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  • I love paper, and I love technology,

    私は 紙とテクノロジーが大好きです

  • and what I do is I make paper interactive.

    そして 紙をインタラクティブにすることが仕事です

  • And that's what I say when people ask me what I do,

    人に仕事を聞かれた時は そう答えます

  • but it really confuses most people,

    そう聞くと たいていの人は困惑します

  • so really, the best way for me to convey it

    ですから 私の仕事内容を伝える

  • is to take the technology and be creative

    最も良い方法は テクノロジーを使って

  • and create experiences.


  • So I tried to think what I could use for here,

    その為に この場で出来ることを 考えていました

  • and a couple of weeks ago I had a crazy idea

    数週間前に クレイジーな考えが浮かびました

  • that I wanted to print two DJ decks


  • and to try and mix some music.

    音楽をミックスしようと 思いついたのです

  • And I'm going to try and show that at the end,

    トークの最後に その演奏をお見せしますが

  • and the suspense will be as much mine if it works.

    ちゃんとお見せできるかどうか ドキドキしています

  • And I'm not a DJ, and I'm not a musician,

    私は DJでもミュージシャンでもありませんので

  • so I'm a little bit scared of that.


  • So I think, I found the best way to describe my journey

    私の経歴をお話しする 最も良い方法を見つけました

  • is just to mention a few little things

    それは 私の人生で起きた

  • that have happened to me throughout my life.

    いくつかの 小さな出来事に触れることです

  • There's three particular things that I've done,

    まず 私が経験した3つの出来事を

  • and I'll just describe those first,


  • and then talk about some of my work.

    その後に 私の仕事についてお話しします

  • So when I was a kid, I was obsessed with wires,

    子供の頃 私はワイヤに心を奪われていました

  • and I used to thread them under my carpet


  • and thread them behind the walls


  • and have little switches and little speakers,


  • and I wanted to make my bedroom be interactive

    人目に付かない方法で 自分の部屋を

  • but kind of all hidden away.


  • And I was also really interested in wireless as well.

    同時にワイヤレスにも とても興味がありました

  • So I bought one of those little kits that you could get


  • to make a radio transmitter,


  • and I got an old book and I carved out the inside

    古い本の中身をくり抜き その中に送信機を

  • and I hid it inside there,


  • and then I placed it next to my dad


  • and snuck back to my bedroom and tuned in on the radio

    自分の部屋にこっそり戻って ラジオをつけ

  • so I could eavesdrop.


  • I was not at all interested in what he was saying.

    父の話す内容には 興味がありませんでした

  • It's more that I just liked the idea


  • of an everyday object


  • having something inside


  • and doing something different.

    いつもと違うことができる ということでした

  • Several year later,


  • I managed to successfully fail all of my exams

    私は すべての試験に見事に落ちました

  • and didn't really leave school with much to show for at all,

    私は たいした成果もないまま 学校を去りました

  • and my parents, maybe as a reward,

    恐らく その褒美として 両親から

  • bought me what turned out to be


  • a one-way ticket to Australia,


  • and I came back home about four years later.

    4年後に 帰国するまで

  • I ended up on a farm in the middle of nowhere.


  • It was in far western New South Wales.


  • And this farm was 120,000 acres.


  • There were 22,000 sheep,


  • and it was about 40 degrees,

    気温は 摂氏40度前後

  • or 100 or so Fahrenheit.

    つまり 華氏100度くらいでした

  • And on this farm there was the farmer, his wife,

    この農場には 農夫とその妻

  • and there was the four-year-old daughter.


  • And they kind of took me into the farm

    彼らは私を農家の一員として 迎え入れ

  • and showed me what it was like to live and work.

    農場での生き方や働き方を 教えてくれました

  • Obviously, one of the most important things was the sheep,

    もちろん 最も大事な物は羊です

  • and so my job was, well, pretty much to do everything,

    私の仕事は 何から何まで すべてでした

  • but it was about bringing the sheep back to the homestead.


  • And we'd do that by building fences,

    私達は フェンスを建てたり

  • using motorbikes and horses,


  • and the sheep would make their way all the way back


  • to the shearing shed for the different seasons.


  • And what I learned was,


  • although at the time, like everyone else,

    その当時は 誰もが思うように

  • I thought sheep were pretty stupid


  • because they didn't do what we wanted them to do,


  • what I realize now, probably only just in the last few weeks

    今 思えば― ここ数週間 過去を振り返って気付いたのですが

  • looking back, is the sheep weren't stupid at all.

    羊はまったく 馬鹿ではなく

  • We'd put them in an environment where they didn't want to be,

    私たちが 彼らの望まない環境を 作っていたから

  • and they didn't want to do what we wanted them to do.

    羊は私たちの指示を 実行したくなかっただけなのです

  • So the challenge was to try and get them

    ですから 苦労したことは どの様に羊を思い通りに

  • to do what we wanted them to do


  • by listening to the weather, the lay of the land,


  • and creating things that would let the sheep flow

    環境を整え 私たちの意図する方向に

  • and go where we wanted them to go.


  • Another bunch of years later,


  • I ended up at Cambridge University

    私は ケンブリッジ大学の

  • at the Cavendish Laboratory in the U.K.


  • doing a Ph.D. in physics.


  • My Ph.D. was to move electrons around, one at a time.

    博士号のテーマは 電子を一つずつ動かすことでした

  • And I realizeagain, it's kind of these realizations


  • looking back as to what I did


  • I realize now that it was pretty much the same

    この研究が 羊を動かすことと

  • as moving sheep around.

    ほぼ 同じだと気付きました

  • It really is.


  • It's just you do it by changing an environment.

    動かすのではなく 動くように環境を整えるのです

  • And that's kind of been a big lesson to me,


  • that you can't act on any object.


  • You change its environment, and the object will flow.

    環境を変えることで 物が動くのです

  • So we made it very small,

    そこで私たちは スケールを小さくし

  • so things were about 30 nanometers in size;

    30ナノメートルくらいの大きさで 行っていたわけです

  • making it very cold, so at liquid helium temperatures;


  • and changing environment by changing the voltage,

    電圧を変えて 環境を変えることで

  • and the electrons could make flow around a loop

    電子が一つずつ動き 電流は グラフ上で輪を描くように変化し

  • one at a time, on and off, a little memory node.

    オン・オフの形になり 小さなメモリの役割を果たします

  • And I wanted to go one step further,

    私は さらに一歩進めて

  • and I wanted to move one electron on

    電子を一つ動かすだけで オンとオフ

  • and one electron off.


  • And I was told that I wouldn't be able to do this,

    周りからは それは無理だと言われました

  • which, you know, as we've heard from other people,


  • that's the thing that makes you do it.


  • And I was determined, and I managed to show that I could do that.

    私は決心し 実現できるのだと 証明できました

  • And a lot of that learning, I think,


  • came from being on that farm,


  • because when I was working on the farm,


  • we'd have to use what was around us,


  • we'd have to use the environment,


  • and there was no such thing

    「できない」 ような事は

  • as something can't be done,


  • because you're in an environment where,

    なぜなら 必要なことが

  • if you can't do what you need to do,

    できなければ 命の危機を感じるような

  • you can die, and, you know,


  • I had seen that sort of thing happen.


  • So now my obsession is printing,

    今 私が夢中になっているのは 印刷です

  • and I'm really fascinated by the idea


  • of using conventional printing processes,


  • so the types of print that are used to create


  • many of the things around us


  • to make paper and card interactive.


  • When I spoke to some printers when I started doing this

    私が このプロジェクトを始めた時

  • and told them what I wanted to do,


  • which was to print conductive inks onto paper,

    伝導性インクで紙に印刷したいと 伝えました

  • they told me it couldn't be done,

    彼らは 「無理だ」と言いました

  • again, that kind of favorite thing.

    また 私の好きな状況です

  • So I got about 10 credit cards and loans

    そこで私は クレジットカード10枚と ローンを組み

  • and got myself very close to bankruptcy, really,

    ほとんど 破産しかけましたが

  • and bought myself this huge printing press,


  • which I had no idea how to use at all.

    使い方をまったく知らずに です

  • It was about five meters long,

    それは 長さ5mもあり

  • and I covered myself and the floor with ink


  • and made a massive mess, but I learned to print.

    そこら辺インクだらけになりましたが 印刷方法をマスターしました

  • And then I took it back to the printers and showed them what I've done,

    印刷会社に戻り 出来あがった印刷物を見せると

  • and they were like, "Of course you can do that.

    彼らは 「もちろん出来るさ」

  • Why didn't you come here in the first place?"

    「どうして最初から ここに来なかったんだい?」

  • That's always the case.

    いつも こんな調子です

  • So what we do is we take conventional printing presses,

    私たちが行っているのは 既存の印刷機を使って

  • we make conductive inks,


  • and run those through a press, and basically


  • just letting hundreds of thousands of electrons flow

    そうして 何枚もの紙に何十万もの

  • through pieces of paper


  • so we can make that paper interactive.


  • And it's pretty simple, really.

    とても シンプルな工程です

  • It's just a collection of things that have been done before,

    以前からあるものを 集めただけですが

  • but bringing them together in a different way.


  • So we have a piece of paper with conductive ink on,

    例えば 伝導性インクで印刷した紙に

  • and then add onto that a small circuit board with a couple of chips,

    小さな基盤を取り付け チップを2つ載せます

  • one to run some capacitive touch software,


  • so we know where we've touched it,


  • and the other to run, quite often,

    通常 もう1つのチップで

  • some wireless software so the piece of paper can connect.

    無線制御ソフトを走らせ 紙がワイヤレスで接続できるようにします

  • So I'll just describe a couple of things that we've created.

    それでは 私達が創った作品を いくつかご紹介します

  • There's lots of different things we've created.

    私達は 様々な物を創りました

  • This is one of them, because I love cake.

    これは その1つです 私はケーキが大好きだからです

  • And this one, it's a large poster,

    そして これは 大きなポスターです

  • and you touch it and it has a little speaker behind it,

    後ろにスピーカーがあり 触ってみると

  • and the poster talks to you when you touch it


  • and asks you a series of questions,

    そして 質問します

  • and it works out your perfect cake.

    その答えから ピッタリのケーキを考えます

  • But it doesn't tell you the cake there and then.

    ですが その場では該当するケーキを教えません

  • It uploads a picture,


  • and the reason why it chose that cake for you,


  • to our Facebook page and to Twitter.

    私達のフェイスブックやツイッターで ご覧になれます

  • So we're trying to create that connection

    私達は 物質世界とデジタル世界の間を このような方法で

  • between the physical and the digital,


  • but have it not looking on a screen,


  • and just looking like a regular poster.

    普通に眺める ポスターのような ものでつなげるのです

  • We've worked with a bunch of universities on a project

    私達は 複数の大学と連携し インタラクティブな

  • looking at interactive newsprint.


  • So for example, we've created a newspaper,


  • a regular newspaper.

    一見 普通の新聞ですが

  • You can wear a pair of headphones that are connected to it wirelessly,


  • and when you touch it, you can hear the music

    新聞を触ると 音楽が聞こえます

  • that's described on the top, which is something you can't read.

    上に説明はありますが 読むことはできないものです

  • You can hear a press conference


  • as well as reading what the editor has determined

    と同時に その記者の書いた 会見に関する

  • that press conference was about.


  • And you can press a Facebook "like" button


  • or you can vote on something as well.

    アンケートに答えたりすることも 可能です

  • Something else that we created,


  • and this was an idea that I had a couple of years ago,


  • and so we've done a project on this.


  • It was for funding from the government


  • for user-centered design for energy-efficient buildings,

    エネルギー効率の良い建物向けに ユーザー主体の設計をしました

  • difficult to say, and something I had no idea what it was

    私も 最初は理解していませんでした

  • when I went into the workshop, but quickly learned.

    ですが ワークショップに行くと すぐに理解できました

  • And we wanted to try and encourage people

    人々がエネルギーを効率的に 使う気になるものを

  • to use energy better.


  • And I really liked the idea that, instead of looking at dials


  • and reading things to say --


  • looking at your energy usage,


  • I wanted to create a poster that was wirelessly connected

    ワイヤレスで接続する ポスターを作ることにしました

  • and had color-changing inks on it,


  • and so if your energy usage was trending better,


  • than the leaves would appear and the rabbits would appear

    葉が現れ ウサギが現れ

  • and all would be good.


  • And if it wasn't, then there'd be graffiti

    効率が悪ければ 落書きが現れ

  • and the leaves would fall off the trees.


  • So it was trying to make you look after something


  • in your immediate environment,


  • which you don't want to see not looking so good,


  • rather than expecting people to do things


  • in the local environment because of the effect


  • that it has a long way off.


  • And I think, kind of like going back to the farm,

    そして 農場の経験を思い出すと

  • it's about how to let people do what you want them to do

    すべては 人に指示を出して動かすよりも

  • rather than making people do what you want them to do.


  • Okay.


  • So this is the bit I'm really scared of.

    ここからは 私がとても不安な部分です

  • So a couple of things I've created are,


  • there's a poster over here


  • that you can play drums on.


  • And I am not a musician. It seemed like a good idea at the time.

    私はミュージシャンではありませんが 面白そうなので作ってみました

  • If anyone wants to try and play drums, then they can.

    ドラムを演奏してみたい方は だれでも楽しめます

  • I'll just describe how this works.


  • This poster is wirelessly connected to my cell phone,

    このポスターは ワイヤレスで 私の携帯に繋がっています

  • and when you touch it, it connects to the app.

    そして ポスターに触ると アプリが起動します

  • (Drums)


  • And it has really good response time.

    とても すばやい反応です

  • It's using Bluetooth 4, so it's pretty instantaneous.

    ブルートゥース4を使っているので かなり機敏です

  • Okay. Thanks.


  • (Applause)


  • And there's a couple of other things.


  • So this one is like a sound board,

    これは サウンドボードです

  • so you can touch it, and I just love these horrible noises.

    触ってみると この酷い音が大好きなんです

  • (Sirens, explosions, breaking glass)


  • Okay, and this is a D.J. turntable.

    それから これがDJテーブルです

  • So it's wirelessly linked to my iPad,


  • and this is a software that's running on the iPad.

    そして これがiPadのソフトウェアです

  • Oh, yes. I just love doing that.

    そう これは最高です

  • I'm not a D.J., though, but I just always wanted to do that.

    DJではありませんが 一度こうしてみたかったのです

  • (Scratching)


  • So I have a crossfader, and I have the two decks.


  • So I've made some new technology,


  • and I love things being creative,

    私は クリエイティブな事が大好きで