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  • Imagine you were alive back in the 1980's and were told

    もし1980年代に

  • the computers would soon take over everything.

    コンピューターがすべてで使われる

  • >From shopping to dating and the stock market.

    と言われたらどうだろう?

  • That billions of people would be connected via a kind of web.

    何億という人がネットで繋がり

  • That you would own a handheld device

    携帯式の機械が

  • orders of magnitude more powerful than supercomputers.

    スパコンの能力を超える と

  • It would seem absurd but then all of it happened.

    突飛な話だが 実際に起きた

  • Science fiction became our reality that we don't even think about it

    SFが現実化したが 人はすぐ慣れた

  • We're at a similar point today with genetic engineering.

    それと近いのが遺伝子工学だ

  • So let's talk about it.

    その話をしよう

  • Where it came from? What we're doing right now?

    今何が起きているのか

  • And about a recent breakthrough that will change how we live

    最新技術は世界をどう変え

  • and what we perceive as "normal" forever.

    新しい常識となっていくのか

  • Humans have been engineering life for thousands of years. Through selective breeding

    "遺伝子組換え"

  • we strengthened useful traits and plants and animals.

    人類は数千年間 工学をしてきた

  • We became very good at this but never truly understood how it works.

    種を選別し 良い特徴を強化したのだ

  • Until we discovered the code of life: deoxyribonucleic acid, DNA,

    成功したが 仕組みは謎のままだった

  • a complex molecule the guide of the growth, development function

    デオキシリボ核酸

  • and reproduction of everything alive.

    DNAを見つけるまでは

  • Information is encoded in the structure of the molecule.

    複雑な分子によって

  • Four nucleotides are paired and make up a code that carries instructions.

    すべての生物は発達 生殖を行う

  • Change the instructions and you change the being carrying it.

    分子構造には情報があり

  • As soon as DNA was discovered people try to tinker with it.

    4つの基本単位が指示を出している

  • In the 1960's, scientists bombarded plants with radiation

    指示を変えれば 生物も変わる

  • to cause random mutations in the genetic code.

    DNAの発見後 研究が始まった

  • The idea was to get a useful plant variation by pure chance.

    60年代 植物に放射線を浴びせ

  • Sometimes, it actually worked too.

    遺伝子に変異を起こさせた

  • In the 70's, scientists inserted DNA snippets into bacteria, plants and animals

    有用なものができないか探し

  • to study and modify them for research, medicine, agriculture and for fun.

    できることもあった

  • The earliest genetically modified animal was born in 1974,

    70年代 細菌 植物 動物の

  • making mice a standard tool for research, saving millions of lives.

    遺伝子の一部を混ぜて組換え

  • In the 80's, we got commercial.

    研究 薬 農業などへの応用を探った

  • first patent was given for a microbe engineered to absorb oil today we

    1974年 組換えたネズミが生まれ

  • produce many chemicals by means of engineered life like life-saving

    研究道具として多くの命を救った

  • clotting factors growth hormones and insulin, all things we had to harvest

    80年代 最初の特許が

  • from the organs of animals before that. The first food modified in the lab went

    石油を食べる微生物で取られた

  • on sale in 1994: the Flavr Savr tomato, a tomato given a much longer shelf life

    現在では多くの化学物質が

  • where an extra gene that suppresses the build-up of a rotting enzyme. But GM food

    組換え生物から生み出されている

  • and the controversy surrounding them deserve a video of their own.

    以前は動物の臓器からだった

  • In the 1990's there was also a brief foray into human engineering. To treat

    1994年 初の遺伝子組換え食品が発売

  • maternal infertility, babies were made to carry genetic information from

    新鮮さが長持ちするそのトマトには

  • three humans making them the first humans ever to have three genetic

    腐敗を抑える遺伝子が入っていた

  • parents. Today there are super muscled pigs, fast-growing salmon, featherless

    この話でも動画が一つ作れるだろう

  • chickens and see-through frogs. On the fun side, we made things glow in the dark

    90年代 人間への応用が始まった

  • fluorescent zebrafish are available for as little as ten dollars.

    不妊治療で3人の遺伝子から

  • All of this is already very impressive but until recently,

    子どもが生まれた

  • gene editing was extremely expensive, complicated and took a long time to do.

    3人の親を持つ最初の人間の誕生だ

  • This has now changed with a revolutionary new technology now

    他に筋肉質のブタ 成長の早いサケ

  • entering the stage: CRISPR. Overnight, the costs of engineering have shrunk by 99%

    毛なしのニワトリ 透明なカエルも

  • Instead of a year.

    明るい話もある

  • it takes a few weeks to conduct experiments and basically everybody with

    光る熱帯魚が今では10ドルで買える

  • a lab can do it. It's hard to get across how big a technical revolution CRISPR is.

    驚くべきことだが

  • It literally has the potential to change humanity forever.

    未だ遺伝子編集はとても高価で

  • Why did this sudden revolution happen and how does it work?

    時間のかかる技術だ

  • Bacteria and viruses have been fighting since the dawn of life.

    そこに今 革命的な新技術が登場した

  • So-called bacteriophages, or phages, hunt bacteria.

    クリスパーだ

  • In the ocean, phages kill 40% of them every single day.

    これにより費用が99%削減され

  • Phages do this by inserting their own genetic code into

    時間も1年から数週間に短縮

  • the bacteria and taking them over to use them as factories.

    簡単に扱えるようになった

  • The bacteria try to resist, but fail most of the time

    このすごさを伝えるのは中々難しい

  • because their protection tools are too weak.

    人類を永久に変える可能性がある

  • But sometimes, bacteria survive an attack. Only if they do so can they activate

    ではこの革命的技術は

  • their most effective antivirus system. They save a part of the virus DNA in

    どんなものなのか

  • their own genetic code in a DNA archive called CRISPR.

    "地球最古の戦争"

  • Here it's stored safely until it's needed.

    細菌とウイルスは昔から戦っている

  • When the virus attacks again, the bacterium quickly makes an RNA copy

    バクテリオファージは細菌を捕まえ

  • from the DNA archive and arms a secret weapon, a protein called Cas9.

    海では毎日その40%を殺している

  • The protein now scans the bacterium's inside for signs of the virus invader by

    自身の遺伝子を注入することで

  • comparing every bit of DNA it finds to the sample from the archive.

    細胞を乗っ取っている

  • When it finds a 100-percent perfect match

    細菌も抵抗するが

  • it's activated and cuts out the virus DNA making it useless, protecting the

    道具が弱すぎて大抵は負ける

  • bacterium against the attack.

    しかし生き残ることもある

  • What's special is that Cas9 is very precise, almost like a DNA surgeon.

    生き残ったのは

  • The revolution began when scientists figured out that the CRISPR system is programmable.

    反ウイルスシステムがあったからだ

  • You can just give it a copy of DNA you want to modify and put the

    そのシステムはウイルスのDNAを

  • system into a living cell. If the old techniques of genetic manipulation were

    クリスパーに保存する

  • like a map, CRISPR is like a GPS system. Aside from being precise cheap and easy,

    安全なDNA保管庫だ

  • CRISPR offers the ability to edit life cells to switch genes on and

    ウイルスに攻撃されると

  • off and target and study particular DNA sequences.

    ここでRNAをコピーして

  • It also works for every type of cell: microorganisms, plants

    CAS9という秘密兵器に渡す

  • animals or humans. But despite the revolution CRISPR is for science,

    ここではウイルスがいないか

  • it's still just a first generation tool. More precise tools are already being

    体内にあるDNAと

  • created and used as we speak.

    保管していたDNAと照合している

  • In 2015, scientists use CRISPR to cut the HIV virus out of living cells from patients

    100%一致した場合

  • in the lab, proving that it was possible. Only about a year later they carried out

    そのウイルスのDNAを切断し

  • a larger scale project with rats that had the HIV virus in basically all of

    攻撃できなくさせている

  • their body cells. By simply injecting CRISPR into the rats tails, they were

    その仕事はとても正確で

  • able to remove more than 50% of the virus from cells all over the body.

    DNAの外科医と言える

  • In a few decades, a CRISPR therapy might cure HIV and other retroviruses.

    この機能が利用できると

  • Viruses that hide inside human DNA like herpes could be eradicated this way.

    気づいたのが大きかった

  • CRISPR could also defeat one of our worst enemies: cancer. Cancer occurs when

    DNAのコピーを渡して

  • cells refused to die and keep multiplying while concealing themselves

    細胞に入れればいい

  • from the immune system. CRISPR gives us the means to edit your immune cells and

    古い技術が地図だとすれば

  • make them better cancer hunters. Getting rid of cancer might eventually mean

    クリスパーはGPSシステムだ

  • getting just a couple of injections of a few thousand of your own cells that have

    正確で 安く 簡単な

  • been engineered in the lab to heal you for good.

    遺伝子の編集が可能になり

  • The first clinical trial for a CRISPR cancer treatment on human patients was

    遺伝子を操作して

  • approved in early 2016 in the US. Not even a month later, Chinese

    研究できるようになった

  • scientists announced that they would treat lung cancer patients with immune

    どの細胞でも可能だ

  • cells modified by CRISPR in August 2016. Things are picking up pace quickly.

    細菌 植物 動物 人間のでも

  • And then there are genetic diseases. There are thousands of them and they range,

    十分革命的だが

  • from merely annoying to deadly or entail decades of suffering. With a powerful

    これはまだ第一世代の道具で

  • tool like CRISPR, we may be able to end this. Over 3,000 genetic diseases are

    今はより正確な道具が作られている

  • caused by a single incorrect letter in your DNA.

    "病気はなくなる?"

  • We are already building a modified version of Cas9 that is made to

    2015年 クリスパーで細胞内の

  • change just a single letter, fixing the disease in the cell. In a decade or two

    HIVウイルスの除去を試すと

  • we could possibly cure thousands of diseases forever. But all of these

    うまくいった

  • medical applications have one thing in common: they are limited to the

    次に 全細胞がHIVに感染した

  • individual and die with them, except if you use them on reproductive cells or

    ネズミを使って実験すると

  • very early embryos. But CRISPR can and probably will be used for much more:

    クリスパーを注射しただけで

  • the creation of modified humans, designer babies and will mean gradual but

    50%以上のウイルスが除去できた

  • irreversible changes to the human gene pool.

    これを使えばHIVウイルスの他

  • The means to edit the genome of a

    ヘルペスなどのウイルスも

  • human embryo already exists, though the technology is still in its early stages.

    数十年以内に撲滅できるだろう

  • But it has already been attempted twice: in 2015 and 2016, Chinese scientists

    クリスパーは最悪の敵

  • experimented with human embryos and were partially successful on their second

    ガンにも使える

  • attempt. They showed the enormous challenges we still face in gene editing

    ガンは細胞が死を拒み

  • embryos but also that scientists are working on solving them.

    体内に潜伏したものだが

  • This is like the computer in the seventies: there will be better computers.

    免疫細胞を強化すれば

  • Regardless of your personal take on genetic engineering, it will affect you.

    発見も可能になる

  • Modified humans could alter the genome of our entire species because their

    将来ガンの治療は

  • engineered traits will be passed on to that children and could spread over

    強化した自分の細胞の注射で

  • generations slowly modifying the whole gene pool of humanity. It will start

    行われるのかもしれない

  • slowly: the first designer babies will not be overly designed, it's most likely

    2016年初め アメリカで

  • that they will be created to eliminate deadly genetic disease running a family.

    クリスパーの臨床試験が認められ

  • As the technology progresses and gets more refined, more and more people may argue

    ひと月経たず 中国からも

  • that not using genetic modification is unethical, because it condemns children

    肺ガンで試験を行うと発表があった

  • to preventable suffering and death and denies them to cure. But as soon as the

    進歩は早い

  • first engineered kid is born, a door is opened that can't be closed anymore.

    遺伝病はどうだろう

  • Early on, vanity traits will mostly be left alone, but as genetic modification

    死んだり 長く苦しむものなど

  • becomes more accepted and our knowledge of our genetic code enhances,

    たくさんの遺伝病があるが

  • the temptation will grow.

    これもなくせるかもしれない

  • If you make your offspring immune to Alzheimer, why not also

    3000を越す遺伝子病は

  • give them an enhanced metabolism?

    DNAの不具合で起こる

  • Why not throw in perfect eyesight? How about height or muscular structure?

    改良したCAS9なら

  • Full hair? How about giving your child the gift of extraordinary intelligence? Huge changes

    壊れた遺伝子だけを

  • are made as a result of the personal decisions of millions of individuals

    治すことができる

  • that accumulate. This is a slippery slope. Modified humans could become the new

    将来 病気はなくなるかもしれない

  • standard, but as engineering becomes more normal and our knowledge improves, we

    しかし実用には問題もある

  • could solve the single biggest mortality risk factor: aging. Two-thirds of the

    治療法は個人にしか使えず

  • 150,000 people who die today will die of age-related causes. Currently we think

    その人の生殖細胞か 初期胚が必要だ

  • aging is caused by the accumulation of damage to ourselves, like DNA breaks and

    クリスパーの用途は他にもある

  • the system's responsible for fixing those wearing off over time. But there

    遺伝子組換え人間の作成だ

  • are also genes that directly affect aging. A combination of genetic

    これは人類自体を変えることになる

  • engineering and other therapy could stop or slow down aging, maybe even reverse it.

    "デザイナーベビー"

  • We know from nature that there are animals immune to aging. Maybe we could

    人間の胚の編集技術はすでに存在し

  • even borrow a few genes for ourselves. Some scientists even think biological

    まだ初期段階ではあるが

  • aging could be something that eventually just stops being a thing. We would still

    すでに2回行われた

  • die at some point, but instead of doing so in hospitals at age 90

    2015年と2016年 中国で実験が行われ

  • we might be able to spend a few thousand years with our loved ones. Research into

    2回目の実験で部分的に成功した

  • this is in its infancy, and many scientists are rightly skeptical about

    多くの課題があるとわかったが

  • the end of aging. The challenges are enormous, and maybe it is unachievable.

    科学者は進歩を果たすだろう

  • But it is conceivable that people alive today might be the first to profit from

    70年代のコンピューターが

  • effective anti aging therapy. All we might need is for someone to convince a

    そうなったように

  • smart billionaire to make it their next problem to solve. On a bigger scale we

    この技術は人類全体に影響を及ぼす

  • certainly could solve many problems by having a modified population. Engineered

    組換えた人間の遺伝子は

  • humans might be better equipped to cope with high-energy food, eliminating many

    世代を経て拡散していき

  • diseases of civilization like obesity.

    やがて人類の種全体を

  • In possession of a modified immune system with a library of potential

    変えることになる

  • threat, we might become immune to most diseases that haunt us today.

    最初は控えめに

  • Even further into the future we could engineer humans to be equipped for

    大きく変えるというより

  • extended space travel and to cope with different conditions on other planet,

    遺伝病を除去する形で始まるだろう

  • which would be extremely helpful in keeping us alive in our hostile universe.

    技術が進むにつれて

  • Still a few major challenges await us. Some technological, some ethical.

    遺伝子を組換えない方が

  • Many of you watching will feel uncomfortable and fear that we will create a world in

    非倫理的になりえる

  • which we will reject non-perfect humans and preselect features and qualities

    子どもたちの苦しみを

  • based on our idea of what's healthy.

    取り除かないものとして

  • The thing is we are already living in this world. Tests for dozens of genetic

    だが一度認められれば

  • diseases or complications have become standard for pregnant women

    ドアは開き 閉められない

  • in much of the world.

    最初こそ扱わないものの

  • Often, the mere suspicion of a genetic defect can lead to the end of pregnancy.

    遺伝子組換え技術が進み

  • Take Down Syndrome for example: one of the most common genetic defects.

    受け入れられていけば

  • In Europe, about ninety percent of all pregnancies where it's detected are

    誘惑が出てくる

  • terminated. The decision to terminate pregnancy is incredibly personal, but

    アルツハイマーは予防して

  • it's important to acknowledge the reality that we are preselecting humans

    メタボは予防しないのか?

  • based on medical conditions. There is also no use in pretending this will

    完璧な視力は?

  • change, so we have to act carefully and respectfully as we advance the

    高い身長や筋肉は?

  • technology and can make more and more selections. But none of this will happen

    枯れない髪

  • soon: as powerful as CRISPR is, and it is, it's not infallible yet. Wrong edit

    高い知性を授けたらどうか

  • still happen as well as unknown errors that could occur anywhere in the DNA and

    多くの選択が積み重なれば

  • might go unnoticed. The gene edit might achieve the desired result

    大きな変化になるだろう

  • disabling a disease, but also might accidentally trigger unwanted changes.

    この道を行けば

  • We just don't know enough yet about the complex interplay of our genes to avoid

    遺伝子組換えは新常識になる

  • unpredictable consequences. Working on accuracy and monitoring methods is a

    そしてさらに技術が進んだ場合

  • major concern as the first human trials begin. And since we've discussed a

    老化問題も解決できるかもしれない

  • possible positive future, there are darker visions too.

    1日に死ぬ15万人の3分の2が

  • Imagine what a state like North Korea could do if they embraced genetic

    老化が原因だ

  • engineering. Could a state cement its rule forever by forcing gene editing on

    老化は 細胞への損傷の蓄積によって

  • their subjects? What would stop a totalitarian regime from engineering an

    DNAが壊れるなど

  • army of modified super soldiers? It is doable in theory? Scenarios like this one

    修復力が弱まることで起きる

  • are far far off into the future, if they ever become possible at all. But the

    遺伝子が関係しているため

  • basic proof of concept for genetic engineering like this already exists

    遺伝子操作と治療によって

  • today. The technology really is that powerful. One of this might be a tempting

    老化を止められるかもしれない

  • reason to ban genetic editing and related research that would certainly

    老化しない生物がいるが

  • be a mistake.

    そこから遺伝子を借りたりして

  • Banning human genetic engineering would only lead to the science wandering off

    ある時のまま 老化は止められる

  • to a place with jurisdiction and rules that we are uncomfortable with. Only by

    と考える科学者もいる

  • participating can we make sure that further research is guided by caution,

    いつかは死ぬが

  • reason, oversight and transparency.

    90歳で入院する代わりに

  • Do you feel uncomfortable now? Most of us have

    ずっと若いままで生きられる

  • something wrong with them. In the future that lies ahead of us, would we have been

    研究はまだ揺籃期だ

  • allowed to exist?

    老化防止には懐疑的見方も多くある

  • The technology is certainly a bit scary, but we have a lot to gain and genetic

    解けそうにない課題が山積みだ

  • engineering might just be a step in the natural evolution of intelligent

    だが最初に恩恵を受けるのが

  • species in the universe. We might end disease, we could extend our life

    現代人の可能性はある

  • expectancy by centuries and travel to the stars. There's no need to think small

    あとは次に解くべき問題に

  • when it comes to this topic.

    設定されるだけだ

  • Whatever your opinion on genetic engineering, the future is approaching no

    遺伝子組換えで

  • matter what. What has been insane science fiction is about to become our new

    すぐ解決する問題は多い

  • reality, a reality full of opportunities and challenges.

    消化器官を強化すれば

  • Videos like this would not be possible without your donations on patreon.com

    肥満などが解消できるだろう

  • If you want to support is expanding complicated stuff and maybe get your own

    より有力な改良した免疫系を持てば

  • bird in return you can do so here. If you want to learn more about CRISPR, we put

    今ある多くの病気に対抗できる

  • the sources and further reading in the description. More videos about the whole

    さらに遠い将来

  • topic area will follow. If you want to be notified when it happens,

    宇宙旅行に最適化させたり

  • you can follow us here.

    別の惑星に適応させたり

  • Subtitles by the Amara.org community

    あらゆる場所での生存に

Imagine you were alive back in the 1980's and were told

もし1980年代に

字幕と単語