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  • What an intriguing group of individuals you are ...

    実に興味深い方々が お集まりですね・・・

  • to a psychologist.

    心理学者には たまりません

  • (Laughter)


  • I've had the opportunity over the last couple of days

    これまでの2日間 この機会を使って

  • of listening in on some of your conversations

    一部の方々の会話を 盗み聞きしたり

  • and watching you interact with each other.

    交流される様子を 観察してきました

  • And I think it's fair to say, already,

    そこから 早くも言えることですが

  • that there are 47 people in this audience,

    この会場の皆さんの中で 少なくとも47人には

  • at this moment,


  • displaying psychological symptoms I would like to discuss today.

    今日私がお話する心理症状が 表れています

  • (Laughter)


  • And I thought you might like to know who you are.

    自分のことなのか 知りたい方もいるでしょう

  • (Laughter)


  • But instead of pointing at you,

    でも 指差したりすると

  • which would be gratuitous and intrusive,

    差し出がましいし 余計なお世話でしょうから

  • I thought I would tell you a few facts and stories,

    代わりに幾つかの事実や お話を紹介します

  • in which you may catch a glimpse of yourself.

    心当たりのある方も いるかもしれません

  • I'm in the field of research known as personality psychology,

    私の研究分野は 人格心理学といって

  • which is part of a larger personality science

    もっと広範な 人格の科学という—

  • which spans the full spectrum, from neurons to narratives.

    ニューロンの研究から物語分析に至るまで 全範囲にまたがる分野の一部です

  • And what we try to do,


  • in our own way,


  • is to make sense of how each of us --

    いかに 我々一人一人や

  • each of you --


  • is, in certain respects,


  • like all other people,


  • like some other people


  • and like no other person.

    他の誰とも異なるのか 解析を試みます

  • Now, already you may be saying of yourself,

    さて この時点でもう こんな風に思っていませんか

  • "I'm not intriguing.


  • I am the 46th most boring person in the Western Hemisphere."

    西半球で46番目に つまらない人間だぞ」

  • Or you may say of yourself,

    もしくは こんなことでしょうか

  • "I am intriguing,


  • even if I am regarded by most people as a great, thundering twit."

    たいていの人には救いようのない大バカだと 思われているかもしれないが」

  • (Laughter)


  • But it is your self-diagnosed boringness and your inherent "twitiness"

    でも この「つまらない」という自己評価や 天性の「バカさ」にこそ

  • that makes me, as a psychologist, really fascinated by you.

    心理学者の私としては 実に興味をそそられるのです

  • So let me explain why this is so.


  • One of the most influential approaches in personality science

    人格科学で最も影響力のある アプローチの1つは

  • is known as trait psychology,


  • and it aligns you along five dimensions which are normally distributed,

    正規分布した5つの尺度に 個人を当てはめることで

  • and that describe universally held aspects of difference between people.

    個々の違いとして普遍的に現れる側面を 描き出します

  • They spell out the acronym OCEAN.

    頭文字をとって「OCEAN」 といいます

  • So, "O" stands for "open to experience,"

    Oは「open」 つまり好奇心旺盛な人

  • versus those who are more closed.

    反対は 保守的思考の人です

  • "C" stands for "conscientiousness,"

    Cは「conscientious」 つまり勤勉な人を指し

  • in contrast to those with a more lackadaisical approach to life.

    反対は 人生に対して 意欲がない人のことです

  • "E" -- "extroversion," in contrast to more introverted people.

    Eは「extroversion」外向性です 内向的な人の反対です

  • "A" -- "agreeable individuals,"

    Aは「agreeable」 つまり協調性のある人

  • in contrast to those decidedly not agreeable.

    反対は 明らかに協調性のない人

  • And "N" -- "neurotic individuals,"

    Nは「neurotic」 つまり神経質な人のことで

  • in contrast to those who are more stable.

    反対は もっと泰然とした人のことです

  • All of these dimensions have implications for our well-being,

    これらの面 全てが 我々の幸福や

  • for how our life goes.


  • And so we know that, for example,

    ですから 例えば

  • openness and conscientiousness are very good predictors of life success,

    好奇心や勤勉さは 成功を予測する 指標として大変優れていますが

  • but the open people achieve that success through being audacious

    好奇心旺盛な人は大胆さや 時に奇妙ともいえる振る舞いによって

  • and, occasionally, odd.


  • The conscientious people achieve it through sticking to deadlines,

    勤勉な人の場合は 期限を死守することや

  • to persevering, as well as having some passion.

    粘り強さや ある程度の情熱のおかげで 成功にたどり着きます

  • Extroversion and agreeableness are both conducive

    外向性や協調性はどちらも 他人との良好な関係に

  • to working well with people.


  • Extroverts, for example, I find intriguing.

    例えば私は 外向型人間に興味を惹かれます

  • With my classes, I sometimes give them a basic fact

    大学で教えるときは 学生の性格を露呈するかもしれない—

  • that might be revealing with respect to their personality:


  • I tell them that it is virtually impossible for adults

    成人が自分のヒジの 外側を舐めるのは

  • to lick the outside of their own elbow.

    実質 不可能だと教えるのです

  • (Laughter)


  • Did you know that?


  • Already, some of you have tried to lick the outside of your own elbow.

    もう既に自分のヒジの 外側を舐めようとした方もいますね

  • But extroverts amongst you

    でも その中でも外向的な人とは

  • are probably those who have not only tried,

    おそらく 試してみただけでなく

  • but they have successfully licked the elbow


  • of the person sitting next to them.


  • (Laughter)


  • Those are the extroverts.


  • Let me deal in a bit more detail with extroversion,

    外向性について もう少し詳しく見てみましょう

  • because it's consequential and it's intriguing,

    重要なことですし 興味深くもありますし

  • and it helps us understand what I call our three natures.

    私の言葉で言う「3つの気質」の 理解にも役立ちますからね

  • First, our biogenic nature -- our neurophysiology.

    1つ目は生体由来の気質 つまり神経生理学的な性質です

  • Second, our sociogenic or second nature,

    2つ目は社会由来の気質 または後天的に身についた気質

  • which has to do with the cultural and social aspects of our lives.

    我々の生活の 文化面や社会面に関連します

  • And third, what makes you individually you -- idiosyncratic --

    3つ目は あなたという個人を 形づくる「特質」—

  • what I call your "idiogenic" nature.

    私は「個人由来」の気質と 呼んでいます

  • Let me explain.


  • One of the things that characterizes extroverts is they need stimulation.

    外向型人間には刺激を必要とするという 特徴があります

  • And that stimulation can be achieved by finding things that are exciting:

    その刺激は ワクワクするものを 見つけることで得られます

  • loud noises, parties and social events here at TED --

    例えば 大音量、パーティー TEDみたいな社交イベント

  • you see the extroverts forming a magnetic core.

    外向型人間が集まって 磁石のような求心力を発揮します

  • They all gather together.


  • And I've seen you.

    そういう人 見かけましたよ

  • The introverts are more likely to spend time in the quiet spaces

    内向型人間は 静かな空間—

  • up on the second floor,


  • where they are able to reduce stimulation --

    刺激を減らせる場所で 過ごすことの方が多いです

  • and may be misconstrued as being antisocial,

    非社交的だと 誤解されるかもしれませんが

  • but you're not necessarily antisocial.


  • It may be that you simply realize that you do better

    ただ 刺激を減らせる機会があるなら

  • when you have a chance to lower that level of stimulation.

    利用したほうがうまくいくと 気づいただけかもしれません

  • Sometimes it's an internal stimulant, from your body.

    時には刺激が体の内部から 来ているときもあります

  • Caffeine, for example, works much better with extroverts than it does introverts.

    例えばカフェインは内向型よりも 外向型の人にずっと効果的です

  • When extroverts come into the office at nine o'clock in the morning


  • and say, "I really need a cup of coffee,"

    「あぁ コーヒー欲しい」 と言うときは

  • they're not kidding --


  • they really do.


  • Introverts do not do as well,


  • particularly if the tasks they're engaged in --

    特に 取り組んでいる作業が

  • and they've had some coffee --


  • if those tasks are speeded,


  • and if they're quantitative,


  • introverts may give the appearance of not being particularly quantitative.

    内向型は一見 特に数字に強そうな 印象を与えないかもしれません

  • But it's a misconstrual.


  • So here are the consequences that are really quite intriguing:

    さて どういう違いが表れるのか 実に面白いです

  • we're not always what seem to be,

    人は必ずしも 見かけによらないものです

  • and that takes me to my next point.


  • I should say, before getting to this,


  • something about sexual intercourse,

    性行為について 触れておきましょうか

  • although I may not have time.

    ただ 時間が足りないかもしれません

  • And so, if you would like me to --

    ですから 先を聞きたいなら—

  • yes, you would?

    えっ 聞きたい?

  • OK.


  • (Laughter)


  • There are studies done

    男女の営みの頻度を 調査した研究が幾つかあります

  • on the frequency with which individuals engage in the conjugal act,

    男と女、内向的か外向的かで 分けています

  • as broken down by male, female; introvert, extrovert.


  • So I ask you:


  • How many times per minute --

    失敬 今のは ネズミの研究でした

  • oh, I'm sorry, that was a rat study --


  • (Laughter)


  • How many times per month

    内向的な男性が その行為に及ぶかというと

  • do introverted men engage in the act?


  • 3.0.


  • Extroverted men?

    多い? それとも少ない?

  • More or less?

    そうです 多いのです

  • Yes, more.

    5.5回と ほぼ倍の数ですね

  • 5.5 -- almost twice as much.


  • Introverted women: 3.1.


  • Extroverted women?

    正直 内向的な男から見ると—

  • Frankly, speaking as an introverted male,


  • which I will explain later --


  • they are heroic.


  • 7.5.

    外向的な男性全員を 相手にするだけでなく

  • They not only handle all the male extroverts,

    内向的な男性も何人か つまみ食いしています

  • they pick up a few introverts as well.


  • (Laughter)


  • (Applause)

    外向型と内向型では コミュニケーション方法が違います

  • We communicate differently, extroverts and introverts.


  • Extroverts, when they interact,

    たくさんの人と しかも近い距離で 出会いたがります

  • want to have lots of social encounter punctuated by closeness.

    近くに立っての コミュニケーションを好み

  • They'd like to stand close for comfortable communication.

    たくさんのアイコンタクトを好み じっと見つめ合いたがります

  • They like to have a lot of eye contact,


  • or mutual gaze.

    外交的な人の方が よく人にあだ名をつけるそうです

  • We found in some research

    例えばチャールズという人に 出会ったときは

  • that they use more diminutive terms when they meet somebody.

    すぐに「チャーリー」や 「チャック」と呼び始め

  • So when an extrovert meets a Charles,

    「チャックルズ・ベイビー (クスクスちゃん)」に

  • it rapidly becomes "Charlie," and then "Chuck,"


  • and then "Chuckles Baby."


  • (Laughter)

    話している相手から 親密にしていいという許可が出るまで

  • Whereas for introverts,


  • it remains "Charles," until he's given a pass to be more intimate


  • by the person he's talking to.

    外交型人間は白黒はっきりした 具体的で シンプルな言葉を好みます

  • We speak differently.

    内向型人間は— ここで言っておくと

  • Extroverts prefer black-and-white, concrete, simple language.

    私は 類を見ないほど 内向型中の内向型でして—

  • Introverts prefer -- and I must again tell you


  • that I am as extreme an introvert as you could possibly imagine --


  • we speak differently.


  • We prefer contextually complex,


  • contingent,


  • weasel-word sentences --

    まぁ そんなところで—

  • (Laughter)


  • More or less.


  • (Laughter)


  • As it were.


  • (Laughter)


  • Not to put too fine a point upon it --


  • like that.


  • When we talk,

    ある同僚と共同で受けた コンサル契約がありました

  • we sometimes talk past each other.

    これ以上ないってくらい 正反対のコンビでした

  • I had a consulting contract I shared with a colleague

    まず 同僚の名前はトム

  • who's as different from me as two people can possibly be.


  • First, his name is Tom.


  • Mine isn't.

    次に 身長が195cmあります

  • (Laughter)


  • Secondly, he's six foot five.


  • I have a tendency not to be.

    そして これ以上ないってくらい 外向型人間

  • (Laughter)

    私は 猛烈に内向的です

  • And thirdly, he's as extroverted a person as you could find.


  • I am seriously introverted.

    午後3時以降に コーヒーを1杯飲むだけで

  • I overload so much,


  • I can't even have a cup of coffee after three in the afternoon

    クライアントから マイケルという男を付けられました

  • and expect to sleep in the evening.

    しかし 危うくプロジェクトを 台無しにされかけました

  • We had seconded to this project a fellow called Michael.

    さて マイケルの派遣元から 打診がありました

  • And Michael almost brought the project to a crashing halt.


  • So the person who seconded him asked Tom and me,

    トムが何と言ったかは 後で教えます

  • "What do you make of Michael?"


  • Well, I'll tell you what Tom said in a minute.

    そして 私の発言を 外向型の耳で解釈してくれたのですが

  • He spoke in classic "extrovert-ese."


  • And here is how extroverted ears heard what I said,

    私「うーん マイケルには 確かに傾向として

  • which is actually pretty accurate.

    通常必要とされる以上に 主張が強いと

  • I said, "Well Michael does have a tendency at times

    一部の人から思われるかもしれない 行動が時に見られるね」

  • of behaving in a way that some of us might see


  • as perhaps more assertive than is normally called for."


  • (Laughter)

    「ブライアン それは私が 言ったばかりじゃないか

  • Tom rolled his eyes and he said,


  • "Brian, that's what I said:


  • he's an asshole!"


  • (Laughter)


  • (Applause)

    マイケルの振る舞いの中でも 特定の「ロクデナシ」的な部分を

  • Now, as an introvert,


  • I might gently allude to certain "assholic" qualities

    汚い言葉が 飛び出すことはありません

  • in this man's behavior,


  • but I'm not going to lunge for the a-word.

    でも 外向型のトムは

  • (Laughter)

    「バカをバカと言って何が悪い」 という考え方です

  • But the extrovert says,


  • "If he walks like one, if he talks like one, I call him one."

    さて これは我々も 参考にすべきことでしょうか?

  • And we go past each other.


  • Now is this something that we should be heedful of?


  • Of course.


  • It's important that we know this.


  • Is that all we are?


  • Are we just a bunch of traits?

    いいですか 皆さんは 他の誰かと似ているようで

  • No, we're not.


  • Remember, you're like some other people

    皆さん個人の 自分らしさはどうでしょう?

  • and like no other person.

    エリザベスさんも ジョージさんも

  • How about that idiosyncratic you?

    外向性や神経質さという面で 他人と似た部分もありますが

  • As Elizabeth or as George,

    ご自身の振る舞いの中で エリザベスらしい独特さや

  • you may share your extroversion or your neuroticism.


  • But are there some distinctively Elizabethan features of your behavior,

    ただの特性の集まりよりも それを超えて伝わってくるその人らしさが

  • or Georgian of yours,


  • that make us understand you better than just a bunch of traits?

    特定のタイプの人間だから という理由ではないのです

  • That make us love you?

    人を鳩の箱に入れるように 分類するのは気がひけます

  • Not just because you're a certain type of person.

    鳩でさえ 箱に所属しているとも 思いませんし

  • I'm uncomfortable putting people in pigeonholes.

    では 何が我々の個性を作るのか

  • I don't even think pigeons belong in pigeonholes.

    それは人生の中での活動— パーソナル・プロジェクトです

  • So what is it that makes us different?


  • It's the doings that we have in our life -- the personal projects.

    それを他の誰も 知らないだけかもしれません

  • You have a personal project right now,


  • but nobody may know it here.


  • It relates to your kid --


  • you've been back three times to the hospital,


  • and they still don't know what's wrong.

    こういう状況で出る 柄にもない振る舞い

  • Or it could be your mom.


  • And you'd been acting out of character.

    とても聞き分けの良い人が 自分の母親や子供のこととなると

  • These are free traits.

    病院での事務手続きで 延々と足止めを食らっているときなど