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  • In March 2017,

    翻訳: Yukino Megan 校正: Shoko Takaki

  • the mayor of Cape Town officially declared Cape Town a local disaster,


  • as it had less than four months left of usable water.

    ケープタウン市長は 貯水の使用可能期間が 残り4か月未満になった為

  • Residents were restricted to 100 liters of water per person, per day.

    正式に 地域の非常事態を 宣言しました

  • But what does that really mean?

    住民は水の利用が1日1人当たり 100リットルに制限されました

  • With 100 liters of water per day,

    これは実際 どういうことでしょう?

  • you can take a five-minute shower,


  • wash your face twice


  • and probably flush the toilet about five times.


  • You still didn't brush your teeth,

    おそらくトイレを5回ほど 流すことができるでしょう

  • you didn't do laundry,

    しかし 歯は磨けないし

  • and you definitely didn't water your plants.


  • You, unfortunately, didn't wash your hands after those five toilet flushes.

    当然 植物に水を与えることも できません

  • And you didn't even take a sip of water.

    残念ながら5回トイレを流した後 手を洗うこともできません

  • The mayor described this as that it means


  • a new relationship with water.

    これは水との新たな関係を 意味すると

  • Today, seven months later,


  • I can share two things about my second home with you.


  • First: Cape Town hasn't run out of water just yet.

    この 私にとって第二の故郷について 2点 ご紹介します

  • But as of September 3rd,

    第一にケープタウンの水は まだ底をついてはいません

  • the hundred-liter limit dropped to 87 liters.


  • The mayor defined the city's new normal as one of permanent drought.

    100リットルの制限が 87リットルに引き下げられました

  • Second:

    市長は 慢性的な水不足が 市の新たな常態だと説明しました

  • what's happening in Cape Town is pretty much coming to many other cities


  • and countries in the world.

    ケープタウンで起きていることが 多くの他の都市や世界中の国々で

  • According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations,


  • excluding countries that we don't have data for,


  • less than five percent of the world's population


  • is living in a country that has more water today than it did 20 years ago.

    20年前より水の豊富な 国に住んでいる人々は

  • Everyone else is living in a country that has less water today.


  • And nearly one out of three are living in a country

    他の人たちは皆 以前より 水の乏しい国に住んでいるのです

  • that is facing a water crisis.


  • I grew up in Jordan,

    水不足危機に直面している国に 住んでいます

  • a water-poor country that has experienced absolute water scarcity since 1973.


  • And still, in 2017,

    1973年以来 絶対的な水不足を 経験して来た国で育ちました

  • only 10 countries in the world have less water than Jordan.


  • So dealing with a lack of water is quite ingrained in my soul.

    貯水量がヨルダンより少ないのは 世界で10か国だけです

  • As soon as I was old enough to learn how to write my name,

    水不足に対応することは 私の魂に沁みついています

  • I also learned that I need to conserve water.

    自分の名前の書き方を 覚える年になるとすぐに

  • My parents would constantly remind my siblings and I to close the tap

    節水する必要があることも 覚えました

  • when we brushed our teeth.

    両親は 兄妹や私に 歯を磨く時 蛇口を閉めるよう

  • We used to fill balloons with flour instead of water when we played.


  • It's just as much fun, though.

    風船で遊ぶ時は 水の代わりに 小麦粉を入れました

  • (Laughter)


  • And a few years ago,


  • when my friends and I were dared to do the Ice Bucket Challenge,


  • we did that with sand.

    友達と私が アイスバケツチャレンジに臨んだ時は

  • (Laughter)


  • And you might think that, you know, that's easy,


  • sand is not ice cold.

    砂は氷水ではありませんので 大したことないと

  • I promise you, sand goes everywhere,


  • and it took ages to get rid of it.

    実際のところ 体中 砂にまみれになり

  • But what perhaps I didn't realize

    払い落とすのに 大変時間がかかるのです

  • as I played with flour balloons as a child,

    しかし 子供の頃

  • and as I poured sand on my head as an adult,

    小麦粉入りの風船で遊んだり 大人になって

  • is that some of the techniques that seem second nature to me

    頭に砂をかけても 気づかなかったのですが

  • and to others who live in dry countries

    乾燥した国に住む 国民や私にとっては習慣のような

  • might help us all address what is fast becoming a global crisis.


  • I wish to share three lessons today,

    急速に広がる世界的危機に立ち向かう 手助けになるかもしれません

  • three lessons from water-poor countries

    今日は3つの教訓を 紹介させてください

  • and how they survived and even thrived despite their water crisis.

    水不足の国から学んだ 3つの教訓と

  • Lesson one:

    そういう国がどうやって水不足危機を 生き延び 繁栄できているのかです

  • tell people how much water they really have.


  • In order to solve a problem,

    「貯水量が実際どれ位あるかを 皆に知らせる」

  • we need to acknowledge that we have one.


  • And when it comes to water,


  • people can easily turn a blind eye,


  • pretending that since water is coming out of the tap now,

    誰もが簡単に 見て見ぬふりをすることができ

  • everything will be fine forever.

    現在 蛇口から水が出ているので 今後もずっと

  • But some smart, drought-affected countries

    問題ないかのように 振る舞っています

  • have adopted simple, innovative measures

    しかし知識があり 干ばつの影響がある国々は

  • to make sure their citizens, their communities and their companies

    国がどの程度 干ばつに瀕しているかを

  • know just how dry their countries are.

    国民や地域社会、企業に 理解させるため 簡単で画期的な

  • When I was in Cape Town earlier this year,


  • I saw this electronic billboard on the freeway,

    今年の初め ケープタウンにいた時

  • indicating how much water the city had left.

    高速道路上で 市の貯水量を示す

  • This is an idea they may well have borrowed from Australia


  • when it faced one of the worst droughts of the country's history

    これは1997年から 2009年まで

  • from 1997 to 2009.

    国内史上最悪の干ばつに瀕した オーストラリアから

  • Water levels in Melbourne dropped to a very low capacity


  • of almost 26 percent.


  • But the city didn't yell at people.

    非常に低い量まで 落ち込みましたが

  • It didn't plead with them not to use water.


  • They used electronic billboards to flash available levels of water

    節水を嘆願したりは しませんでした

  • to all citizens across the city.

    電光掲示板を利用し 全ての市民に向けて

  • They were honestly telling people how much water they really have,


  • and letting them take responsibility for themselves.

    実際の水の貯留量を ありのままに人々に示し

  • By the end of the drought, this created such a sense of urgency

    自分たちで責任を 取るよう促したのです

  • as well as a sense of community.

    干ばつの終焉までに この措置は 緊急事態の意識と同時に

  • Nearly one out of three citizens in Melbourne had invested


  • in installing rainwater holding tanks for their own households.

    メルボルン市民の ほぼ3人に1人が

  • Actions that citizens took didn't stop at installing those tanks.

    自宅に雨水を貯留するタンクを 設置しました

  • With help from the city,

    市民の取った行動は タンクの設置だけに留まりませんでした

  • they were able to do something even more impactful.


  • Taking me to lesson two:

    さらに効果的な事が 実行できました

  • empower people to save water.


  • Melbourne wanted people to spend less water in their homes.


  • And one way to do that is to spend less time in the shower.

    メルボルン市は市民に 家庭での節水を期待しました

  • However, interviews revealed that some people, women in particular,

    節水方法の1つは シャワーの時間を短縮することです

  • weren't keen on saving water that way.

    しかし調査によると ある人々 特に女性は

  • Some of them honestly said,

    そういう節水法には 消極的でした

  • "The shower is not just to clean up.


  • It's my sanctuary.

    「シャワーは 身体を洗うだけのものではありません

  • It's a space I go to relax, not just clean up."


  • So the city started offering water-efficient showerheads for free.

    リラックスする場所でも あるのです」

  • And then, now some people complained that the showerheads looked ugly

    そこで市は節水型のシャワーヘッドを 無料で配布し始めました

  • or didn't suit their bathrooms.

    すると そのシャワーヘッドは 見た目が良くないとか

  • So what I like to call "The Showerhead Team"

    風呂場に合わないと 不満を言う人もいました

  • developed a small water-flow regulator

    そこで所謂 「シャワーヘッドチーム」の人々が

  • that can be fitted into existing showerheads.

    既存のシャワーヘッドに 取り付けられる

  • And although showerhead beauty doesn't matter much to me,

    小型の水流調整装置を 開発しました

  • I loved how the team didn't give up

    シャワーヘッドの外見を気にしない私でも チームが諦めずに

  • and instead came up with a simple, unique solution


  • to empower people to save water.

    簡単でユニークな解決方法を 生み出したことは

  • Within a span of four years,


  • more than 460,000 showerheads were replaced.


  • When the small regulator was introduced,

    46万個以上のシャワーヘッドが 交換されました

  • more than 100,000 orders of that were done.

    小型の水流調整装置が 市民に紹介された時は

  • Melbourne succeeded in reducing the water demands per capita


  • by 50 percent.

    メルボルンは1人当たりの水需要を 50%も減らすことに

  • In the United Arab Emirates,


  • the second-most water-scarce country in the world,


  • officials designed what they called the "Business Heroes Toolkit" in 2010.


  • The aim was to motivate and empower businesses

    2010年に「ビジネスヒーローツールキット」 というものをデザインしました

  • to reduce water and energy consumption.

    その目的は 水やエネルギーの消費を減らす為

  • The toolkit practically taught companies


  • how to measure their existing water-consumption levels

    ツールキットのお陰で 企業は

  • and consisted of tips to help them reduce those levels.


  • And it worked.

    消費量を減らすアイディアを 得ることができました

  • Hundreds of organizations downloaded the toolkit.


  • And several of them joined

    何百もの組織が このツールキットをダウンロードし

  • what they called the "Corporate Heroes Network,"


  • where companies can voluntarily take on a challenge

    「企業ヒーローネットワーク」 というものに参加しました

  • to reduce their water-consumption levels to preset targets

    それは企業が自主的に 1年以内の

  • within a period of one year.

    水の消費削減目標値を 掲げて挑戦する

  • Companies which completed the challenge saved on average 35 percent of water.


  • And one company, for example,

    挑戦を達成した企業は 平均35%の節水をしました

  • implemented as many water-saving tips as they could in their office space.

    例えば ある企業では

  • They replaced their toilet-flushing techniques, taps, showerheads --

    オフィスで 節水のアイディアを できるだけ多く実行しました

  • you name it.

    彼らはトイレの流し方や 蛇口やシャワーヘッドなど様々なものを

  • If it saved water, they replaced it,


  • eventually reducing their employees' water consumption by half.

    可能な限り 節水できるものに交換し

  • Empowering individuals and companies to save water is so critical,

    結果的に社員の水使用量を 半分に削減したのです

  • yet not sufficient.

    個人や企業による節水の応援は 非常に重要なことですが

  • Countries need to look beyond the status quo


  • and implement country-level actions

    国は現状を越えて 問題を見据え

  • to save water.


  • Taking me to lesson three:


  • look below the surface.


  • Water savings can come from unexpected places.


  • Singapore is the eighth most water-scarce country in the world.


  • It depends on imported water for almost 60 percent of its water needs.

    シンガポールは 世界で8番目に 水不足が深刻な国です

  • It's also a very small island.

    水の需要のおよそ60%を 輸入に頼っています

  • As such, it needs to make use of as much space as possible


  • to catch rainfall.

    よって 雨水を貯留するために 可能な限り多くの土地を

  • So in 2008,


  • they built the Marina Barrage.

    そこで 2008年に

  • It's the first-ever urban water reservoir built in the middle of the city-state.


  • It's the largest water catchment in the country,

    市街地の中心に建設された 初の都市貯水池です

  • almost one-sixth the size of Singapore.


  • What's so amazing about the Marina Barrage

    シンガポールの面積の 6分の1近くです

  • is that it has been built to make the maximum use of its large size

    マリーナバラージが とても素晴らしいのは

  • and its unexpected yet important location.


  • It brings three valuable benefits to the country:

    意外で 実はとても重要な場所に 建設されたことです

  • it has boosted Singapore's water supply by 10 percent;

    国に3つの貴重な メリットをもたらします

  • it protects low areas around it from floods

    シンガポールの水供給量は 10%増加しました

  • because of its connection to the sea;


  • and, as you can see,

    標高の低い土地を 洪水から守るのです

  • it acts as a beautiful lifestyle attraction,


  • hosting several events,

    それは美しく生活に密着した 観光スポットとなり

  • from art exhibitions to music festivals,


  • attracting joggers, bikers, tourists all around that area.


  • Now, not all initiatives need to be stunning

    ジョギングしたり 自転車に乗る人 旅行者を その周辺に惹きつけます

  • or even visible.

    その全ての取り組みが 素晴らしく しかも目に見える

  • My first home, Jordan, realized that agriculture is consuming


  • the majority of its fresh water.

    私の故郷 ヨルダンは 真水の大半を

  • They really wanted to encourage farmers

    農業で消費していることに 気づきました

  • to focus on growing low water-intensive crops.

    そこで 少ない水で育つ作物の

  • To achieve that,


  • the local agriculture is increasing its focus on date palms and grapevines.


  • Those two are much more tolerant to drought conditions

    地元の農家は ナツメヤシとブドウを 増産しました

  • than many other fruits and vegetables,

    これら2つの作物は 他の多くの果物や野菜より

  • and at the same time,


  • they are considered high-value crops, both locally and internationally.


  • Locals in Namibia,

    地元でも 国際的にも 価値の高い作物とされています

  • one of the most arid countries in Southern Africa,


  • have been drinking recycled water since 1968.

    最も乾燥した国の1つである ナミビアの地元民は

  • Now, you may tell me many countries recycle water.

    1968年以降 再生水を飲んでいます

  • I would say yes.

    皆さんは多くの国が 水を再利用していると言うでしょう

  • But very few use it for drinking purposes,


  • mostly because people don't like the thought

    しかし飲料用として再生水を使うのは ほんのわずかで

  • of water that was in their toilets going to their taps.

    それはトイレの水が 水道水になるのを

  • But Namibia could not afford to think that way.


  • They looked below the surface to save water.

    しかしナミビアでは そう言ってはいられませんでした

  • They are now a great example

    節水の為に 問題の水面下に 注目したのです

  • of how, when countries purify waste water to drinking standards,

    これは他の国々が 排水を飲料基準まで 浄化する際

  • they can ease their water shortages,

    水不足を解消し どの様に実施するかという

  • and in Namibia's case,


  • provide drinking water for more than 300,000 citizens in its capital city.


  • As more countries which used to be more water rich

    首都圏で30万人以上の市民に 飲料水を供給しています

  • are becoming water scarce,


  • I say we don't need to reinvent the wheel.


  • If we just look at what water-poor countries have done,

    ここで新たな解決法を 見つける必要はありません

  • the solutions are out there.

    水不足の国々が 達成してきたことを見れば

  • Now it's really just up to all of us


  • to take action.


  • Thank you.


  • (Applause)


In March 2017,

翻訳: Yukino Megan 校正: Shoko Takaki


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