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  • So earlier this year,


  • I was informed that I would be doing a TED Talk.

    TEDトークをしてほしいと 依頼されました

  • So I was excited, then I panicked,

    すごく嬉しかったけれど パニックになり

  • then I was excited, then I panicked,


  • and in between the excitement and the panicking,


  • I started to do my research,


  • and my research primarily consisted of Googling how to give a great TED Talk.

    主に 素晴らしいTEDトークの話し方を Googleで調べてばかりでした

  • (Laughter)


  • And interspersed with that,


  • I was Googling Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie.

    チママンダ・ンゴズィ・アディーチェを 検索しました

  • How many of you know who that is?


  • (Cheers)


  • So I was Googling her because I always Google her

    彼女を検索したのは いつも検索しているからで

  • because I'm just a fan,


  • but also because she always has important and interesting things to say.

    彼女の話が いつも面白くて ためになるからでもあります

  • And the combination of those searches

    いろいろ検索していくと いつも

  • kept leading me to her talk


  • on the dangers of a single story,

    物語が1つしかない時の 危険に関する話 —

  • on what happens when we have a solitary lens

    ある集団を理解する視点が 1つしかない場合

  • through which to understand certain groups of people,


  • and it is the perfect talk.


  • It's the talk that I would have given if I had been famous first.

    私が先に有名になっていたら きっと話していたのは 私だったでしょう

  • (Laughter)


  • You know, and you know, like, she's African and I'm African,

    彼女はアフリカ人で 私もアフリカ人

  • and she's a feminist and I'm a feminist,


  • and she's a storyteller and I'm a storyteller,


  • so I really felt like it's my talk.

    本当に自分のトークという 気がしていました

  • (Laughter)


  • So I decided that I was going to learn how to code,

    そこで決心したのが プログラムの書き方を学んで

  • and then I was going to hack the internet


  • and I would take down all the copies of that talk that existed,

    今あるトークの ビデオを全部削除し

  • and then I would memorize it,


  • and then I would come here and deliver it as if it was my own speech.

    ステージに上り 自分のトークみたいに話すこと

  • So that plan was going really well, except the coding part,

    この計画はうまくいきそうでした プログラムだけは問題でしたが

  • and then one morning a few months ago,

    その後 数か月前のある朝

  • I woke up


  • to the news that the wife of a certain presidential candidate


  • had given a speech that --


  • (Laughter)


  • (Applause)


  • that sounded eerily like a speech given by one of my other faves,

    それが私が大好きな もう一人の人物 ミシェル・オバマのスピーチに

  • Michelle Obama.

    奇妙なほど そっくりだったんです

  • (Cheers)


  • And so I decided that I should probably write my own TED Talk,

    それで私は自分なりの TEDトークにすべきだと思ったんです

  • and so that is what I am here to do.

    それを ここでお話しします

  • I'm here to talk about my own observations about storytelling.

    お話しするのは 「物語を語ること」に関する 私自身の考えです

  • I want to talk to you about the power of stories, of course,

    もちろん 物語の持つ力のことは お話ししたいんですが

  • but I also want to talk about their limitations,

    同時に 物語には限界があること

  • particularly for those of us who are interested in social justice.

    特に社会正義に関心がある私たちには 物語に限界があることをお話しします

  • So since Adichie gave that talk seven years ago,

    アディーチェが7年前に TEDトークをして以降

  • there has been a boom in storytelling.


  • Stories are everywhere,


  • and if there was a danger in the telling of one tired old tale,

    みんなが聞き飽きた話を語り続けるのが 危険なことだとすると

  • then I think there has got to be lots to celebrate about the flourishing

    いろいろな人が こんなにたくさん物語を広めているのは

  • of so many stories and so many voices.


  • Stories are the antidote to bias.


  • In fact, today, if you are middle class and connected via the internet,

    現在 皆さんが中流階級で インターネットにつながっているなら

  • you can download stories at the touch of a button

    ボタンにタッチしたり 画面をスワイプするだけで

  • or the swipe of a screen.


  • You can listen to a podcast


  • about what it's like to grow up Dalit in Kolkata.

    コルカタで不可触民として育つとは どういうことか知ることができます

  • You can hear an indigenous man in Australia


  • talk about the trials and triumphs of raising his children in dignity

    尊厳と誇りの中で子供を育てることの 難しさと素晴らしさについて

  • and in pride.


  • Stories make us fall in love.

    物語によって 私たちは恋に落ち

  • They heal rifts and they bridge divides.

    亀裂は修復され 分断は解消されます

  • Stories can even make it easier for us


  • to talk about the deaths of people in our societies

    この社会で大事にされない 人々の死について

  • who don't matter, because they make us care.


  • Right?


  • I'm not so sure,

    でも どうでしょうか

  • and I actually work for a place called the Centre for Stories.

    私はセンター・フォー・ストーリーズという ところで働いています

  • And my job is to help to tell stories

    私の仕事は物語を広めるのを 手伝うことです

  • that challenge mainstream narratives about what it means to be black

    その物語とは 黒人であることや

  • or a Muslim or a refugee or any of those other categories

    ムスリムや難民 あるいは よく議論になる 集団であることとは

  • that we talk about all the time.

    どういうことなのか 主流となっている 物語に疑問を投げかけるものです

  • But I come to this work

    ただ この仕事を始めたのは

  • after a long history as a social justice activist,

    長い間 社会正義の活動家として 携わってきて

  • and so I'm really interested in the ways


  • that people talk about nonfiction storytelling


  • as though it's about more than entertainment,


  • as though it's about being a catalyst for social action.

    社会活動の触媒として 語ることに関心があるからです

  • It's not uncommon to hear people say


  • that stories make the world a better place.


  • Increasingly, though, I worry that even the most poignant stories,

    でも 私はだんだん 不安になってきました

  • particularly the stories about people who no one seems to care about,

    どんなに心が痛む物語でも 誰も関心を持たないような人々の話は特に

  • can often get in the way of action towards social justice.

    社会正義を実践する 妨げになることが多いんです

  • Now, this is not because storytellers mean any harm.


  • Quite the contrary.


  • Storytellers are often do-gooders like me and, I suspect, yourselves.

    多くの場合 語り手は私や 恐らく皆さんと同じ 善意の人です

  • And the audiences of storytellers


  • are often deeply compassionate and empathetic people.

    とても共感力があり 思いやりのある人々です

  • Still, good intentions can have unintended consequences,

    ただ 良かれと思ってすることが 思いがけない結果を招くことがあります

  • and so I want to propose that stories are not as magical as they seem.

    だから 物語には魔法の力がありそうで 実際はないんだと言いたいんです

  • So three -- because it's always got to be three --

    ここで3点 — お決まりの文句ですが

  • three reasons why I think

    物語では必ずしも 世界は良くならないと

  • that stories don't necessarily make the world a better place.


  • Firstly, stories can create an illusion of solidarity.

    1つ目 物語は「一体感」という 幻想を生むことがあります

  • There is nothing like that feel-good factor you get


  • from listening to a fantastic story


  • where you feel like you climbed that mountain, right,

    例えば あの山に登った 気分になれる話とか

  • or that you befriended that death row inmate.

    死刑囚と友達になった話とか —

  • But you didn't.


  • You haven't done anything.


  • Listening is an important


  • but insufficient step towards social action.

    社会的な行動を起こすには 不十分なんです

  • Secondly, I think often we are drawn

    2つ目 私たちは大抵

  • towards characters and protagonists


  • who are likable and human.

    登場人物や主人公に 惹かれると思うんです

  • And this makes sense, of course, right?


  • Because if you like someone, then you care about them.

    誰かを好きになれば その人が気になるものです

  • But the inverse is also true.

    でも その逆もあります

  • If you don't like someone,


  • then you don't care about them.


  • And if you don't care about them,


  • you don't have to see yourself as having a moral obligation

    その人々の暮らしを形作る 環境のことを

  • to think about the circumstances that shaped their lives.


  • I learned this lesson when I was 14 years old.

    私は そのことを 14歳の時に学びました

  • I learned that actually, you don't have to like someone

    好きにならなくても 実は 相手の知恵を

  • to recognize their wisdom,


  • and you certainly don't have to like someone

    好きにならなくても 確かに 相手の力になれる

  • to take a stand by their side.


  • So my bike was stolen


  • while I was riding it --


  • (Laughter)


  • which is possible if you're riding slowly enough, which I was.

    ノロノロ走っていれば そんなことも起こります

  • (Laughter)


  • So one minute I'm cutting across this field


  • in the Nairobi neighborhood where I grew up,


  • and it's like a very bumpy path,


  • and so when you're riding a bike,


  • you don't want to be like, you know --


  • (Laughter)


  • And so I'm going like this, slowly pedaling,

    だから こんな風に ゆっくりこいでいると

  • and all of a sudden, I'm on the floor.

    いきなり ひっくり返りました

  • I'm on the ground, and I look up,

    地面に倒れて 見上げると

  • and there's this kid peddling away in the getaway vehicle,

    逃げていく子供が 逃走車にまたがっていて

  • which is my bike,


  • and he's about 11 or 12 years old, and I'm on the floor,

    その子は11歳か12歳くらい 私は倒れたまま

  • and I'm crying because I saved a lot of money for that bike,

    泣きました 随分貯金して買ったんですから

  • and I'm crying and I stand up and I start screaming.

    私は泣きながら立ち上がり 叫び始めました

  • Instinct steps in, and I start screaming, "Mwizi, mwizi!"

    本能的に叫んだんです 「ムウィジ!ムウィジ!」

  • which means "thief" in Swahili.


  • And out of the woodworks, all of these people come out

    木造の戸口から 次々と人が現れてきて

  • and they start to give chase.


  • This is Africa, so mob justice in action.

    アフリカですから 群衆による裁きが始まったんです

  • Right?


  • And I round the corner, and they've captured him,

    私が角を曲がると 子供が捕まっていました

  • they've caught him.


  • The suspect has been apprehended,


  • and they make him give me my bike back,

    その子は自転車を返すよう 言われた上

  • and they also make him apologize.


  • Again, you know, typical African justice, right?

    これも よくある アフリカらしい正義ですね

  • And so they make him say sorry.


  • And so we stand there facing each other,


  • and he looks at me, and he says sorry,

    その子が私を見つめて 謝りましたが

  • but he looks at me with this unbridled fury.

    抑えきれないほどの怒りを込めて 睨みつけてきたんです

  • He is very, very angry.


  • And it is the first time that I have been confronted with someone


  • who doesn't like me simply because of what I represent.

    自分を嫌う人に直面したのは これが初めてでした

  • He looks at me with this look as if to say,

    その子は こう言いたげに 私を睨みました

  • "You, with your shiny skin and your bike, you're angry at me?"

    「肌はきれいで 自転車まで持ってるのに 俺に怒ってるのか?」

  • So it was a hard lesson that he didn't like me,

    嫌われたのは 辛い教訓でしたが

  • but you know what, he was right.


  • I was a middle-class kid living in a poor country.

    私は貧しい国の 中流階級の子供でした

  • I had a bike, and he barely had food.

    私は自転車を持っていましたが その子は食べ物にも事欠いていました

  • Sometimes, it's the messages that we don't want to hear,


  • the ones that make us want to crawl out of ourselves,

    自分が嫌になるような メッセージこそ

  • that we need to hear the most.

    一番聞かねばならない ということがあります

  • For every lovable storyteller who steals your heart,

    みんなの心を奪うような 愛すべき語り手がいる一方で

  • there are hundreds more whose voices are slurred and ragged,

    口下手で 声は耳障りで

  • who don't get to stand up on a stage dressed in fine clothes like this.

    きれいな服を着てステージに立つ 機会などない人が何百人もいるんです

  • There are a million angry-boy-on-a-bike stories

    怒りに震える自転車泥棒の話は 無数にありますが

  • and we can't afford to ignore them

    私たちは そういった話を

  • simply because we don't like their protagonists


  • or because that's not the kid that we would bring home with us

    孤児院から引き取ろうとは 思わないタイプの子供だからと言って

  • from the orphanage.


  • The third reason that I think


  • that stories don't necessarily make the world a better place

    世界を良くする訳ではないと考える 3つ目の理由は

  • is that too often we are so invested in the personal narrative

    私たちが あまりにも 個人的な話に のめり込み過ぎて

  • that we forget to look at the bigger picture.


  • And so we applaud someone


  • when they tell us about their feelings of shame,

    私たちは その人を賞賛しますが

  • but we don't necessarily link that to oppression.

    その感情を抑圧と結びつけて 考えるとは限りません

  • We nod understandingly when someone says they felt small,

    誰かが自分は非力だと語れば 私たちは理解したかのように頷きますが

  • but we don't link that to discrimination.


  • The most important stories, especially for social justice,

    特に社会正義にとって 最も大切な物語とは

  • are those that do both,

    両方を語る物語 すなわち

  • that are both personal and allow us to explore and understand the political.

    個人的でもあり 政治的な側面をも 考え理解できる そんな物語です

  • But it's not just about the stories we like

    一方これは単に 私たちが好む物語と

  • versus the stories we choose to ignore.

    無視してしまう種の物語の 対立の問題ではありません

  • Increasingly, we are living in a society where there are larger forces at play,

    私たちが暮らす社会には ますます大きな力が作用し

  • where stories are actually for many people beginning to replace the news.

    多くの人にとって 物語がニュースに取って代わりつつあります

  • Yeah?


  • We live in a time where we are witnessing the decline of facts,

    私たちが生きる この時代 事実が軽んじられ

  • when emotions rule


  • and analysis, it's kind of boring, right?

    分析は退屈なものとされるのを 目の当たりにしているんです

  • Where we value what we feel more than what we actually know.

    自分が実際に知っていることより 感覚を重視する時代なんです

  • A recent report by the Pew Center on trends in America

    ピュー研究所が最近公表した アメリカのトレンドに関する調査によると

  • indicates that only 10 percent of young adults under the age of 30


  • "place a lot of trust in the media."

    「メディアを信頼する」と 答えていません

  • Now, this is significant.

    これは とても重大なことです

  • It means that storytellers are gaining trust


  • at precisely the same moment


  • that many in the media are losing the confidence in the public.

    メディアの多くが大衆の信頼を 失っているということですから

  • This is not a good thing,


  • because while stories are important


  • and they help us to have insights in many ways,

    お陰で私たちは様々な 物の見方を得られますが

  • we need the media.


  • From my years as a social justice activist,

    社会正義活動家としての 長年の経験から

  • I know very well that we need credible facts from media institutions

    身に染みて分かるのは 報道機関による信頼性の高い事実に

  • combined with the powerful voices of storytellers.

    語り手の力強い話を 結びつける必要があるという点です

  • That's what pushes the needle forward in terms of social justice.

    社会正義の前進を促すのは そういうことなんです

  • In the final analysis, of course,


  • it is justice


  • that makes the world a better place,


  • not stories. Right?


  • And so if it is justice that we are after,

    だから 私たちが追求するのが正義なら

  • then I think we mustn't focus on the media or on storytellers.

    メディアや語り手を 中心に考えていてはいけないと思います

  • We must focus on audiences,

    重視すべきなのは聞き手 すなわち

  • on anyone who has ever turned on a radio


  • or listened to a podcast,


  • and that means all of us.

    つまり 私たちみんなです

  • So a few concluding thoughts


  • on what audiences can do to make the world a better place.

    より良い世界にするために 聞き手に何ができるか お話しします

  • So firstly, the world would be a better place, I think,

    まず 世界を良くするには

  • if audiences were more curious and more skeptical

    聞き手が もっと好奇心を持ち もっと批判的になり

  • and asked more questions about the social context

    自分がそんなにも好きな 物語を生んだ

  • that created those stories that they love so much.

    社会的コンテクストを さらに探求することです

  • Secondly, the world would be a better place

    2番目に 世界を良くするには

  • if audiences recognized that storytelling is intellectual work.

    物語が知的な作業だと 聞き手が認識することです

  • And I think it would be important for audiences


  • to demand more buttons on their favorite websites,

    聞き手が好きなウェブサイトに ボタンを付けるよう求めることです

  • buttons for example that say,

    例えば こんなボタンです

  • "If you liked this story,


  • click here to support a cause your storyteller believes in."

    語り手が信じる大義に 支援のクリックを」

  • Or "click here to contribute to your storyteller's next big idea."

    「語り手が 次の大きなアイデアを 実現するためにクリックを」

  • Often, we are committed to the platforms,

    私たちは しばしば 物語のプラットフォームに熱中しますが