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  • In this American English Pronunciation video,

  • we're going to study how to make the T and D consonant sounds.

  • These two sounds are paired together because they take the same mouth position.

  • Tt-- is unvoiced.

  • Meaning only air passes through the mouth.

  • And dd-- is voiced.

  • Meaning, dd-- you make a sound with the vocal chords.

  • These consonants are complicated because the way Americans pronounce them

  • isn't always what you'll find in a dictionary.

  • First, let's talk about the true pronunciation.

  • These are stop consonants which means there are two parts.

  • First, a stop in the airflow, and second, a release.

  • We stop here, by closing the vocal chords.,

  • and lift the tongue so the flat, top part is at the roof of the mouth

  • It's far forward, almost touching the back of the top front teeth.

  • The teeth come together and we release all three parts at once.

  • The tongue comes down from the roof of the mouth,

  • the teeth part,

  • and we release the air in the throat

  • Tt---

  • Dd---

  • Just like with other stop consonants,

  • we want to release them into the next sound.

  • Let's look at the true T and D consonants

  • up close and in slow motion.

  • The teeth come together and the top , front part of the tongue is at the roof of the mouth.

  • The air stops in the throat.

  • Then the teeth part and the tongue pulls down to release.

  • The word 'desk'.

  • The teeth closed and the tongue is at the roof of the mouth.

  • Then everything releases right into the EH as in Bed vowel.

  • The word 'stick'.

  • The teeth close and the tongue is at the roof of the mouth.

  • Then everything releases right into the IH as in Sit vowel.

  • The word 'expect'.

  • The teeth nearly close and the tongue is at the roof of the mouth.

  • Then the teeth release just a bit.

  • There's no next sound to release into.

  • So the movement is minimal for the release.

  • The tongue releases down.

  • It's possible to make the true D without the teeth coming together.

  • Said. Dd-- dd---

  • Because of the voice in this sound, we can still release it.

  • Said. Dd--

  • But to make the True T,

  • the teeth do have to come together or nearly together.

  • Set. Tt--

  • That was the True T and True D.

  • If the T or D are at the end of a sentence,

  • or if the next word begins with a consonant,

  • then you make a Stop T or Stop D.

  • We stop the air, but we don't release it.

  • You lift your tongue into position,

  • stop the air, and that's it.

  • For example, the word 'mad', dd---

  • Mad-d-d-d--

  • Notice the last sound is d--

  • The beginning of the D, dd--

  • with the vocal chords engaged because it's a voiced consonant.

  • I don't release.

  • A release would sound like this: mad-dd--

  • But instead, I say, mad-dd--

  • leaving my tongue tip up.

  • Now, let's look at an example with a T followed by another consonant.

  • The phrase "not for me".

  • Here, the T is followed by F.

  • I stop the air, not--

  • And then with out releasing, go into the F sound.

  • Not--for... not for me.

  • With stop consonants, we do stop the air in the throat.

  • So I don't have to move my tongue up into position for the T to stop the sound.

  • In this phrase, "not for me",

  • I touch the roof of the mouth with a part of the tongue that's further back.

  • Not--

  • My tongue tip can stay down.

  • This helps me make the stop even shorter.

  • So I can quickly go in to the next sound.

  • Not for-- Not for--

  • I'll bring my tongue up for the Stop T if the next sound

  • also requires the tongue being at the roof of the mouth.

  • When I say "not for me",

  • instead of "noT for me".

  • The words are more connected and the sentence is smoother.

  • That's what we want in American English.

  • And that's why we use the Stop T instead of the True T in these cases.

  • Not for me.

  • Let's look at a stop up close and in slow motion.

  • Here's the word 'what'.

  • I don't release the T at the end.

  • The tongue goes to the roof of the mouth.

  • But then I just stop the air.

  • My teeth aren't together and I don't release.

  • The lips simply close: what--

  • Here's what it looks like with a True T.

  • The teeth come together, then a sudden release.

  • Compare the ending. The top is 'what' with a Stop T.

  • And the bottom is 'what' with a True T.

  • For the Stop T, the teeth don't come together

  • because they don't need to release.

  • The air simply stops with the tongue in position.

  • For the True T, we bring the teeth together so the tongue, teeth, and air release.

  • The Stop T and D relate to the True T and D.

  • We simply skip the release.

  • But when the T or D come between 2 vowels or diphthongs,

  • or after an R and before a vowel or diphthong,

  • we make a different sound.

  • One exception, if the T or D starts a stressed syllable,

  • then it's a True T or D.

  • But in other cases, when the T or D consonants come between two vowels or diphthongs,

  • or after an R and before a vowel or diphthong,

  • we make a flap sound.

  • This is different from the True and Stop T and D

  • because we don't stop the sound, we don't hold anything.

  • We simply let the front part of the tongue bounce against the roof of the mouth

  • without stopping the flow of the air.

  • The Flap T and Flap D sound the same.

  • The Flap T and Flap D sound the same. The T in 'matter', is the same as the D in 'madder'.

  • Matter. Madder.

  • This sounds just like the R in many languages.

  • But in American English, it's the Flap T or Flap D.

  • In my videos, I use the D symbol for this sound.

  • This sound, however, isn't a stop consonant anymore.

  • Let's look at some words with a flap up close and in slow motion.

  • The word 'city'. Here the T comes between two vowel sounds so it's a flap.

  • The tongue is in position for the IH vowel.

  • Watch how it flaps against the roof of the mouth quickly.

  • The air doesn't stop.

  • mouth quickly. The air doesn't stop. That flap was fast even in slow motion.

  • Let's watch again.

  • The whole word one more time.

  • The word 'party'. Here, the T comes after an R and before a vowel.

  • So it's a flap. The tongue is back and up for the R.

  • Watch it flap.

  • And come down from the flap.

  • The air didn't stop. Watch the whole word one more time.

  • The word 'tidy'. Here, the D comes after a diphthong and before a vowel

  • so it's a Flap D, watch the tongue flap.

  • The whole word one more time.

  • To isolate the sound, try holding out the sound before and after.

  • Party.

  • Then you can really feel the tongue flap bouncing against the roof of the mouth.

  • Remember, this isn't represented in dictionaries.

  • They will show the symbol for the True T: Party.

  • Even though Americans pronounce it 'party'.

  • So remember the rule.

  • When a T or D comes between vowels and diphthongs,

  • or after an R before a vowel or diphthong, like 'party',

  • unless it starts a stressed syllable, flap the tongue.

  • Sometimes, we drop the T or D completely.

  • We leave the sounds out. This is an American habit.

  • If you look up the words in the dictionary, the sounds are there.

  • There are two cases when you might hear an American drop a T or D.

  • First, when the T or D comes between two consonant sounds.

  • For example, 'exactly'.

  • This word has the K, T, L consonants together.

  • But most people pronounce it without the T.

  • Exactly.

  • Full pronunciation: exactly.

  • Common pronunciation: exactly.

  • Dropping the T between two consonants simplifies the pronunciation.

  • Also, we often drop the T when it comes after an N.

  • Many Americans say 'cenner' instead of 'center'.

  • Or 'innerview' instead of 'interview'.

  • This is a big topic.

  • I have a whole series of videos on the pronunciation of T and D which you can find on my website.

  • The True T and D sounds.

  • Desk

  • Stick

  • Expect

  • Stop T and D.

  • Mad

  • Not

  • What

  • The Flap T and D

  • City

  • Party

  • Tidy

  • Example words. Repeat with me:

  • Best. Tt-- Best.

  • Time. Tt-- Time.

  • Do. Dd-- do.

  • Odd. --dd. Odd.

  • There is no way to make a Stop T sound on its own

  • It's a lack of sound.

  • Cut

  • Better. Ra-- Better.

  • This video is one of 36 in a new series, The Sounds of American English.

  • Videos in this set will be release here on YouTube twice a month.

  • first and third Thursdays in 2016 and 2017.

  • But the whole set can be all yours right now.

  • The real value of these videos is watching them as a set, as a whole,

  • to give your mind the time to take it all in an get the bigger picture.

  • Most of the materials you'll find elsewhere just teach the sounds on their own, in isolation.

  • It's a mistake to learn them this way.

  • We learn the sounds to speak words and sentences, not just sounds.

  • Move closer to fluency in spoken English.

  • Buy the video set today.

  • Visit rachelsenglish.com/sounds

  • Available as a DVD or digital download.

In this American English Pronunciation video,

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A2 初級

English Sounds - T [t] and D [d] Consonants - How to make the T and D Consonants

  • 476 26
    EZ Wang   に公開 2017 年 05 月 15 日
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