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  • Crash Course Philosophy is brought to you by Squarespace.

  • Squarespace: share your passion with the world.

  • I'm Hank Green, and you and I are about to embark on a journey.

  • A journey of inquiry, into the whole world. Your world.

  • In an effort to figure out: what gives it meaning, what makes it beautiful, where its

  • evils come from, and ultimately, what is the very nature of reality itself.

  • And along the way, we're going to question every aspect of your own personal life -- why

  • you do what you do, why you think what you think, why you feel what you feel.

  • Now, if youve joined me on Crash Course before, you might say, weve learned about

  • all that stuff before -- in psychology, and biology, and anatomy and physiology.

  • And it’s true: Science can definitely help us understand our thoughts, feelings, and actions.

  • But on this particular journey, were going to be exploring aspects of the human condition that can’t

  • be explained only by hormones or neurotransmitters, by personal experiences or hereditary conditions.

  • Because all of those chemicals and experiences that make us who we are, can actually raise

  • as many questions as they answer.

  • Like, if all of my decisions really are just the result of, say, how I was raised, and

  • what chemicals I have flowing in my brain, then are any of my choices actually free?

  • And if I’m not truly free to make my own decisions, or choose my own actions, then

  • how can I be held accountable for them?

  • Yeah. It’s going to be that kind of journey.

  • Rather than just looking at the world and describing what we see, well be evaluating it.

  • We will take nothing as a given, set our assumptions aside -- or at least, try really hard to -- and

  • do our best to see the world as if weve never seen it before.

  • And for what it’s worth, well also be talking about Batman, and what Dick Grayson

  • can teach us about the concept of identity.

  • And well learn how The Matrix can help us understand the life and writing of Rene Descartes.

  • Also well try to answer unanswerable questions, and puzzle over paradoxes that have plagued

  • geniuses for thousands of years.

  • It’s going to be hard, and enlightening, and frustrating, and if I do my job properly,

  • itll stick with you long after you and I have parted ways. Because:

  • We are going to dophilosophy!

  • [Theme Music]

  • These days, people use the wordphilosophyto describe some opinion they might have,

  • or the approach they take to a certain topic.

  • Like, you might have a “philosophywhen it comes to golf. Though...I personally do not.

  • But were going to use this word more narrowly, to describe a way of approaching the world

  • that traces its roots back to ancient Greece, 500 years before the Common Era.

  • This was a time of great intellectual movement around the world. Buddhism and Jainism were

  • developing in Asia, at the same time philosophical thought was emerging in Greece.

  • There, scholars were tangled up in a distinction they were just beginning to make -- between

  • philos and mythosor what we’d now roughly call science and storytelling.

  • At that time, there were bards, like Homer, who were trying to understand and explain

  • the world through stories, while the earliest philosophers were using methods that were

  • more analytical and scientific -- although they didn’t really have the concept ofscienceback then.

  • So philosophialiterally "the love of wisdom" – was a new way of trying to make sense of the world.

  • When the earliest philosophers used the wordphilosophy,” they basically meant, “the

  • academic study of anything.”

  • Which, like, I guess could include golf.

  • But at what we might call the first universities in the western worldPlato’s Academy,

  • and its rival, Aristotle’s Lyceummath, biology, physics, poetry, political science,

  • and astronomy were all considered to be philosophy.

  • Eventually, scholars began thinking of these fields differently -- as separate disciplines.

  • Studies that had strong empirical elements came to be considered science -- a search for answers.

  • But philosophy came to be understood more as a way of thinking about questions. Big questions.

  • And today, twenty-five hundred years after the ancient Greeks first brought them up,

  • philosophers still love asking questions -- oftentimes, the same questions --

  • and they don’t mind that they never get an answer.

  • So, what are these big questions that have managed to intrigue and stump philosophers for so long?

  • One of the first might best be phrased as: What is the world like?

  • Sounds simple enough to answer, right? Like, just look around! See all the stuff?

  • Well, this is what the world is like.

  • But the philosophical approach isn’t just based on observation -- it has other, much

  • more complex questions packed inside it.

  • When a philosopher wonders what the world is like, she might really be asking: What’s the nature of reality?

  • Like, is the world just made up of matter and energy, or is there something else going on?

  • And if it is just matter and energy, then where did it all come from? Is there a God?

  • And if so, what is he, she, or it like?

  • And for that matter, when youre asking about the world, can you also be asking about

  • the nature of yourself, as a citizen of the world.

  • Sowhat kind of being am I?

  • Do I have a soul? Is there something immaterial about me that will survive after I die?

  • All of these questions are ways of exploring what philosophers call metaphysics -- one

  • of the three main branches of philosophy -- an effort to understand the fundamental nature

  • of the world, of the universe, and of being.

  • Now, if those questions aren’t heady enough for you, we, as students of philosophy, also

  • have a whole separate set of questions, that are about how we know the answers to any of this stuff.

  • This particular strain of philosophy, which is like knowing about knowing, is epistemology

  • -- literally the study of knowledge -- the second major field of philosophy.

  • And it poses questions like: Is the world really what I think it is?

  • Like, really, is everything I see and think and experienceis it actuallytrue?

  • If it isn’t, then, what is true? And what’s the best way to go about figuring out the truth? Is science the best way?

  • Or are there more ethereal paths to Truth, paths that science can never really travel?

  • And let’s say that, after a lot of searching and question-asking, I begin to develop some

  • ideas -- an inkling about what might be true.

  • Thenhow do I know if I’m right? How will I ever know I’m wrong?

  • Can I ever be certain about anything?!

  • Now, at this point I wouldn’t blame you if youre thinking: “Am I real?” “Do

  • I...do I know anything?” Well, as questions go, these might not seem superpractical.

  • But there’s another area of philosophy that helps frame your thinking around what you

  • actually do -- like, how you should act, and what you should attach meaning to.

  • It’s called Value Theory. And it’s usually divided into two main branches. The first is Ethics.

  • Youve heard of it -- it’s the thing that politicians are always said to lack. And Jedi

  • are supposed to have in great supply. Though, don’t get me started on the prequels.

  • In philosophy, though, ethics isn’t just a code of what’s right and what’s wrong.

  • It’s the study of how humans should live with each other.

  • Rather than just sitting around and judging people, ethics involves posing questions like: How should I live?

  • Is there any reason that I should treat, say, strangers differently than the people I love?

  • And for that matter, do I owe anything to myself? What about animals? Or the earth?

  • And if I do have any of these obligations at all, where do they come from? Who says?

  • Ultimately, whatever system you use to decide what’s good or evil, as human behavior goes,

  • is determined by your values -- that’s why ethics is considered part of Value Theory.

  • But the other part of value theory isn’t about what’s right -- it’s about what’s beautiful.

  • Aesthetics is the study of beauty, and art.

  • Now, the concept of beauty is talked about practically everywhere, from the media, to art school to barber college.

  • But for philosophers, the pursuit of aesthetics involves considering what beauty is, and whether it even exists.

  • Aesthetics is a part of value theory, because beauty, and art, are things we value, and

  • evaluate. And many people who study this particular kind of philosophy -- known as aestheticians

  • -- believe there is such as thing as The Beautiful. something that doesn’t depend on what

  • you happen to find attractive, but something that’s just objectively true.

  • And finally, there’s one more aspect of philosophy that I should mention, because

  • it doesn’t ask questions, so much as help us find answers. Yes, finally, some answers!

  • And that thing, which I happen to think can be beautiful in its own way, is logic.

  • Logic is the philosopher’s toolbox. It contains the saws and hammers, the microscopes and

  • beakers, that philosophers use to go about answering their questions in a clear, systematic way.

  • Logic is about reasoning, giving strong arguments that don’t fall victim to fallacies, which

  • are, as youll learn, the mortal enemies of philosophical precision.

  • Ok, so metaphysics, epistemology, value theory -- they might all seem pretty airy and abstract.

  • But don’t worry, because you have already done philosophy, even though you might not realize it.

  • You do it in almost every aspect of your life.

  • Every time you argue with your parents, or wonder if you should date someone, or decide

  • to eat a salad instead of a ham and cheese Hot Pocket, you are doing philosophy.

  • Because youre thinking about the world, and your place in it. Youre figuring out

  • what you value, why you value it, and what you should do about it.

  • So here’s our plan. Were going to learn about the major fields of philosophy, posing

  • questions and considering possible answers along the way. And each time, we will use a two-step method.

  • First, well really try to understand.

  • Youre not going to agree with all of the ideas that I present to youand I won’t

  • agree with them either! That’s not the point. The point, in step one, is to really try to

  • get inside of an ideato understand it as charitably as possible.

  • Then, in step two, youll subject your understanding to some serious critical evaluationbasically,

  • youll try to knock down what you think you know about a particular view of the world.

  • And youll do this whether you agree with the view or not.

  • Why? Because: Only when you challenge your understanding of how some people view the

  • world, can you decide for yourself if theirs is a view worth having.

  • Which leads me to my final point: Philosophy is not your usual field of study.

  • I’m not going to be teaching you a body of knowledge where success means you know a bunch of stuff.

  • Success, in this course, will mean that you know how to think.

  • All we have are questions. And all you have is a brain. And the goal of philosophy is

  • for you to use your brain to come up with the answers that make the most sense to you.

  • Youll learn how to formulate arguments to support your ideas, so you can explain why you think youre right.

  • Which, if youve ever been on the Internet, you know is something that not a lot of people are good at.

  • In order to do that, youre going to need to understand philosophical reasoningthe

  • tools we use to investigate life's most perplexing questions! And that is where were

  • gonna be headed the next time we meet.

  • For now youve learned about the historical origins of philosophy in ancient Greece, and

  • its three main divisions: metaphysics, epistemology, and value theory. We also talked about logic,

  • and how youre going to use it to understand and critically evaluate a whole host of different worldviews.

  • But not about golf.

  • This episode of Crash Course Philosophy is made possible by Squarespace. Squarespace

  • is a way to create a website, blog or online store for you and your ideas. Squarespace

  • features a user-friendly interface, costume templates and 24/7 customer support. Try Squarespace

  • at squarespace.com/crashcourse for a special offer.

  • Crash Course Philosophy is produced in association with PBS Digital Studios. You can head over

  • to their channel to check out some amazing shows like The Good Stuff, PBS Space Time, and Physics Girl.

  • This episode of Crash Course was filmed in theDoctor Cheryl C. Kinney Crash Course Studio

  • with the help of these amazing people and our Graphics Team is Thought Cafe.

Crash Course Philosophy is brought to you by Squarespace.

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哲学とは何か:クラッシュコース哲学#1 (What is Philosophy?: Crash Course Philosophy #1)

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    羅紹桀 に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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