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  • It may surprise you to know

  • that I really enjoy scary stories.

  • Not the kind with monsters and killing,

  • but the kind with strange sounds at night

  • and mysterious shadows.

  • These stories are thrilling

  • because I know they're just for fun.

  • We especially like scary stories in October

  • here in the U.S.

  • That's when we celebrate Halloween.

  • Well, a good story is enjoyable any time of the year,

  • and I'd like to share a story with you now

  • to help us talk about a grammar point.

  • Adverb clauses and how we reduce them to phrases.

  • The first time you hear the story,

  • don't concern yourself with structures.

  • Just enjoy the story.

  • Try to focus on what's happening.

  • That's the first step to mastering a grammar point:

  • understanding the meaning.

  • After reading the story, we'll look more closely at the words and forms I chose to use.

  • Let me ask you some questions.

  • This story is what we'd call realistic fiction.

  • I made it up, but it could happen in real life.

  • I do have a husband that snores.

  • Have you ever heard strange sounds at night?

  • Did they alarm you?

  • Let's talk about grammar now.

  • In the text, I placed a number of phrases in bold.

  • Those phrases act like adverbs.

  • They were formed from adverb clauses.

  • As you may know, there are different types of adverb clauses.

  • For example, and adverb clause can express...

  • To keep things simple in this lesson,

  • we'll only look at adverb clauses of time

  • and adverb clauses of reason.

  • Adverb clauses of time begin with words like...

  • Adverb clauses of reason begin with words like...

  • Adverb clauses are dependent clauses.

  • They can't stand alone.

  • They give important information,

  • but they're not complete sentences.

  • To form a complete sentence,

  • we use an adverb clause and a main clause, an independent clause.

  • This is the main part of our sentence,

  • and the adverb clause gives more information.

  • For example, when something happened or why something happened.

  • Let me give you examples.

  • Our first example is a line from the story.

  • Let me give you a second example.

  • Do you see the two adverb clauses?

  • Here they are.

  • They're adverb clauses of time.

  • They answer the question WHEN?

  • When did these events happen?

  • The events are told in the main part of the sentence.

  • The adverb clauses then give information about when.

  • Look closely and you'll see that all the clauses,

  • both dependent and independent, have a subject and a verb.

  • Our example:

  • This phrase has a verb form, but no subject.

  • That's an important difference between a phrase and a clause.

  • We can often reduce adverb clauses to shorter phrases.

  • These shorter phrases can give our writing a better flow.

  • They're common in fiction, in the news, in reports.

  • They're less common in conversation.

  • Now let's look at how we reduce the full adverb clauses to phrases.

It may surprise you to know

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Reducing Adverb Clauses to Phrases (1 of 4) - Advanced English Grammar-

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    Cai Xin Liu   に公開
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