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  • What would you say if we told you that humanity is currently making

    人類は 最強の細菌を

  • a collaborative effort to engineer the perfect superbug?

    作ろうとしているのかもしれない

  • A bug that could kill hundreds of millions of people?

    何百万人殺せる細菌だ

  • Well, it is happening right now.

    そんな事態が進行している

  • We are in the process of creating a superbacterium.

    スーパーバクテリアの誕生だ

  • Bacteria are among the oldest living things on this planet.

    細菌は地球最古の生物だ

  • The smallest thing we still consider life, they are masters of survival

    最も小さく しぶとい生物で

  • and can be found everywhere.

    どこにでもいる

  • Most bacteria are harmless to us.

    ほとんどは無害だ

  • Your body hosts trillions of them, and they help you to survive.

    人体にとって必要なものもある

  • But others can invade your body, spread quickly, and kill you.

    しかし有害なものもある

  • Millions of people used to die as a result of bacterial infections.

    細菌感染で大勢が死んだが

  • Until we developed a superweaponantibiotics.

    私たちは抗生物質を発明した

  • Together with vaccinations, antibiotics revolutionized medicine

    医薬品における革命であり

  • and saved millions of lives.

    多くの命を救った

  • Antibiotics kill the vast majority of susceptible bacteria fairly quickly,

    抗生物質が細菌を大量に殺すことで

  • leaving only a small group of survivors

    体の免疫系が楽に働けるようになる

  • that our immune system then deals with easily.

    仕組みはこうだ

  • How do antibiotics do this?

    細菌が 何千もの仕掛けで動く

  • Imagine a bacterium as a very complex machine

    複雑な機械のようなものだとしよう

  • with thousands of complex processes going on that keep it alive and active.

    抗生物質はこの機械の邪魔をする

  • Antibiotics disrupt this complex machinery,

    たとえば代謝を妨害して 力を奪う

  • for example, by interfering with its metabolism,

    DNAを攻撃し 複製を防ぐものもある

  • slowing down their growth significantly, so they are less of a threat.

    増殖できなければ細菌は死ぬ

  • Other antibiotics attack DNA and prevent it from being replicated,

    細胞壁を壊すものもあり

  • which stops bacteria from multiplying, ultimately killing them.

    この場合 中身が漏れて死ぬ

  • Or by simply ripping the outer layer of the bacteria to shreds,

    これらは体細胞には効かない

  • so that their insides spill out and they die quickly.

    だが今 進化が事を複雑にした

  • All of this without bothering body cells.

    偶然により わずかだが細菌の中に

  • But now, evolution is making things more complicated.

    耐性を持つものが生まれる

  • By pure random chance, a small minority of the bacteria invading your body

    抗生物質を無害化するような

  • might have evolved a way to protect themselves.

    物質を出したり

  • For example, by intercepting the antibiotics

    抗生物質を追い出すような

  • and changing the molecule so it becomes harmless.

    ポンプを持っていたり

  • Or by investing energy in pumps that eject the antibiotics

    数が少なければ

  • before they can do damage.

    免疫系が処理して問題ない

  • A few immune bacteria are not that big a deal,

    だが逃げて 増殖したら問題だ

  • because the immune system can take care of them.

    どう増殖するのか

  • But if they escape, they might spread their immunity.

    細菌は二種類のDNAを持つ

  • How can bacteria spread immunity?

    染色体とプラスミドだ

  • First of all, bacteria have two kinds of DNA:

    細菌同士はくっつくと

  • the chromosome and small free-floating parts called plasmids.

    プラスミドを交換する

  • They can hug each other and exchange those plasmids

    これにより能力が共有される

  • to exchange useful abilities.

    またDNAを受け渡す

  • This way, immunity can be spread quickly through a population.

    形質転換という作用もある

  • Or, in a process called transformation, bacteria can harvest dead bacteria

    これは異種間でも行われるため

  • and collect DNA pieces.

    耐性菌の出現に繋がる可能性がある

  • This even works between different bacteria species

    すでに耐性菌は存在する

  • and can lead to superbugs, bacteria that are immune to multiple antibiotics.

    特に病院で生まれやすい

  • A variety of superbugs already exist in the world.

    人類は忘れている

  • Especially hospitals are the perfect breeding grounds for them.

    細菌に支配されていた恐怖を

  • Humans have short memories.

    今日 薬は簡単に買えるが

  • The horrors of the pre-antibiotic era have been forgotten.

    薬の開発はそう簡単ではない

  • Today, we treat this powerful medicine as a commodity

    これが問題を生む

  • instead of as the game-changing achievement of science that it is.

    途上国では抗生物質が不足する一方

  • This has led to a strange disconnect:

    先進国では余った抗生物質が

  • hundreds of millions of people still don’t have access

    気軽に使われている

  • to antibiotics in developing countries,

    抗生物質は重い病気に

  • while in other parts of the world antibiotics are prescribed too freely

    最後の手段で使うべき薬だ

  • and taken without care.

    肉生産での使われ方は深刻な問題だ

  • Antibiotics should be a last-resort drug,

    現在 世界には

  • not something you take because your cold is annoying.

    200~300億の家畜がいる

  • Another serious problem is antibiotic use in meat production.

    家畜の飼育環境は劣悪だ

  • At any particular point in time, humanity holds

    空間は狭く 衛生状態は良くない

  • between 20 and 30 billion animals as livestock.

    菌にとっては良い環境だ

  • To make meat cheaper, many animals are held in horrible conditions,

    そのため多くの家畜に

  • in very tight spaces, and in unhygienic conditions,

    抗生物質が投与されている

  • the perfect breeding ground for disease.

    安いチーズバーガーのためだ

  • So many animals are given antibiotics to kill as many bacteria as possible

    この仕組みでは 耐性菌が

  • and prevent them from getting sick.

    次々に生まれると予想されるため

  • Because a cheeseburger has to cost a dollar.

    同じ薬品の使用は避け

  • Unsurprisingly, as a result of this system,

    秘密兵器も用意している

  • we have created more and more bacteria

    耐性菌も殺せる特別な抗生物質だ

  • that are resistant to antibiotics.

    制限して使えば耐性菌は生まれない

  • To counteract this, we use different antibiotics

    と思っていた

  • and we have another secret weapon: there are specific antibiotics

    2015年 中国で事件は起きた

  • that are used to wipe out bacteria that have developed resistance.

    コリスチンへの耐性菌が現れたのだ

  • There are strict rules for using these to avoid the creation of a superbacterium.

    コリスチンは肝臓に悪いため

  • Or so we thought.

    使用は控えられながらも

  • In late 2015, scary news arrived from China.

    他の薬に耐性を持った細菌に対する

  • Resistance against Colistin, a last-ditch antibiotic,

    最終手段としてよく効く薬だった

  • had been discovered.

    この耐性菌は本当に悪いニュースだ

  • Colistin is an old drug and was rarely used, because it can damage the liver.

    最終防衛ラインが破られたのである

  • So there was little resistance against it, which made it a great

    なぜこうなったか

  • antibiotic of last resort for certain complex infections that occur in hospitals

    中国で長年 豚にコリスチンが使われ

  • to fight bacteria that have become immune to a whole bunch of other drugs.

    耐性菌が生まれると

  • Bacteria resistance to Colistin is very, very bad news.

    素早く広まっていったのだろう

  • It might destroy a last line of defense and lead to a whole lot of dead people.

    今や一日10万の飛行機が飛び

  • How could this happen?

    世界の人々を繋いでいる

  • Millions of animals in Chinese pig farms have been given Colistin for years.

    便利な現代世界はまた

  • Resistant bacteria developed, spreading first from animal to animal,

    パンデミックの危険も大きい

  • and then to humans without being noticed.

    慌てるのはまだ早い

  • On an average day, there are over 100,000 flights on Earth,

    人類には科学の力がある

  • kind of connecting every human on the planet.

    細菌は日々進化していくが

  • By creating the modern world, we have also built the infrastructure

    技術も同時に進歩する

  • for a dangerous pandemic.

    厳しいが 勝てない戦いではない

  • Still, we don’t need to panic just yet.

    私たちが正しく対処すれば

  • Bacteria evolve, humans do research, new antibiotics are developed

    怖いものはないだろう

  • as old ones become obsolete, technology is advancing every day.

    Subtitles by the Amara.org community

  • The problem is real and serious, but the fight is far from over.

  • If humanity plays its cards right, superbugs might turn out to be

  • not very super after all.

  • This video was made possible by viewer support on Patreon.com

  • and a grant from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

  • If you want to support us to make more videos,

  • you can buy a Kurzgesagt poster or a mug or donate on Patreon.

  • Thank you so much for your help!

  • Subtitles by the Amara.org community

What would you say if we told you that humanity is currently making

人類は 最強の細菌を

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抗生剤黙示録(The Antibiotic Apocalypse Explained)

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    mommy に公開 2016 年 05 月 09 日
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