字幕表 動画を再生する 英語字幕をプリント Good evening. My name is Pierre Belanger. I'm co-director of the MDes program with Kiel Moe. We'd like to welcome you to the spring annual event of the MDes program. And we really appreciate you taking time out of your schedules. We're always trying to figure out what is the sweet spot that you can have a lecture in the spring, where people don't start falling off and start getting exhausted. So we really appreciate you taking time out of your schedules to be with us, also for a special lecture with Keller Easterling. We'd like to provide a brief introduction to Keller's lecture, and also in the context of the MDes program that Kiel and I, as well as a group of coordinators have been really working with Mohsen over the past few years, developing a postgraduate research vision. We've been trying to ask a few questions over the past couple of years with a number of different speakers. The central one is this idea of what does support urban life. And I'm going to try to capture your attention against the background of these really repugnant images. You don't have to look at me. You can just listen. What's been particularly important also is to be able to answer this question in really practical, and also at the same time, undisciplined ways. Pedagogically, we've also been exploring the role of representation as part of the role of research as a way to advance the postgraduate environment conducive to advance research studies dealing with what we could consider the design arts and the design sciences. In that light, we're also looking to try to understand how do we extend and also stretch knowledge from the platform of the core disciplines themselves. Towards this effort, last year, we received blogger Jeff Menaw, as well as designer Christien Meindertsma, who spoke about her book PIG 05049. And they both captured our imagination, as well as our attention, asking fundamental questions about the mediation of our environments and the measures of our research methods-- how do we do research in design? This year, we also advanced these pursuits with films and filmmakers, including the work of Jennifer Baichwal and Ed Burtynsky. Almost the same time last year, their film Watermark that was screened for the first time in Boston. They explored the scales, technologies, infrastructures of urbanization. And earlier this fall, with filmmaker Raoul Peck with this film Fatal Assistance, which profiled the failure of international humanitarian aid following the 2010 earthquake in Haiti. So through these creators, innovators, Kiel and I, along with the coordinators of the MDes program, have been trying to explore also how video, film, time-based representation factors a pivotal role in the communication of research and dissemination of design across the world, this possibility of being able to make design and the communication of it searchable and scalable. Launching our 30th anniversary year since the creation of the MDes program in 1985 and 1986, we were fortunate to receive Keller Easterling this evening, who will be in conversation with Charles Waldheim, chair of the Department of Landscape Architecture; John Irving, professor of Landscape Architecture, as well as founding coordinator the urbanism landscape and ecology concentration of the MDes program in 2009, 2010. I'd like to say a few words about the context of Keller Easterling's work over, really, the past two decades. There was a long list of reasons to invite you. So Shantel asked me to contain this to five minutes. So I'm going to try. I think it's important to understand the work of Keller Easterling over the past two decades as emerging out of an extremely turbulent era of the early 1990s and the late 1980s, where the shock of digitalism and deconstructivism that mark a kind of a [speaking french] transition was nothing short of both structurally turbulent and also at the same time, surprisingly, has been overlooked as an era of tremendous exhaustive and exhausting transformation. As one of its most reflexive as well as preemptive thinkers, Keller Easterling's work transcends this groundbreaking change that was occurring in the early 1990s. Not only did she live in or did she pass through this major period of transformation, but in hindsight, she can be seen as the soft heroine of a spatial avant garde that we're now just beginning to understand two decades later. As writer, urbanist, and architect at Yale, we can argue that her work belongs not only in the fields and forms of professional disciplines as we know them, but we could also propose that her work belongs in an entirely different time zone. Influenced by early collaboration with film archivist Rick Prelinger in New York, her collaboration on the laser disc on suburbia, Call it Home. Keller Easterling's preemptive work on the landscape of interconnectivity was later compiled in a book, Organization Space, published by MIT Press in 1999. It profiled researchers Patrick Geddes, Benton MacKaye, which remarkably, yet not unsurprisingly, comes out of the shadows of the school of deconstructivist though of the early 1990s that essentially marginalized and overlooked environments, overlooked ecologies and infrastructures, scales at which can be recognized in her contemporary adoption of landscape as support and system for contemporary urban life. Today, Easterling's observational empiricism is not only accelerated algorithmically over the past two decades; it's grown in significance and kind with two follow-up books, Enduring Innocence, which chronicles the rise of new spatial products, as well as the rise of infrastructural effects in the book that she'll speak about tonight, Extrastatecraft. Retroactively-- and I realize-- I turned the page-- I only have a half a page left-- retroactively, the importance of Keller's work can also be seen on two levels. She's attempted to overtly and indirectly correct the course set in motion more than 40 years go by so-called revolutionary architecture of the 20th century, a course that, according to postmodern theorist Charles Jencks proposed, and I quote, "has not been healthy or good for the environment." I'm quoting out of an article from Architectural Review that Charles Jencks did on the evolution of architecture. Reporting on the sexist and dogmatic arrogance of the 20th century architect, according to Jencks in 1999-- and I quote again-- "the revolutionary century has been dominated by men, and there are very few women among the 400 protean creators gathered from other writers." He's specifically referencing the diagram that has been so famously recycled and been reiterated in four or five different occasions as part of his work. Moving forward-- and this is a rare moment of self-reflection as part of Jenck's work on his own work-- Jencks proposes-- and I quote again, from 1999-- "an urbanism both more feminine and coherent would have been far superior to the over-rationalized and badly related boxes that have formed our cities." That's the end of the quote. So between the bank art traditions of geography, once considered, early beginning of the 20th century, as girl science, and American cultural geographers, such as Denis Cosgrove, JB Jackson, Keller's work can be seen as injecting the field of urbanism and the system of landscape as geographic subject of critical importance by making a transitive, transdisciplinary leap into the fields of design. This leap is extremely important to understand as part of her work over the past two decades. And if her work seems to fall in between certain cracks, it's only because of the distance that certain divides have between disciplines of architecture, economy, ecology, anthropology, and engineering. Easterling's eye crystallizes as what preeminent human geographer Carl O'Sauer saw in 1963 in his book Land and Life as the value of, what he quotes, "being unspecialized," where her synthetic and telescopic optic has enabled us to see urbanization as both the stratification or the strata and synthesis of power relations expressed through different skills and spaces of information. And we can see that as a transition from her work dealing with organization space to infrastructure space. In some total, her work elucidates urbanism's chaos and complexity, translating it for us-- and again, quoting Sauer-- into a vocabulary of wider and clearer intelligibility and where power forms its foundations. So I guess we can say, as the dean of infrastructural thought, Keller's work reveals the very nature and essence of infrastructure that's realized as part of the process of infrastructural products and effects in her latest book Extrastatecraft-- The Power of Infrastructure Space. I'd just like to finish off with a quote from her book, which I think captures both the work that she's done over the past two decades, but also at the same time, if you listen carefully, one can begin to understand how to be able to predict the next two decades. I'm quoting directly from her book Extrastatecraft. "Infrastructure space is a form, but not like a building is a form. It's an updating platform unfolding in time to handle new circumstances, encoding the relationships between buildings or dictating logistics. There are object forms, like buildings, and active forms, like bits of code and the software that organizes building. Information resides in the often undeclared activities of this software-- the protocols, the routines, the schedules, choices it manifests in space. Marshall McLuhan's meme, transposed to infrastructure, might be "the action is the form." Please join us in welcoming Keller Easterling. [applause] Thank you, Pierre, for that introduction. It's a pleasure to be here at this excellent place with these exceptional faculty and exceptional students. I'm showing you a bit of urban porn here. And I'm sorry that was so distracting. And in many ways, the book that I just finished is meant to be a book in dialogue with people like you. Some of my books and writings have really been reportage. But Extrastatecraft is hoping to be an adventure in thinking, and one that rehearses a habit of mind about design. So you all probably know that I have long been working on unfocusing eyes to see not only buildings with shapes and outlines, but also the almost infrastructural matrix space in which buildings are suspended. That's not an infrastructure of pipes and wires into the ground, but something like an operating system for shaping the city. And it's coded with laws and econometrics and informatics and global standards and formulas for making spatial products. You know it. You know it. It's the cartoon of skyscrapers and turning radii and malls and resorts and franchises and parking lots and golf courses and airports and airport lounges and free zones. Again, not an infrastructure that's hidden, far from it-- Something that's pressing into view and looking the same, whether it's in Texas or Taiwan, and telling emotional stories about Arnold Palmer golf and Beard Papa cream puffs. And this is, as you know, inner Mongolia. And some of the most radical changes to the globalizing world have been written in the language of this matrix space, so much so that it's become a de facto medium of polity. And you know this space is currently coded by org men and World Bank yes men and 28-year-old McKinsey consultants and quality management specialists. It's the secret weapon of some of the most powerful people on Earth. And sometimes, it seems like it's a secret that's best kept from those of us who are trained to make space. No one's leading, really, with spatial variables.