ships and several hundred men.

    彼らの力の絶頂期に黒ひげやヘンリーモーガンなどのカリブの悪名高い海賊 10隻もの船と数百人の兵士を指揮していました。

  • But their stories pale next to the most successful pirate of all time.


  • Madame Zheng commanded 1800 vessels, made enemies of several empires, and still lived to old age.

    鄭夫人は1800隻の船を指揮した。いくつかの帝国を敵に回した。 と言って、それでも老後まで生きていました。

  • Madame Zheng began her life as a commoner working on one of the many floating brothels, or flower boats, in the port city of Guangzhou.

    鄭夫人は平民としての生活を始めました。多くの浮気性の売春宿、または花船の一つで働いています。 広州の港町にある。

  • By 1801, she had attracted the attention of a local pirate captain named Zheng Yi, and the two soon married.


  • Guangzhou's fishermen had long engaged in small-scale piracy to supplement their meager incomes in the offseason.


  • But a successful peasant uprising in neighboring Vietnam at the end of the 18th century had raised the stakes.


  • The victorious Tây Sơn rebels had unified their country only to face a Chinese invasion and ongoing maritime battles with the Vietnamese rulers they had overthrown.

    勝利したTây Sơnの反乱軍は国を統一した。中国の侵略に遭う そして、彼らが倒したベトナムの支配者との海上戦が続いていた。

  • So they commissioned Guangzhou's pirates to raid the coast and join the fight against their enemies.

    それで 彼らは広州の海賊に 沿岸の襲撃を依頼したと敵との戦いに参加します。

  • Serving their Vietnamese patrons turned the Zhengs and other pirates from ragtag gangs aboard single vessels into professional privateer fleets with dozens of ships able to hold their own at sea.

    ベトナム人のパトロンに仕えることで、ゼン族や他の海賊たちを翻弄した。単身赴任組から プロのプライベーターフリートに 数十隻の船が海を泳いでいます。

  • In 1802, the Tây Sơn were overthrown and the pirates lost their safe harbor in Vietnam.

    1802年、Tây Sơnは倒された。と海賊はベトナムで安全な港を失った。

  • But instead of scattering, the Zhengs met the crisis by uniting the rival Cantonese pirate groups into a formidable alliance.

    しかし、撒き散らすのではなく鎮軍は海賊団を束ねることで危機を乗り切りました。 強大な同盟に

  • At its height, the confederation included 70,000 sailors with 800 large junks and nearly 1,000 smaller vessels.

    最盛期には7万人の水兵が参加していました。八百長 と1,000隻近くの小型船。

  • Those were organized into six fleets marked by different colored flags.


  • The Zhengs were unlike many other historically-known privateers, such as Henry Morgan or Barbarossa, who acted on behalf of various naval powers.

    鎮は歴史的に知られている他の多くの私掠船とは違っていました。ヘンリー・モーガンやバルバロッサのような 艦隊を代表して行動していたのは

  • Instead, the Zhengs were now true outlaws, operating without support or approval from any government.


  • Zheng Yi met an untimely end in 1807, but his widow didn't hesitate to secure their gains.


  • Through skillful diplomacy, Madame Zheng took charge of the confederation, convincing the captains that their best interests lay in continued collaboration.

    巧みな外交を通じて鄭夫人が連合の責任者になった。 船長を説得して協力を続けることが最善の利益になると確信させました

  • Meanwhile, she appointed Zhang Bao, the young protege of her late husband, as the commander of her most powerful squadron, the Red Flag Fleet.


  • Zhang became not only her right-hand man, but her lover and, soon, her new husband.


  • Madame Zheng consolidated her power through strict military discipline combined with a surprisingly progressive code of laws.


  • Female captives were theoretically protected from sexual assault, and while pirates could take them as wives, mistreatment or infidelity towards them was punishable by death.

    女性の捕虜は理論的には性的暴行から守られていた。海賊が妻として連れて行く間にも 彼らに対する虐待や不貞行為は死刑に処せられました。

  • Under Madame Zheng's leadership, the pirates greatly increased their power, with 200 cannons and 1300 guns in the Red Flag Fleet alone.

    鄭夫人の指導の下で海賊はその力を大幅に増大させた。 赤旗艦隊だけで200門の大砲と1300門の大砲で

  • Within a few years, they destroyed 63 of Guangdong Province's 135 military vessels, forcing their commanders to hire more than 30 private junks.

    数年以内に広東省の135隻の軍艦のうち63隻を破壊した。指揮官が30人以上の私服を 雇わざるを得なくなったのです

  • Madame Zheng was so feared that Chinese commanders charged with apprehending her spent most of their time ashore, sometimes sabotaging their own vessels to avoid battle at sea.

    鄭夫人は中国の司令官に 恐れられていました彼らはほとんどの時間を陸上で過ごしました。 時には海上での戦闘を避けるために自艦を妨害することもあります。

  • With little to stop them, the pirates were able to mount successfuland often brutalraids on garrisons, villages, and markets throughout the coast.

    止められるものはほとんどない海賊は成功して、しばしば残忍な作戦を実行することができました。 沿岸各地の駐屯地、村、市場を襲撃した。

  • Using her administrative talents,


  • Madame Zheng established financial offices in cities and villages, allowing her pirates to extract regular protection payments on land and sea alike.


  • This effectively created a state within a state whose influence reached far beyond the South China Sea.


  • At the peak of her power, Madame Zheng's confederation drove five American schooners to safe harbor near Macao, captured a Portuguese brig, and blockaded a tribute mission from Thailandall in a single day.

    彼女の力の絶頂期に鄭夫人のコンフェデレーションはアメリカの5隻のスクーナーを運転した マカオ近くの安全な港へ ポルトガルの旅団を捕らえた とタイからの貢物使節団を封鎖 -(徳井)全部 1日で

  • But perhaps Madame Zheng's greatest success lay in knowing when to quit.


  • By 1810, increasing tension between the Red and Black Flag Fleets weakened the confederation from within and rendered it more vulnerable to attack from without.

    1810年までには、赤旗艦隊と黒旗艦隊の間で緊張が高まっています。内輪もめ そして、外部からの攻撃に対してより脆弱にしました。

  • So, when the Chinese government, desperate to stop the raids, offered amnesty in exchange for the pirates' surrender, Madame Zheng and Zhang Bao agreed, but only on their own terms.

    だから、中国政府が必死になって襲撃を止めようとするとは、海賊の降伏と引き換えに恩赦を申し出た。 鄭夫人と張宝は同意したが、自分たちの条件でしかない。

  • Their confederation was successfully and peacefully dismantled in April 1810, while Zhang Bao was allowed to retain 120 junks for personal use and became an officer in the Chinese navy.

    1810年4月、彼らの同盟は無事に平和的に解体された。張本は個人的な使用のために120個のジャンクを保持することを許可されていた。 と中国海軍の将校になった。

  • Now fighting pirates himself, Zhang Bao quickly rose through the ranks of military command, and Madame Zheng enjoyed all the privileges of her husband's status.

    今は自分で海賊と戦っている張本はすぐに軍令部のランクに昇格しました。 と鄭夫人は夫の地位の特権をすべて享受していました。

  • After Zhang Bao died in 1822,


  • Madame Zheng returned with their eleven-year-old son to Guangzhou, where she opened a gambling house and quietly lived off the proceeds.


  • She died at the age of 69—an uncommonly peaceful end to a pirate's life.


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At the height of their power, infamous Caribbean pirates like Blackbeard and Henry Morgan commanded as many as ten ships and several hundred men.

彼らの力の絶頂期に黒ひげやヘンリーモーガンなどのカリブの悪名高い海賊 10隻もの船と数百人の兵士を指揮していました。


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史上最も成功した海賊 - ダイアン・マーレイ

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    Evangeline に公開 2018 年 04 月 20 日