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  • You'll be happy to know that I'll be talking not about my own tragedy,

    ご安心ください 私がお話しするのは 自分自身の悲劇ではなく

  • but other people's tragedy.

    他人の悲劇です

  • It's a lot easier to be lighthearted about other people's tragedy

    私達は他人の悲劇に関しては多少楽観的でいられます

  • than your own,

    それにこの会議の精神を保ちたいので

  • and I want to keep it in the spirit of the conference.

    もし報道記事が真実なら

  • So, if you believe the media accounts,

    クラック コカインの流行が最も盛んな時に麻薬の売人であることは

  • being a drug dealer in the height of the crack cocaine epidemic

    大変華やかな人生だとヴァージニア ポストレルは言いました

  • was a very glamorous life, in the words of Virginia Postrel.

    金 ドラッグ 拳銃 女

  • There was money, there was drugs, guns, women,

    派手な宝石も 何でも手に入ります

  • you know, you name it -- jewelry, bling-bling -- it had it all.

    今日皆さんにお話するのは 10年に及ぶ実際の調査に基づきます

  • What I'm going to tell you today is that, in fact, based on 10 years of research,

    ギャングの中に入って

  • a unique opportunity to go inside a gang --

    その財務記録の実態を見るまれな機会を得たことから

  • to see the actual books, the financial records of the gang --

    ギャングとはそんなに華やかな人生ではないと分かりました

  • that the answer turns out not to be

    それどころか もっと現実的に ギャングであることや

  • that being in the gang was a glamorous life.

    ギャングのために麻薬を売るのは アメリカでも最悪の仕事でしょう

  • But I think, more realistically, that being in a gang --

    それを今日は皆さんに納得していただきます

  • selling drugs for a gang -- is perhaps the worst job in all of America.

    三つの話をします

  • And that's what I'd like to convince you of today.

    最初に クラックがなぜ都内のギャングに

  • So there are three things I want to do.

    これほど深い影響を及ぼしたかを説明します

  • First, I want to explain how and why crack cocaine

    二番目に 僕みたいな奴がなぜ

  • had such a profound influence on inner-city gangs.

    ギャングの内部を見る事ができたかを話します

  • Secondly, I want to tell you

    面白い話だと思います

  • how somebody like me came to be able to see

    そして三番目は ギャングの財政記録を実際に見て

  • the inner workings of a gang -- an interesting story, I think.

    解った事のいくつかを

  • And then third, I want to tell you, in a very superficial way,

    表面的に話します

  • about some of the things we found

    その前に 一つ注意をしておきます

  • when we actually got to look at the financial records,

    このプレゼンテーションは米国映画協会からR指定とされ

  • the books, of the gang.

    アダルトテーマやアダルト表現が含まれます

  • So before I do that, just one warning,

    まあ 僕を見ていただければ わかると思いますが

  • which is that this presentation has been rated 'R'

    ヌードはありません

  • by the Motion Picture Association of America.

    まあ

  • It contains adult themes, adult language.

    (笑)

  • Given who is up on the stage, you'll be delighted to know

    服がずれ落ちない限り..

  • that, in fact, there'll be no nudity --

    (笑)

  • (Laughter)

    さて クラックとそれがいかにギャングを変えたかについて話しましょう

  • Unexpected wardrobe malfunctions aside.

    クラック コカイン前 80年代初めの

  • (Laughter)

    ギャング リーダーの視点から見ていきます

  • So let me start by talking about crack cocaine,

    80年代半ば 都心のギャング リーダーでいることは悪くはありません

  • and how it transformed the gang.

    80年代の初めは--

  • To do that, you have to actually go back to a time before crack cocaine,

    絶大な権力があって 人に暴力をふるって--

  • in the early '80s, and look at it from the perspective of a gang leader.

    多くの名声と多くの尊敬

  • Being a gang leader in the inner city wasn't such a bad deal in the mid-'80s --

    でもお金持ちではなかった

  • the early '80s, let me say.

    ギャングはお金を儲ける方法がないのです

  • Now, you had a lot of power, and you got to beat people up --

    手下からは徴収できずー

  • you got a lot of prestige, a lot of respect.

    彼らには金がない

  • But the thing is, there was no money in it.

    マリファナは儲かりません

  • The gang had no way to make money.

    マリファナは安すぎたので

  • You couldn't charge dues to the people in the gang,

    お金は儲かりません

  • because the people in the gang didn't have any money.

    コカインは売れません

  • You couldn't really make any money selling marijuana --

    粉末コカインは優秀な商品です

  • marijuana's too cheap, it turns out.

    でも金持ちの白人にしか売れず

  • You can't get rich selling marijuana.

    都心のギャング メンバーのほとんどは白人に知り合いがなく

  • You couldn't sell cocaine;

    市場に出られない

  • cocaine's a great product -- powdered cocaine --

    軽犯罪では

  • but you've got to know rich white people.

    生計が立たない

  • And most of the inner-city gang members didn't know any rich white people,

    その結果

  • so couldn't sell to that market.

    ギャング リーダーは権力があって

  • You couldn't really do petty crime, either.

    いい生活ができても

  • Turns out, petty crime's a terrible way to make a living.

    実家で母親と住んでいます

  • As a result, as a gang leader, you had, you know, power --

    それに本当の職業じゃない

  • it's a pretty good life -- but the thing was, in the end,

    いかに

  • you were living at home with your mother.

    権力と影響力があっても

  • And so it wasn't really a career.

    母親と一緒ではね...

  • There were limits to how powerful and important you could be

    そこでクラックの登場です

  • if you had to live at home with your mother.

    マルコム グラッドウェルの言葉を借りればクラックは

  • Then along comes crack cocaine.

    都心用のトマトの塊入りトマトソースでした

  • And in the words of Malcolm Gladwell,

    (笑)

  • crack cocaine was the extra-chunky version of tomato sauce

    クラックは驚くべき革新だったのです

  • for the inner city.

    これについて話す時間はありません

  • (Laughter)

    でも 考えてみれば過去25年において

  • Because crack cocaine was an unbelievable innovation.

    アメリカでの全ての発明や革新のうち

  • I don't have time to talk about it today, but if you think about it,

    都心の住人の福祉に一番大きな影響を与えたのが

  • I would say that in the last 25 years,

    クラック コカインだと言えます

  • of every invention or innovation that's occurred in this country,

    良い影響ではなく 悪い影響

  • the biggest one in terms of impact

    人生への大きな影響

  • on the well-being of people who live in the inner city,

    ではクラックの魅力とは?

  • was crack cocaine.

    ハイな状態になるには最高の方法です

  • And for the worse -- not for the better, but for the worse.

    粉末コカインと違い クラックコカインは喫煙できます

  • It had a huge impact on life.

    喫煙は鼻から吸い込むよりも効率的に

  • So what was it about crack cocaine?

    ハイになれます

  • It was a brilliant way of getting the brain high.

    クラックは求められていたわけでもないのにあっという間に

  • Because you could smoke crack cocaine -- you can't smoke powdered cocaine --

    広まった

  • and smoking is a much more efficient mechanism of delivering a high

    売るにも完璧でした

  • than snorting it.

    1ドルで手に入り 5ドルで売れるのです

  • And it turned out there was this audience that didn't know it wanted crack cocaine,

    中毒度が高く -- ハイ状態の時間がとても短い

  • but when it came, it really did.

    15分は 最高の気分です

  • And it was a perfect drug;

    それから気分は落ち込み またハイの状態になりたいと願います

  • you could buy the cocaine that went into it for a dollar,

    最高の市場です

  • sell it for five dollars.

    ギャングを運営する人にも

  • Highly addictive -- the high was very short.

    お金を儲ける最高の手段に見えました

  • So for fifteen minutes, you get this great high,

    少なくともトップには

  • and then when you come down,

    ここで僕達の登場です

  • all you want to do is get high again.

    実は僕はただの端役で 共著者の

  • It created a wonderful market.

    スディール ヴェンカテッシュが主役です

  • And for the people who were there running the gang,

    彼は大学を数学を専攻していた気の良い奴で

  • it was a great way, seemingly, to make a lot of money.

    社会学の博士号を習得する事に決めて

  • At least for the people on the top.

    シカゴ大学に来ました

  • So this is where we enter the picture.

    シカゴに来る前の3ヶ月は バンドグループ グレイトフル デッドの

  • Not really me -- I'm really a bit player in all this.

    追っかけをしており

  • My co-author, Sudhir Venkatesh, is the main character.

    外見は彼自身の言葉で「まるで気違い」

  • He was a math major in college who had a good heart,

    彼は南アジア人 -- とても浅黒い南アジア人です

  • and decided he wanted to get a sociology PhD,

    大きな男で 髪は 彼の言葉で「ケツにとどく」

  • came to the University of Chicago.

    あらゆる境界に挑み 黒人か白人? 男か女?

  • Now, the three months before he came to Chicago,

    彼は物珍しい"ひと"でした

  • he had spent following the Grateful Dead.

    彼はシカゴ大学に現れ

  • And in his own words, he "looked like a freak."

    そして有名な社会学者 ウイリアムJウィルソンは

  • He's a South Asian -- very dark-skinned South Asian.

    シカゴ中の住人の調査に関する本の作成中でした

  • Big man, and he had hair, in his words, "down to his ass."

    彼の為に調査を行うことになったスディールを見て

  • Defied all kinds of boundaries:

    調査にぴったりの場所を選びました

  • Was he black or white? Was he man or woman?

    最も無法で悪名高い公営団地の1つ

  • He was really a curious sight to be seen.

    しかもシカゴだけでなく 米国全域です

  • So he showed up at the University of Chicago,

    スディールは郊外出身で 都心にほとんど縁がなかったのですが

  • and the famous sociologist William Julius Wilson

    まじめに クリップボードを抱え この公営団地へと出向きました

  • was doing a book that involved surveying people all across Chicago.

    最初の建物にたどり着き

  • He took one look at Sudhir, who was going to go do some surveys for him,

    最初の建物? そこには誰もいません

  • and decided he knew exactly the place to send him,

    でも階段の吹き抜けの上から声がしたので階段を登ります

  • which was to one of the toughest, most notorious housing projects

    角を曲がると

  • not just in Chicago, but in the entire United States.

    若いアフリカ系アメリカ人の男性グループがダイスをしていました

  • So Sudhir, the suburban boy who had never really been in the inner city,

    1990年頃で クラック流行の頂点でした

  • dutifully took his clipboard and walked down to this housing project,

    ギャングは危険な仕事なのでー驚かされるのを嫌います

  • gets to the first building.

    角からいきなり驚かされるのは嬉しくない事です

  • The first building? Well, there's nobody there.

    まず撃て 質問は後だ がモットーです

  • But he hears some voices up in the stairwell,

    スディールはラッキーでした

  • so he climbs up the stairwell, comes around the corner,

    彼はすごく変人で--

  • and finds a group of young African-American men playing dice.

    クリップボードが彼の命を救いました

  • This is about 1990, peak of the crack epidemic.

    ギャングはクリップボードで襲撃に来たりはしませんから

  • This is a very dangerous job, being in a gang.

    (笑)

  • You don't like to be surprised.

    歓迎こそしなかったものの 彼らは言いました

  • You don't like to be surprised by people who come around the corner.

    その調査てぇのを聞いてみようじゃないか

  • And the mantra was: shoot first; ask questions later.

    冗談じゃなく 調査のための最初の質問は

  • Now, Sudhir was lucky -- he was such a freak,

    「アメリカで

  • and that clipboard probably saved his life,

    貧乏かつ黒人である事をどう感じるか?」(笑)

  • because they figured no other rival gang member

    学者ってのは

  • would be coming up to shoot at them with a clipboard.

    (笑)

  • (Laughter)

    選択できる回答は: 大変良い、良い、悪い、大変悪い

  • So his greeting was not particularly warm, but they did say,

    スディールが実際もらった回答はー

  • well, OK -- let's hear your questions on your survey.

    (E:クソくらえ)(笑)

  • So -- I kid you not --

    調査はスディールを危機に陥れ

  • the first question on the survey that he was sent to ask was:

    彼は階段の吹き抜けで一晩中人質にされました

  • "How do you feel about being poor and Black in America?"

    多くの発砲があり

  • (Laughter)

    哲学的議論をメンバーと交わしました

  • Makes you wonder about academics.

    明け方リーダーが

  • (Laughter)

    スディールを調べ

  • So the choice of answers were:

    彼は脅威ではないと帰しました

  • [A) Very Good B) Good C) Bad D) Very Bad]

    スディールは家でシャワーを浴び昼寝して

  • (Laughter)

    あなたや僕が こういう目に会ったら多分こう思うでしょう

  • What Sudhir found out is, in fact, that the real answer was the following:

    卒論はグレイトフルデッドについてにしよう

  • [A) Very Good B) Good C) Bad D) Very Bad E) Fuck you]

    3か月も追っかけたし

  • (Laughter)

    (笑)

  • The survey was not, in the end, going to be what got Sudhir off the hook.

    一方スディールは すぐに その公共住宅に戻りました

  • He was held hostage overnight in the stairwell.

    2階に上がって こう言いました 「こんにちは

  • There was a lot of gunfire,

    昨晩は楽しかった

  • there were a lot of philosophical discussions he had with the gang members.

    今夜もできないかな」

  • By morning, the gang leader arrived,

    これは美しい友情の始まりとなって

  • checked out Sudhir, decided he was no threat,

    スディールは10年にわたり 公共住宅に出入りしました

  • and they let him go home.

    クラック密売所でたむろし ギャングと刑務所に入り

  • So Sudhir went home, took a shower, took a nap.

    車の窓ガラスを撃たれたり

  • And you and I, probably, faced with the situation, would think,

    彼のアパートに侵入した警察にコンピューターディスクを盗まれたり

  • "I guess I'm going to write my dissertation on The Grateful Dead,

    ありとあらゆることがありました

  • I've been following them for the last three months."

    最終的に物語はハッピーエンドとなり

  • (Laughter)

    彼は米国で最も尊敬される社会学者の一人となりました

  • Sudhir, on the other hand,

    オフィスでエクセルを開き 彼がギャングから山のような

  • got right back, walked down to the housing project,

    最新情報を仕入れるのを待っていた

  • went up to the second floor,

    僕には特に--

  • and said: "Hey, guys, I had so much fun hanging out with you last night,

    最も不平等な協同著書でしょう

  • I wonder if I could do it again tonight."

    (笑)

  • And that was the beginning of what turned out to be a beautiful relationship

    私は受益者側であって光栄でした

  • that involved Sudhir living in the housing project on and off for 10 years,

    さて 僕たちは何を見つけたか?ギャングから何を学んだか? 一つ言わせてください

  • hanging out in crack houses, going to jail with the gang members,

    僕たちはギャングの皆に会い

  • having the windows shot out of his car,

    内部の底辺からトップまで観察しました

  • having the police break into his apartment and steal his computer disks --

    彼らはスディールを信用し -- 今までに学者が --

  • you name it.

    というか外部の誰も --ここまで信用されたものはいません

  • But ultimately, the story has a happy ending for Sudhir,

    僕にとって一番興味深い 帳簿

  • who became one of the most respected sociologists in the country.

    財政的な記録を見せてくれるまでにー

  • And especially for me,

    僕たちは

  • as I sat in my office with my Excel spreadsheet open,

    帳簿を借り 調べ 質問もできました

  • waiting for Sudhir to come and deliver to me the latest load of data

    ギャングから学んだ事の結論を

  • that he would get from the gang.

    短時間で短くまとめるとすれば

  • (Laughter)

    ギャングを他の組織と並行して示すとすれば

  • It was one of the most unequal co-authoring relationships ever --

    ギャングはマクドナルドです

  • (Laughter)

    様々な点で-

  • But I was glad to be the beneficiary of it.

    まず最初に--あまり面白くはありませんが

  • So what did we find?

    どう組織されているかを見ましょう

  • What did we find in the gang?

    ギャングの階層を

  • Well, let me say one thing:

    これがギャングの組織図です

  • We really got access to everybody in the gang.

    組織図はご存知ですか?

  • We got an inside look at the gang, from the very bottom up to the very top.

    マクドナルドの組織図を解体し単純化すると

  • They trusted Sudhir, in ways that really no academic has ever --

    全く同じ組織図になります

  • or really anybody, any outsider -- has ever earned the trust of these gangs,

    驚くべきことに ギャングのトップたちは

  • to the point where they actually opened up

    彼ら自身をまさに「取締役員」と呼びます

  • what was most interesting for me -- their books,

    (笑)

  • the financial records they kept.

    スディール曰く「彼らにアメリカの企業についての

  • They made them available to us, and we not only could study them,

    教養があるわけではなく

  • but we could ask them questions about what was in them.

    「ウォール街」のような映画を観て

  • So if I have to kind of summarize very quickly in the short time I have

    実体社会を学んだ為でしょう」

  • what the bottom line of what I take away from the gang is,

    その取締役会の下で 基本的に地域のVPがいます-

  • it's that, if I had to draw a parallel between the gang

    言わばシカゴの南側や 西側を治める人

  • and any other organization,

    スディールはアイオワ州のフランチャイズを取る事を

  • it would be that the gang is just like McDonald's,

    不幸にも任命された人と仲良くなります

  • in a lot of different respects -- the restaurant McDonald's.

    (笑)

  • So first, in one way,

    それは 黒人ギャングが請け負った中でも

  • which isn't maybe the most interesting way, but it's a good way to start --

    財政面での努力の実らない場所でした

  • is in the way it's organized, the hierarchy of the gang,

    (笑)

  • the way it looks.

    しかしギャングとマクドナルドの似た点はそのフランチャイズ手法です

  • So here's what the org chart of the gang looks like.

    経営者である地方ギャングは

  • I don't know if you know much about org charts,

    4街区ごとを取り仕切ります

  • but if you were to assign a stripped-down and simplified McDonald's org chart,

    彼らはある意味マクドナルドの店長で

  • this is exactly what it would look like.

    起業家です

  • It's amazing, but the top level of the gang,

    麻薬売買の特別な財産権を得て

  • they actually call themselves the "Board of Directors."

    背後にいるギャング名で販売促進や市場開拓をします

  • (Laughter)

    経営次第で儲け 損をするのは

  • And Sudhir says

    基本的には彼らなのです

  • it's not like these guys had a very sophisticated view

    さて皆さんに本当に考えていただきたいのは底辺の

  • of what happened in American corporate life,

    歩兵たちです

  • but they had seen movies like "Wall Street,"

    主に10代で

  • and they had learned a little bit about what it was like

    街角でドラッグを売る--

  • to be in the real world.

    大変危険です

  • Now, below that board of directors,

    大切なのは組織のほぼ皆かなりの割合が 底辺に

  • you've got essentially what are regional VPs --

    属する事

  • people who control, say, the South Side of Chicago, or the West Side of Chicago.

    そうです まるでマクドナルド

  • Sudhir got to know very well the guy who had the unfortunate assignment

    歩兵たちは マクドナルドで注文を取る人と

  • of trying to take the Iowa franchise,

    同じだといえます

  • which, it turned out, for this black gang,

    彼らが似ているのは偶然ではなく

  • was not one of the more brilliant financial endeavors they undertook.

    この界隈では 同一人物なのです

  • (Laughter)

    ギャングの為に働いている子供の大半は

  • But the thing that really makes the gang seem like McDonald's is its franchisees.

    同時にマクドナルドのような場所で

  • The guys who are running the local gangs --

    アルバイトしています

  • the four-square-block by four-square-block areas --

    先程の話 ギャングが

  • they're just like the guys, in some sense, who are running the McDonald's.

    儲からないという証明です

  • They are the entrepreneurs.

    ギャングが素晴しく儲かる仕事だったら

  • They get the exclusive property rights to control the drug-selling.

    マクドナルドでアルバイトしますか?

  • They get the name of the gang behind them, for merchandising and marketing.

    では 収入はいくらか? 驚くなかれ

  • And they're the ones who basically make the profit