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  • Hi I’m Carrie Anne, this is Crash Course Computer Science

  • and today were going to talk about how computers store and represent numerical data.

  • Which means weve got to talk about Math!

  • But don’t worry.

  • Every single one of you already knows exactly what you need to know to follow along.

  • So, last episode we talked about how transistors can be used to build logic gates, which can

  • evaluate boolean statements.

  • And in boolean algebra, there are only two, binary values: true and false.

  • But if we only have two values, how in the world do we represent information beyond just

  • these two values?

  • That’s where the Math comes in.

  • INTRO

  • So, as we mentioned last episode, a single binary value can be used to represent a number.

  • Instead of true and false, we can call these two states 1 and 0 which is actually incredibly useful.

  • And if we want to represent larger things we just need to add more binary digits.

  • This works exactly the same way as the decimal numbers that were all familiar with.

  • With decimal numbers there are "only" 10 possible values a single digit can be; 0 through 9,

  • and to get numbers larger than 9 we just start adding more digits to the front.

  • We can do the same with binary.

  • For example, let’s take the number two hundred and sixty three.

  • What does this number actually represent?

  • Well, it means weve got 2 one-hundreds, 6 tens, and 3 ones.

  • If you add those all together, weve got 263.

  • Notice how each column has a different multiplier.

  • In this case, it’s 100, 10, and 1.

  • Each multiplier is ten times larger than the one to the right.

  • That's because each column has ten possible digits to work with, 0 through 9, after which

  • you have to carry one to the next column.

  • For this reason, it’s called base-ten notation, also called decimal since deci means ten.

  • AND Binary works exactly the same way, it’s just base-two.

  • That’s because there are only two possible digits in binary – 1 and 0.

  • This means that each multiplier has to be two times larger than the column to its right.

  • Instead of hundreds, tens, and ones, we now have fours, twos and ones.

  • Take for example the binary number: 101.

  • This means we have 1 four, 0 twos, and 1 one.

  • Add those all together and weve got the number 5 in base ten.

  • But to represent larger numbers, binary needs a lot more digits.

  • Take this number in binary 10110111.

  • We can convert it to decimal in the same way.

  • We have 1 x 128, 0 x 64, 1 x 32, 1 x 16, 0 x 8, 1 x 4, 1 x 2, and 1 x 1.

  • Which all adds up to 183.

  • Math with binary numbers isn’t hard either.

  • Take for example decimal addition of 183 plus 19.

  • First we add 3 + 9, that’s 12, so we put 2 as the sum and carry 1 to the ten’s column.

  • Now we add 8 plus 1 plus the 1 we carried, thats 10, so the sum is 0 carry 1.

  • Finally we add 1 plus the 1 we carried, which equals 2.

  • So the total sum is 202.

  • Here’s the same sum but in binary.

  • Just as before, we start with the ones column.

  • Adding 1+1 results in 2, even in binary.

  • But, there is no symbol "2" so we use 10 and put 0 as our sum and carry the 1.

  • Just like in our decimal example.

  • 1 plus 1, plus the 1 carried, equals 3 or 11 in binary, so we put the sum as 1 and we

  • carry 1 again, and so on.

  • We end up with 11001010, which is the same as the number 202 in base ten.

  • Each of these binary digits, 1 or 0, is called a “bit”.

  • So in these last few examples, we were using 8-bit numbers with their lowest value of zero

  • and highest value is 255, which requires all 8 bits to be set to 1.

  • Thats 256 different values, or 2 to the 8th power.

  • You might have heard of 8-bit computers, or 8-bit graphics or audio.

  • These were computers that did most of their operations in chunks of 8 bits.

  • But 256 different values isn’t a lot to work with, so it meant things like 8-bit games

  • were limited to 256 different colors for their graphics.

  • And 8-bits is such a common size in computing, it has a special word: a byte.

  • A byte is 8 bits.

  • If youve got 10 bytes, it means youve really got 80 bits.

  • Youve heard of kilobytes, megabytes, gigabytes and so on.

  • These prefixes denote different scales of data.

  • Just like one kilogram is a thousand grams, 1 kilobyte is a thousand bytes…. or really

  • 8000 bits.

  • Mega is a million bytes (MB), and giga is a billion bytes (GB).

  • Today you might even have a hard drive that has 1 terabyte (TB) of storage.

  • That's 8 trillion ones and zeros.

  • But hold on!

  • That’s not always true.

  • In binary, a kilobyte has two to the power of 10 bytes, or 1024.

  • 1000 is also right when talking about kilobytes, but we should acknowledge it isn’t the only

  • correct definition.

  • Youve probably also heard the term 32-bit or 64-bit computersyoure almost certainly

  • using one right now.

  • What this means is that they operate in chunks of 32 or 64 bits.

  • That’s a lot of bits!

  • The largest number you can represent with 32 bits is just under 4.3 billion.

  • Which is thirty-two 1's in binary.

  • This is why our Instagram photos are so smooth and prettythey are composed of millions

  • of colors, because computers today use 32-bit color graphics

  • Of course, not everything is a positive number - like my bank account in college.

  • So we need a way to represent positive and negative numbers.

  • Most computers use the first bit for the sign: 1 for negative, 0 for positive numbers, and

  • then use the remaining 31 bits for the number itself.

  • That gives us a range of roughly plus or minus two billion.

  • While this is a pretty big range of numbers, it’s not enough for many tasks.

  • There are 7 billion people on the earth, and the US national debt is almost 20 trillion dollars after all.

  • This is why 64-bit numbers are useful.

  • The largest value a 64-bit number can represent is around 9.2 quintillion!

  • That’s a lot of possible numbers and will hopefully stay above the US national debt for a while!

  • Most importantly, as well discuss in a later episode, computers must label locations

  • in their memory, known as addresses, in order to store and retrieve values.

  • As computer memory has grown to gigabytes and terabytesthat’s trillions of bytes

  • it was necessary to have 64-bit memory addresses as well.

  • In addition to negative and positive numbers, computers must deal with numbers that are

  • not whole numbers, like 12.7 and 3.14, or maybe even stardate: 43989.1.

  • These are calledfloating pointnumbers, because the decimal point can float around

  • in the middle of number.

  • Several methods have been developed to represent floating point numbers.

  • The most common of which is the IEEE 754 standard.

  • And you thought historians were the only people bad at naming things!

  • In essence, this standard stores decimal values sort of like scientific notation.

  • For example, 625.9 can be written as 0.6259 x 10^3.

  • There are two important numbers here: the .6259 is called the significand.

  • And 3 is the exponent.

  • In a 32-bit floating point number, the first bit is used for the sign of the number -- positive

  • or negative.

  • The next 8 bits are used to store the exponent and the remaining 23 bits are used to store

  • the significand.

  • Ok, weve talked a lot about numbers, but your name is probably composed of letters,

  • so it’s really useful for computers to also have a way to represent text.

  • However, rather than have a special form of storage for letters,

  • computers simply use numbers to represent letters.

  • The most straightforward approach might be to simply number the letters of the alphabet:

  • A being 1, B being 2, C 3, and so on.

  • In fact, Francis Bacon, the famous English writer, used five-bit sequences to encode

  • all 26 letters of the English alphabet to send secret messages back in the 1600s.

  • And five bits can store 32 possible valuesso that’s enough for the 26 letters,

  • but not enough for punctuation, digits, and upper and lower case letters.

  • Enter ASCII, the American Standard Code for Information Interchange.

  • Invented in 1963, ASCII was a 7-bit code, enough to store 128 different values.

  • With this expanded range, it could encode capital letters, lowercase letters, digits

  • 0 through 9, and symbols like the @ sign and punctuation marks.

  • For example, a lowercase ‘a’ is represented by the number 97, while a capital ‘A’ is 65.

  • A colon is 58 and a closed parenthesis is 41.

  • ASCII even had a selection of special command codes, such as a newline character to tell

  • the computer where to wrap a line to the next row.

  • In older computer systems, the line of text would literally continue off the edge of the

  • screen if you didn’t include a new line character!

  • Because ASCII was such an early standard, it became widely used, and critically, allowed

  • different computers built by different companies to exchange data.

  • This ability to universally exchange information is calledinteroperability”.

  • However, it did have a major limitation: it was really only designed for English.

  • Fortunately, there are 8 bits in a byte, not 7, and it soon became popular to use codes

  • 128 through 255, previously unused, for "national" characters.

  • In the US, those extra numbers were largely used to encode additional symbols, like mathematical

  • notation, graphical elements, and common accented characters.

  • On the other hand, while the Latin characters were used universally, Russian computers used

  • the extra codes to encode Cyrillic characters, and Greek computers, Greek letters, and so on.

  • And national character codes worked pretty well for most countries.

  • The problem was, if you opened an email written in Latvian on a Turkish computer, the result

  • was completely incomprehensible.

  • And things totally broke with the rise of computing in Asia, as languages like Chinese and Japanese

  • have thousands of characters.

  • There was no way to encode all those characters in 8-bits!

  • In response, each country invented multi-byte encoding schemes, all of which were mutually incompatible.

  • The Japanese were so familiar with this encoding problem that they had a special name for it:

  • "mojibake", which means "scrambled text".

  • And so it was bornUnicodeone format to rule them all.

  • Devised in 1992 to finally do away with all of the different international schemes

  • it replaced them with one universal encoding scheme.

  • The most common version of Unicode uses 16 bits with space for over a million codes -

  • enough for every single character from every language ever used

  • more than 120,000 of them in over 100 types of script

  • plus space for mathematical symbols and even graphical characters like Emoji.

  • And in the same way that ASCII defines a scheme for encoding letters as binary numbers,

  • other file formatslike MP3s or GIFsuse

  • binary numbers to encode sounds or colors of a pixel in our photos, movies, and music.

  • Most importantly, under the hood it all comes down to long sequences of bits.

  • Text messages, this YouTube video, every webpage on the internet, and even your computer’s

  • operating system, are nothing but long sequences of 1s and 0s.

  • So next week, well start talking about how your computer starts manipulating those

  • binary sequences, for our first true taste of computation.

  • Thanks for watching. See you next week.

Hi I’m Carrie Anne, this is Crash Course Computer Science

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2進法で数字と文字を表現するクラッシュコース コンピュータサイエンス #4 (Representing Numbers and Letters with Binary: Crash Course Computer Science #4)

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    黃齡萱 に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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