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  • In the early 1980s, roughly fifty different companies owned 90% of American media. By

  • 1992, that number had dropped to less than two dozen, and in recent years, that same

  • 90% has fallen to just Six major conglomerates. Although various mergers and layers of external

  • control make this an inexact number. Most of theBig Sixhold interests in film

  • production, cable and broadcast television, news, sports, music, and online streaming.

  • So, who exactly controls the media?

  • As of 2015, the largest media company in the world by revenue is Comcast. According to

  • the SEC, in 2014, they reportedly made nearly $69 billion dollars. Like the other conglomerates,

  • Comcast owns nearly every step in media production and distribution. In fact, Comcast is the

  • single largest cable provider on earth. Content is created through subsidiaries like NBCUniversal,

  • which is then broadcast over TV and the Internet through Xfinity. Comcast is also a major internet

  • service provider, covering more than half of all US broadband customers. Even online

  • streaming giant, Hulu, is jointly owned by three of the Big Six.

  • The next largest conglomerate is The Walt Disney Company, with reportedly roughly $48

  • billion dollars in revenue. Disney has holdings in theme parks, movie studios, and diverse

  • television networks, such as ABC, A&E and ESPN. They also own a number of legacy companies

  • like Pixar, Marvel Entertainment, and Lucasfilms of the Star Wars franchise.

  • The third of theBig Sixis 21st Century Fox, which emerged in 2013 as a spin off of

  • Rupert Murdoch’s News Corporation. Today, Fox makes about $32 billion dollars a year,

  • and is predominantly focused on film and television, including Fox News Channel, which made nearly

  • 800 million dollars in ad revenue in 2014.

  • The last independent conglomerate is Time Warner, with revenues of about $27 billion

  • dollars. In the 1990s they were the largest media company in the world. But an unsuccessful

  • merger with AOL at the peak of the dot-com bubble made them lose nearly $100 billion

  • dollars in 2002. Since then, AOL and Time Inc, as well as Time Warner’s entire cable

  • division have become separate companies. Because they are now unrelated, Time Warner and Time

  • Warner Cable are the fourth and fifth largest media companies in the world, according to

  • Finally, the last two are CBS and Viacom. In 2013 they reported about $14 to $15 billion

  • dollars in revenue each. They used to be a single company controlled by National Amusements,

  • a movie theater chain. Today, although they are individually held, National Amusements

  • owners have enough stock in both to effectively dictate control. So, in a way, there aren’t

  • even six conglomerates, but five! Or maybe there are seven?

  • Some, including former Time Warner’s former vice chairman Ted Turner, have said media

  • conglomerates have become oligopolies, and that they stifle innovation. But others point

  • out that they also can provide a greater global reach for smaller and newer companies.

  • In fact, I work for one of those newer companies, Fusion, which is partially owned by ABC-Disney.

  • Check out my mini-documentary about independent citizen journalists in Brazil challenging

  • Rio’s police brutality. Don’t forget to like and subscribe to TestTube News, and make

  • sure to check out my channel Timcast. Thanks for watching and see ya next time!

In the early 1980s, roughly fifty different companies owned 90% of American media. By


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B1 中級

誰がメディアを所有しているのか? (Who Owns The Media?)

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    羅紹桀 に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日