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  • Suppose that two American friends are traveling together in Italy.

    翻訳: Caoli Price 校正: Aiko McLean

  • They go to see Michelangelo's "David,"

    アメリカ人 ダチ2人でイタリア旅行

  • and when they finally come face to face with the statue,

    ミケランジェロの「ダビデ像」を見に行った

  • they both freeze dead in their tracks.

    ご対面で見事

  • The first guy -- we'll call him Adam --

    2人揃って立ちすくんだ

  • is transfixed by the beauty of the perfect human form.

    1人目 アダムは

  • The second guy -- we'll call him Bill --

    人間の完成美に ただただ愕然

  • is transfixed by embarrassment, at staring at the thing there in the center.

    2人目 ビルは

  • So here's my question for you:

    真ん中のモノに ただただ狼狽

  • which one of these two guys was more likely to have voted for George Bush,

    さて ここで質問です

  • which for Al Gore?

    どちらがジョージ・ブッシュに投票するでしょう?

  • I don't need a show of hands

    またどちらがアル・ゴアに

  • because we all have the same political stereotypes.

    挙手はけっこうです

  • We all know that it's Bill.

    政治的ステレオタイプは似たり寄ったりですから

  • And in this case, the stereotype corresponds to reality.

    言うまでもなく ビルですよね

  • It really is a fact that liberals are much higher than conservatives

    この場合 ステレオタイプと現実は一致します

  • on a major personality trait called openness to experience.

    リベラル派の方が 性格特性の1つ―

  • People who are high in openness to experience

    開放性が段違いに高いのです

  • just crave novelty, variety, diversity, new ideas, travel.

    開放性が高いと こういうのを求めます

  • People low on it like things that are familiar, that are safe and dependable.

    目新しさ 変化 広がり 新思想 旅行

  • If you know about this trait,

    低いと 慣れた安全で信頼できるものを好みます

  • you can understand a lot of puzzles about human behavior.

    これを押さえておくと

  • You can understand why artists are so different from accountants.

    人間行動の 多くの謎が解けます―

  • You can actually predict what kinds of books they like to read,

    なぜ芸術家と会計士が かくも違うのか...

  • what kinds of places they like to travel to,

    彼らの好む本や

  • and what kinds of food they like to eat.

    好きな旅行先

  • Once you understand this trait, you can understand

    食べ物の好みなどが予想できます

  • why anybody would eat at Applebee's, but not anybody that you know.

    すると分かります 皆さんの周りが

  • (Laughter)

    人気ファミレス"Applebee's"に行かない理由が

  • This trait also tells us a lot about politics.

    (笑)

  • The main researcher of this trait, Robert McCrae says that,

    この特性は政治にも影響します

  • "Open individuals have an affinity for liberal, progressive, left-wing political views" --

    研究の第一人者ロバート・マクレイ曰く

  • they like a society which is open and changing --

    “開放的な人がリベラル派 進歩 左派を好むのに対し”

  • "whereas closed individuals prefer conservative, traditional, right-wing views."

    オープンで変化する社会ですね

  • This trait also tells us a lot about the kinds of groups people join.

    “閉鎖的な人は保守派 伝統 右派を好む”

  • So here's the description of a group I found on the Web.

    この特性は 参加グループにも影響します

  • What kinds of people would join a global community

    こんなコミュニティをネットで見つけたのですが

  • welcoming people from every discipline and culture,

    どんな人が参加しているのでしょう?

  • who seek a deeper understanding of the world,

    “人類の より良い未来のため

  • and who hope to turn that understanding into a better future for us all?

    より深く世界を理解したい方は

  • This is from some guy named Ted.

    分野や文化を問わず 大歓迎!”

  • (Laughter)

    えぇ これTEDが書いてました

  • Well, let's see now, if openness predicts who becomes liberal,

    (笑)

  • and openness predicts who becomes a TEDster,

    さて開放性が リベラルや

  • then might we predict that most TEDsters are liberal?

    TED人間になる 決め手なら

  • Let's find out.

    大抵のTED人間はリベラル?

  • I'm going to ask you to raise your hand, whether you are liberal, left of center --

    調べてみましょう

  • on social issues, we're talking about, primarily --

    先程の社会問題に対して

  • or conservative, and I'll give a third option,

    リベラル/中道左派か

  • because I know there are a number of libertarians in the audience.

    保守派かそれから

  • So, right now, please raise your hand --

    会場に多い自由主義派かで聞きます

  • down in the simulcast rooms, too,

    いきますよ 手を挙げてください

  • let's let everybody see who's here --

    放送室の方もいいですか

  • please raise your hand if you would say that you are liberal or left of center.

    では いきます

  • Please raise your hand high right now. OK.

    リベラル派/中道左派の方?

  • Please raise your hand if you'd say you're libertarian.

    高く挙げてください

  • OK, about a -- two dozen.

    では自由主義派の方?

  • And please raise your hand if you'd say you are right of center or conservative.

    はい...約25人ですね

  • One, two, three, four, five -- about eight or 10.

    では保守派/中道右派の方?

  • OK. This is a bit of a problem.

    1 2 3 4 5... 約8人か10人ですね

  • Because if our goal is to understand the world,

    ふむ これはいささか厄介です…

  • to seek a deeper understanding of the world,

    TEDのゴールが “より深く世界を理解”

  • our general lack of moral diversity here is going to make it harder.

    することなら

  • Because when people all share values, when people all share morals,

    モラルの多様性に欠けるとまずいのです

  • they become a team, and once you engage the psychology of teams,

    同じ価値観やモラルの人が集まると

  • it shuts down open-minded thinking.

    チームが生まれます チーム心理が芽生えると―

  • When the liberal team loses, as it did in 2004,

    柔軟な思考を妨げます

  • and as it almost did in 2000, we comfort ourselves.

    2004年や おおかた2000年のように敗れると

  • (Laughter)

    リベラル・チームは慰め合います

  • We try to explain why half of America voted for the other team.

    (笑)

  • We think they must be blinded by religion, or by simple stupidity.

    アメリカ半分が 別チームに投票した弁明をします

  • (Laughter)

    神がかりにあったかノータリンなんだろう…と話します

  • (Applause)

    (笑)

  • So, if you think that half of America votes Republican

    (拍手)

  • because they are blinded in this way,

    ホントにそんな理由で 共和党を

  • then my message to you is that you're trapped in a moral matrix,

    支持しているとお考えなら

  • in a particular moral matrix.

    失礼ですが モラル・マトリックスに

  • And by the matrix, I mean literally the matrix, like the movie "The Matrix."

    引っかかっていますよ

  • But I'm here today to give you a choice.

    まさに映画「マトリックス」の”マトリックス”です

  • You can either take the blue pill and stick to your comforting delusions,

    だが 今日ここで選択肢をあげよう

  • or you can take the red pill,

    この青を飲めば 甘美な妄想は続く

  • learn some moral psychology and step outside the moral matrix.

    この赤を飲めば

  • Now, because I know --

    モラル心理学の何たるかと

  • (Applause) --

    モラル・マトリックスの外を覗かせよう

  • OK, I assume that answers my question.

    (拍手)

  • I was going to ask you which one you picked, but no need.

    …多数決を

  • You're all high in openness to experience, and besides,

    するまでもありませんね

  • it looks like it might even taste good, and you're all epicures.

    皆さん さすが開放性が高い!

  • So anyway, let's go with the red pill.

    それに美食家ですね 赤おいしそう

  • Let's study some moral psychology and see where it takes us.

    ともあれ 赤を飲みましょう

  • Let's start at the beginning.

    モラル心理学入門のはじまり

  • What is morality and where does it come from?

    ここから始めましょう

  • The worst idea in all of psychology

    モラリティとは?どこから来るのか?

  • is the idea that the mind is a blank slate at birth.

    心理学上最悪の見解は

  • Developmental psychology has shown

    “誕生時 精神は真っ白” です

  • that kids come into the world already knowing so much

    発達心理学は こう示しています

  • about the physical and social worlds,

    人は物理・社会的な知識を

  • and programmed to make it really easy for them to learn certain things

    多く備えて誕生するため

  • and hard to learn others.

    ある種のものは容易に習得できるが

  • The best definition of innateness I've ever seen --

    その逆も然りである

  • this just clarifies so many things for me --

    脳科学者ゲイリー・マーカスが

  • is from the brain scientist Gary Marcus.

    非常に納得のいく

  • He says, "The initial organization of the brain does not depend that much on experience.

    ”生得性”の定義をしています

  • Nature provides a first draft, which experience then revises.

    “脳の初期構造は さして経験に根付いていない

  • Built-in doesn't mean unmalleable;

    先天性が初稿を書き 経験が改訂する

  • it means organized in advance of experience."

    生来は普遍とは違う―

  • OK, so what's on the first draft of the moral mind?

    それは経験と共に編さんされる”

  • To find out, my colleague, Craig Joseph, and I

    ではモラルの初稿には何が?

  • read through the literature on anthropology,

    私は同僚のクレイグ・ジョセフと共に

  • on culture variation in morality

    人類学の文献を読みました

  • and also on evolutionary psychology, looking for matches.

    モラル思考様式の差異を調べ

  • What are the sorts of things that people talk about across disciplines?

    進化心理学の文献を読み漁りました

  • That you find across cultures and even across species?

    宗教を超えた普遍的なテーマとは?

  • We found five -- five best matches,

    文化や種を超えた共通点は?

  • which we call the five foundations of morality.

    そして 5つのものに行き当たりました

  • The first one is harm/care.

    5つのモラリティの根源です

  • We're all mammals here, we all have a lot of neural and hormonal programming

    1. 危害/親切

  • that makes us really bond with others, care for others,

    人間は神経やホルモンの働きもあって

  • feel compassion for others, especially the weak and vulnerable.

    絆を結んだり 慕ったりします

  • It gives us very strong feelings about those who cause harm.

    弱いものには同情します

  • This moral foundation underlies about 70 percent

    加害者には 強い感情を抱きます

  • of the moral statements I've heard here at TED.

    TEDで耳にする モラル発言の

  • The second foundation is fairness/reciprocity.

    7割はこれに根差しています

  • There's actually ambiguous evidence

    2. 公正さ/互恵関係

  • as to whether you find reciprocity in other animals,

    他の動物に 互恵関係が

  • but the evidence for people could not be clearer.

    認められるかは曖昧ですが

  • This Norman Rockwell painting is called "The Golden Rule,"

    人間に限って言えば 絶対です

  • and we heard about this from Karen Armstrong, of course,

    この絵は ノーマン・ロックウェルの「黄金律」です

  • as the foundation of so many religions.

    絵の中には カレン・アームストロングの

  • That second foundation underlies the other 30 percent

    宗教の根底を表す言葉があります

  • of the moral statements I've heard here at TED.

    TEDのモラル発言の

  • The third foundation is in-group/loyalty.

    残り3割はこれです

  • You do find groups in the animal kingdom --

    3. グループ性/忠誠

  • you do find cooperative groups --

    動物界にも群れは存在しますが

  • but these groups are always either very small or they're all siblings.

    しかし これらは全て―

  • It's only among humans that you find very large groups of people

    小規模集団か血縁集団です

  • who are able to cooperate, join together into groups,

    巨大な集団を結成し

  • but in this case, groups that are united to fight other groups.

    一丸となるのは人間だけです

  • This probably comes from our long history of tribal living, of tribal psychology.

    戦争には 部族生活と同族意識の

  • And this tribal psychology is so deeply pleasurable

    長い歴史が背景にあるのでしょう

  • that even when we don't have tribes,

    同族意識は心地よく―

  • we go ahead and make them, because it's fun.

    私達は ことあるごとに

  • (Laughter)

    嬉々として部族を結成します

  • Sports is to war as pornography is to sex.

    (笑)

  • We get to exercise some ancient, ancient drives.

    スポーツと戦争は ポルノと性交の関係と同じです

  • The fourth foundation is authority/respect.

    太古からの欲望を満たしてくれます

  • Here you see submissive gestures from two members of very closely related species.

    4. 権威/尊敬

  • But authority in humans is not so closely based on power and brutality,

    霊長類が服従を示していますが

  • as it is in other primates.

    人間にとっての権威は

  • It's based on more voluntary deference,

    力や残忍性にでなく

  • and even elements of love, at times.

    自発的な敬意に基づきます

  • The fifth foundation is purity/sanctity.

    時には愛の要素も入ります

  • This painting is called "The Allegory Of Chastity,"

    5. 純粋さ/高潔さ

  • but purity's not just about suppressing female sexuality.

    この絵は「The Allegory Of Chastity」です

  • It's about any kind of ideology, any kind of idea

    ここでの純粋さは 女性の純潔だけでなく

  • that tells you that you can attain virtue

    自分の体になす行為の制御ー

  • by controlling what you do with your body,

    摂取するものの制御は

  • by controlling what you put into your body.

    美徳だとする―

  • And while the political right may moralize sex much more,

    価値体系や思想のことです

  • the political left is really doing a lot of it with food.

    右派が性のモラルにこだわるよう

  • Food is becoming extremely moralized nowadays,

    左派は食のモラルにこだわります

  • and a lot of it is ideas about purity,

    最近目立つ 食のモラル化は

  • about what you're willing to touch, or put into your body.

    この純粋さが

  • I believe these are the five best candidates

    関係しています

  • for what's written on the first draft of the moral mind.

    以上5つが モラルの初稿に

  • I think this is what we come with, at least

    書かれていると思います

  • a preparedness to learn all of these things.

    少なくとも

  • But as my son, Max, grows up in a liberal college town,

    この5つを備えて誕生するはずです

  • how is this first draft going to get revised?

    リベラルな大学都市に暮らす息子の初稿は

  • And how will it end up being different

    どう改訂されていくでしょう?

  • from a kid born 60 miles south of us in Lynchburg, Virginia?

    100キロ先のバージニア州リンチバーグで育つのと

  • To think about culture variation, let's try a different metaphor.

    どんな差が出るのでしょう?

  • If there really are five systems at work in the mind --

    こう考えてみてください

  • five sources of intuitions and emotions --

    精神上に 直感や感情の源が

  • then we can think of the moral mind

    5系統あるなら

  • as being like one of those audio equalizers that has five channels,

    モラルは5チャンネルの

  • where you can set it to a different setting on every channel.

    イコライザーと言えます

  • And my colleagues, Brian Nosek and Jesse Graham, and I,

    各チャンネルは個々に設定できます

  • made a questionnaire, which we put up on the Web at www.YourMorals.org.

    私は同僚のブライアン・ノセクと ジェシー・グラハムと共に

  • And so far, 30,000 people have taken this questionnaire, and you can too.

    アンケートを作りここに公開しました www.YourMorals.org.

  • Here are the results.

    既に3万人が回答しています

  • Here are the results from about 23,000 American citizens.

    こちらが結果です

  • On the left, I've plotted the scores for liberals;

    アメリカ国民 23,000人のデータです

  • on the right, those for conservatives; in the middle, the moderates.

    左から リベラル派

  • The blue line shows you people's responses

    穏便派 保守派です

  • on the average of all the harm questions.

    青から見ていきます

  • So, as you see, people care about harm and care issues.

    青は危害系の平均スコアです

  • They give high endorsement of these sorts of statements

    皆関心がありますね

  • all across the board, but as you also see,

    三派とも強い支持を示しています

  • liberals care about it a little more than conservatives -- the line slopes down.

    比較すると

  • Same story for fairness.

    リベラル派の関心の方が上です

  • But look at the other three lines.

    緑の公正さも同様です

  • For liberals, the scores are very low.

    残りの3つにご注目ください

  • Liberals are basically saying, "No, this is not morality.

    リベラル派のスコアは低いです

  • In-group, authority, purity -- this stuff has nothing to do with morality. I reject it."

    リベラル派は “グループ性 権威 純粋さは

  • But as people get more conservative, the values rise.

    モラルではない!”と言っています

  • We can say that liberals have a kind of a two-channel,

    保守的になるほどスコアは上がります

  • or two-foundation morality.

    リベラルな人は2チャンネル

  • Conservatives have more of a five-foundation,

    2つのモラリティの根源を持ち

  • or five-channel morality.

    保守的な人は 5つのモラリティの根源

  • We find this in every country we look at.

    5チャンネルを持つわけです

  • Here's the data for 1,100 Canadians.

    国が違っても同じです

  • I'll just flip through a few other slides.

    カナダ人 1,100人のデータです

  • The U.K., Australia, New Zealand, Western Europe, Eastern Europe,

    いくつかスライドをご覧に入れます イギリス…

  • Latin America, the Middle East, East Asia and South Asia.

    オーストラリアとニュージーランド 西ヨーロッパ 東ヨーロッパです

  • Notice also that on all of these graphs,

    ラテンアメリカ 中東 東アジア 南アジアです

  • the slope is steeper on in-group, authority, purity.

    お気づきでしょうか

  • Which shows that within any country,

    どの国でも 同じ3線が急勾配です

  • the disagreement isn't over harm and fairness.

    逆に言えば危害 公正さに

  • Everybody -- I mean, we debate over what's fair --

    意見の相違はありません

  • but everybody agrees that harm and fairness matter.

    この2つが重要という点においては

  • Moral arguments within cultures

    皆の意見が一致しています

  • are especially about issues of in-group, authority, purity.

    モラル論争の主なテーマは

  • This effect is so robust that we find it no matter how we ask the question.

    グループ性 権威 純粋さの3点です

  • In one recent study,

    どう質問しても 相違は顕著に表れます

  • we asked people to suppose you're about to get a dog.

    これはどうでしょう

  • You picked a particular breed,

    犬を飼うとしましょう

  • you learned some new information about the breed.

    好きな犬種を選びました

  • Suppose you learn that this particular breed is independent-minded,

    その犬種の特性を調べたら

  • and relates to its owner as a friend and an equal?

    独立心旺盛で 飼い主を

  • Well, if you are a liberal, you say, "Hey, that's great!"

    対等視することが分かりました

  • Because liberals like to say, "Fetch, please."

    リベラル派なら “まあ 素敵!” 犬相手でも

  • (Laughter)

    公平に “取って来て下さい!”

  • But if you're conservative, that's not so attractive.

    (笑)

  • If you're conservative, and you learn that a dog's extremely loyal

    保守派なら こんな犬はごめんです

  • to its home and family, and doesn't warm up quickly to strangers,

    保守派は 飼い主や家には忠実で

  • for conservatives, well, loyalty is good -- dogs ought to be loyal.

    他人を警戒する犬がいい

  • But to a liberal, it sounds like this dog

    “犬たるもの忠実であれ" です

  • is running for the Republican nomination.

    ところがリベラル派にはそんな犬…

  • (Laughter)

    共和党に立候補しそうで恐ろしい

  • So, you might say, OK,

    (笑)

  • there are these differences between liberals and conservatives,

    こうお思いでしょう? “なるほど...

  • but what makes those three other foundations moral?

    リベラル派と保守派が違うのは分かった”