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  • "These are the times," said Thomas Paine, "that try men's souls."

    翻訳: Eriko T 校正: Masaki Yanagishita

  • And they're trying ours now.

    「今こそ—」

  • This is a fateful moment in the history of the West.

    トマス・ペインは言いました

  • We've seen divisive elections and divided societies.

    「人間の魂を試す機会である」

  • We've seen a growth of extremism in politics and religion.

    私たちは今試されています

  • All of it fueled by anxiety, uncertainty and fear, of a world that's changing almost faster than we can bear.

    今というのは西洋の歴史の運命的な瞬間です

  • And the sure knowledge that it's going to change faster still.

    選挙や社会での分断的な動きが起こり

  • I have a friend in Washington.

    過激主義が

  • I asked him, what was it like being in America during the recent presidential election?

    政治や宗教に於いて増長して来ました

  • He said to me, "Well, it was like the man sitting on the deck of the Titanic with a glass of whiskey in his hand.

    不安 見えない先行き 恐怖

  • And he's saying, 'I know I asked for ice...but this is ridiculous.'"

    私たちが耐え得る以上の速度で 変わっていく世界

  • So is there something we can do, each of us, to be able to face the future without fear?

    そして確かなことは 変化はまだ加速するということです

  • I think there is.

    ワシントンに友人がいます

  • And one way into it is to see that perhaps the most simple way into a culture and into an age is to ask: What do people worship?

    彼に聞きました 「最近の大統領選挙中に

  • People have worshipped so many different things: the sun, the stars, the storm.

    アメリカにいてどう感じました?」

  • Some people worship many gods, some one, some none.

    「そうだね

  • In the 19th and 20th centuries, people worshipped the nation.

    こんな感じかな

  • The Aryan race, the communist state.

    タイタニック号のデッキに座って

  • What do we worship?

    ウイスキーのグラスを片手に

  • I think future anthropologists will take a look at the books we read on self-help, self-realization, self-esteem.

    『氷が欲しいと言ったのは確かだけど

  • They'll look at the way we talk about morality as being true to oneself.

    (笑)

  • The way we talk about politics as a matter of individual rights.

    こりゃ馬鹿げてる』」

  • And they'll look at this wonderful new religious ritual we have created.

    私たちに何かできることはあるでしょうか

  • You know the one?

    私たちそれぞれが

  • Called the "selfie."

    恐れることなく未来と対峙する術は?

  • And I think they'll conclude that what we worship in our time is the self, the me, the I.

    私は あると思っています

  • And this is great.

    おそらく最も簡単な一つの方法は

  • It's liberating. It's empowering. It's wonderful.

    その文化と時代についてこう問うことです

  • But don't forget that biologically, we're social animals.

    「人々は何を崇拝しているだろうか?」

  • We've spent most of our evolutionary history in small groups.

    人々は様々なものを崇拝して来ました

  • We need those face-to-face interactions where we learn the choreography of altruism.

    太陽、星々、嵐—

  • And where we create those spiritual goods like friendship and trust and loyalty and love that redeem our solitude.

    ある人々は多神教を崇拝し またある人々は唯一神を または神を持たず

  • When we have too much of the "I" and too little of the "we," we can find ourselves vulnerable, fearful and alone.

    19世紀と20世紀には

  • It was no accident that Sherry Turkle of MIT called the book she wrote on the impact of social media "Alone Together."

    人々は国家を崇拝しました

  • So I think the simplest way of safeguarding the future "you" is to strengthen the future "us".

    アーリア人種 共産主義国家を

  • In three dimensions:

    では 私たちは何を崇拝しているでしょうか?

  • the us of relationship, the us of identity, and the us of responsibility.

    未来の人類学者はおそらく

  • So let me first take the us of relationship.

    私たちの読んだ本を参考にするでしょう

  • And here, forgive me if I get personal.

    自己啓発 自己実現

  • Once upon a time, a very long time ago, I was a 20-year-old undergraduate studying philosophy.

    自尊心などについての本です

  • I was into Nietzsche and Schopenhauer and Sartre and Camus.

    私たちが道徳について どのように考えているのかを見るでしょう

  • I was full of ontological uncertainty and existential angst.

    自己に忠実で

  • It was terrific.

    個人の権利の問題として捉える

  • I was self-obsessed and thoroughly unpleasant to know.

    政治についての考え方も

  • Until one day I saw across the courtyard, a girl who was everything that I wasn't.

    それから私たちが生んだ 新たなすばらしい 宗教的儀式にも目をつけるでしょう

  • She radiated sunshine.

    何だか分かりますか?

  • She emanated joy.

    「セルフィー(自撮り)」ですよ

  • I found out her name was Elaine.

    そして人類学者たちの結論はこうでしょう この時代に私たちが崇拝したのは

  • We met. We talked.

    「自己、自分、私」だったと

  • We married.

    それはそれで素晴らしいんです

  • And 47 years, three children and eight grandchildren later, I can safely say it was the best decision I ever took in my life.

    開放的で 力を与えてくれます 素晴らしいことです

  • Because it's the people not like us that make us grow.

    でも私たちは生物学的には 社会的動物だということを忘れてはなりません

  • And that is why I think we have to do just that.

    私たちは人間の進化の歴史の殆どを

  • The trouble with Google filters, Facebook friends, and reading the news by "narrowcasting" rather than broadcasting means that we're surrounded almost entirely by people like us whose views, whose opinions, whose prejudices, even, are just like ours.

    小さなグループで過ごしてきました

  • And Cass Sunstein of Harvard has shown that if we surround ourselves with people with the same views as us, we get more extreme.

    私たちが実際に顔を合わせ

  • I think we need to renew those face-to-face encounters with the people not like us.

    利他主義の調整を学び

  • I think we need to do that in order to realize that we can disagree strongly and yet still stay friends.

    友情や信頼 忠誠心や愛など

  • It's in those face-to-face encounters that we discover that the people not like us are just people, like us.

    私たちの孤独な心を満たす

  • And actually, every time we hold out the hand of friendship to somebody not like us, whose class or creed or color are different from ours, we heal one of the fractures of our wounded world.

    精神的な産物を作ります

  • That is the us of relationship.

    「I(自分)」が大き過ぎて 「we(私たち)」が小さ過ぎると

  • Second is the us of identity.

    自分が傷つきやすく 恐怖して

  • Let me give you a thought experiment.

    孤独であることが分かります

  • Have you been to Washington? Have you seen the memorials?

    MITのシェリー・タークルが ソーシャルメディアの影響についての著書を

  • Absolutely fascinating.

    『Alone Together(一緒にいても孤独)』 と題したのは

  • There's the Lincoln Memorial: Gettysburg Address on one side, Second Inaugural on the other.

    偶然ではありませんでした

  • You go to the Jefferson Memorial, screeds of text.

    だから未来のあなたを守る最も単純な方法は

  • Martin Luther King Memorial, more than a dozen quotes from his speeches.

    3つの面において未来の「私たち」を

  • I didn't realize, in America you read memorials.

    強くすることです

  • Now go to the equivalent in London in Parliament Square and you will see that the monument to David Lloyd George contains three words:

    関係性における私たち

  • David Lloyd George.

    アイデンティティーにおける私たち

  • Nelson Mandela gets two.

    責任における私たち

  • Churchill gets just one: Churchill.

    まず関係性について説明しましょう

  • Why the difference? I'll tell you why the difference.

    ここで個人的な話をするのをお許し下さい

  • Because America was from the outset a nation of wave after wave of immigrants.

    昔々

  • So it had to create an identity which it did by telling a story which you learned at school, you read on memorials.

    とても大昔に

  • And you heard repeated in presidential inaugural addresses.

    私は哲学を学ぶ20歳の大学生で

  • Britain until recently wasn't a nation of immigrants, so it could take identity for granted.

    私は哲学を学ぶ20歳の大学生で

  • The trouble is now that two things have happened which shouldn't have happened together.

    ニーチェとショーペンハウアー そしてサルトルとカミュにハマっていました

  • The first thing is in the West we've stopped telling this story of who we are and why, even in America.

    私は 存在の不確実性と実存的な不安に

  • And at the same time, immigration is higher than it's ever been before.

    満ちていました

  • So when you tell a story and your identity is strong, you can welcome the stranger.

    素敵でしたよ

  • But when you stop telling the story, your identity gets weak.

    (笑)

  • And you feel threatened by the stranger.

    私は自分に陶酔した 知り合いになるには不快なやつでした

  • And that's bad.

    しかしそれはある日

  • I tell you, Jews have been scattered and dispersed and exiled for 2,000 years.

    中庭の向こうに

  • We never lost our identity.

    私とは

  • Why? Because at least once a year, on the festival of Passover, we told our story and we taught it to our children.

    全く違うタイプの 女の子を見かけるまでのことでした

  • And we ate the unleavened bread of affliction and tasted the bitter herbs of slavery.

    彼女は陽の光を放ち

  • So we never lost our identity.

    喜びに溢れていました

  • I think collectively we've got to get back to telling our story, who we are, where we came from, what ideals by which we live.

    彼女の名前がエレインだと知り

  • And if that happens, we will become strong enough to welcome the stranger and say,

    私たちは出会って 語り合い

  • "Come and share our lives, share our stories, share our aspirations and dreams."

    結婚をしました

  • That is the us of identity.

    そして47年が過ぎ 3人の子供と 8人の孫たちに恵まれ

  • And finally, the us of responsibility.

    確信を持って言えることは

  • Do you know something?

    それが私の人生での 最良の決断だったということです

  • My favorite phrase in all of politics, very American phrase, "We the people".

    なぜなら私たちを成長させてくれるのは 自分とは違うタイプの人々だからです

  • Why "we the people?"

    なぜなら私たちを成長させてくれるのは 自分とは違うタイプの人々だからです

  • Because it says that we all share collective responsibility for our collective future.

    それが私が

  • And that's how things really are and should be.

    そうすべきだと思う理由です

  • Have you noticed how magical thinking has taken over our politics?

    Googleのフィルターや

  • So we say, all you've got to do is elect this strong leader and he or she will solve all our problems for us.

    フェイスブックの友達や ネットニュースの問題は

  • Believe me, that is magical thinking.

    ブロードキャスティング というよりもナローキャスティングで

  • And then we get the extremes: the far right, the far left, the extreme religious and the extreme anti-religious.

    つまり私たちが完全に自分と同じような人々に 囲まれているということを意味します

  • The far right dreaming of a golden age that never was.

    物事の見方、意見、偏見すらも

  • The far left dreaming of a utopia that never will be.

    同じなんです

  • And the religious and anti-religious equally convinced that all it takes is God or the absence of God to save us from ourselves.

    ハーバードのキャス・サンスティーンが 示したように

  • That, too, is magical thinking.

    もし私たちが自分たちと 同じ意見を持つ人々だけで寄り集まると

  • Because the only people who will save us from ourselves is we the people, all of us together.

    私たちはより極端になってしまいます

  • And when we do that, and when we move from the politics of me to the politics of all of us together, we rediscover those beautiful, counterintuitive truths:

    こうした自分たちとは違うタイプの 人々との現実での出会いを

  • That a nation is strong when it cares for the weak.

    続けるべきです

  • That it becomes rich when it cares for the poor.

    それが必要なのは

  • It becomes invulnerable when it cares about the vulnerable.

    私たちが強く意見を異にすることがあっても

  • That is what makes great nations.

    友人でいられるということに気づくためです

  • So here is my simple suggestion.

    現実での出会いにより

  • It might just change your life.

    自分達と違うタイプの人々もまた

  • And it might just help to begin to change the world.

    自分たちと全く同じように 人間なのだと発見するのです

  • Do a search and replace operation on the text of your mind.

    実際に毎回

  • And wherever you encounter the word "self," substitute the word "other."

    階級や信条や肌の色が自分たちと違う

  • So instead of self-help, other-help; instead of self-esteem, other-esteem.

    自分たちとは違う誰かに

  • And if you do that, you will begin to feel the power of what for me is one of the most moving sentences in all of religious literature:

    友情の手を差し伸べるとき

  • "Though I walk through the valley of the shadow of death, I will fear no evil, for you are with me."

    傷ついた私たちの世界の

  • We can face any future without fear so long as we know we will not face it alone.

    傷口の1つを

  • So for the sake of the future "you," together let us strengthen the future "us."

    癒しているのです

  • Thank you.

    それが関係性における私たちです

"These are the times," said Thomas Paine, "that try men's souls."

翻訳: Eriko T 校正: Masaki Yanagishita

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    Zenn に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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