Placeholder Image

字幕表 動画を再生する

  • For the last year,

    この一年 誰もが

  • everyone's been watching the same show,


  • and I'm not talking about "Game of Thrones,"

    『ゲーム・オブ・スローンズ』 ではなく

  • but a horrifying, real-life drama

    現実に起こっている 恐ろしいドラマです

  • that's proved too fascinating to turn off.

    面白過ぎて皆 つい見てしまうのです

  • It's a show produced by murderers


  • and shared around the world via the Internet.

    インターネットで 世界中に流されています

  • Their names have become familiar:

    被害者の名前も 耳慣れてきました

  • James Foley, Steven Sotloff, David Haines, Alan Henning, Peter Kassig,

    ジェームズ・フォリー、スティーヴン・ソトロフ デービッド・ヘインズ、アラン・ヘニング

  • Haruna Yukawa, Kenji Goto Jogo.


  • Their beheadings by the Islamic State

    彼らの首を切り落とした イスラミックステートの行為

  • were barbaric,


  • but if we think they were archaic,


  • from a remote, obscure age,


  • then we're wrong.


  • They were uniquely modern,


  • because the murderers acted knowing well

    なぜなら 犯人たちは 何百万人という人々が

  • that millions of people would tune in to watch.


  • The headlines called them savages and barbarians,

    メディアでは「野蛮人」「蛮行」 などと報道されましたね

  • because the image of one man overpowering another,


  • killing him with a knife to the throat,


  • conforms to our idea of ancient, primitive practices,


  • the polar opposite of our urban, civilized ways.


  • We don't do things like that.

    我々現代人はそんな事をしない という前提ですが

  • But that's the irony.


  • We think a beheading has nothing to do with us,

    首切り殺人なんて 自分には関係ないと思いつつ

  • even as we click on the screen to watch.


  • But it is to do with us.


  • The Islamic State beheadings


  • are not ancient or remote.


  • They're a global, 21st century event,

    21世紀に起きている グローバルな事象です

  • a 21st century event that takes place in our living rooms, at our desks,

    お茶の間や机の上 パソコンの画面上で起こっている―

  • on our computer screens.


  • They're entirely dependent on the power of technology to connect us.

    インターネットの力に 完全に依存した事象です

  • And whether we like it or not,

    好むと好まざるとに かかわらず

  • everyone who watches is a part of the show.

    観ている人皆が このショーに一役買っているのです

  • And lots of people watch.


  • We don't know exactly how many.


  • Obviously, it's difficult to calculate.

    当然 こういった計算は難しいですからね

  • But a poll taken in the UK, for example, in August 2014,

    しかし 例えば2014年の8月に イギリスで行われた調査によれば

  • estimated that 1.2 million people


  • had watched the beheading of James Foley


  • in the few days after it was released.


  • And that's just the first few days,


  • and just Britain.


  • A similar poll taken in the United States

    2014年11月 同様の調査が

  • in November 2014


  • found that nine percent of those surveyed


  • had watched beheading videos,


  • and a further 23 percent

    これ以外の23%が 映像は観たが

  • had watched the videos but had stopped just before the death was shown.

    殺害が起こる直前で止めた と答えました

  • Nine percent may be a small minority of all the people who could watch,

    9%と聞くと視聴者全体の中では 少なく感じるかもしれませんが

  • but it's still a very large crowd.

    それでも かなりの大人数です

  • And of course that crowd is growing all the time,

    そしてこの人数は 当然 増え続ける一方です

  • because every week, every month,

    毎週 毎月 動画ダウンロード数や

  • more people will keep downloading and keep watching.


  • If we go back 11 years,


  • before sites like YouTube and Facebook were born,


  • it was a similar story.


  • When innocent civilians like Daniel Pearl,

    ダニエル・パール、ニック・バーグ ポール・ジョンソン といった

  • Nick Berg, Paul Johnson, were beheaded,

    罪のない市民が 首を切られ殺害されたとき

  • those videos were shown during the Iraq War.

    その映像が出回ったのは イラク戦争の最中でした

  • Nick Berg's beheading


  • quickly became one of the most searched for items on the Internet.

    瞬く間にインターネットでの 検索語のトップに躍り出ました

  • Within a day, it was the top search term

    一日も経たない間に Google、Lycos、Yahooなど

  • across search engines like Google, Lycos, Yahoo.

    検索エンジンでの トップキーワードになりました

  • In the week after Nick Berg's beheading,


  • these were the top 10 search terms in the United States.

    アメリカ国内の検索ワードランキングの トップ10がこちらです

  • The Berg beheading video remained the most popular search term for a week,

    バーグ氏の斬首映像関連のキーワードが 一週間トップに留まり

  • and it was the second most popular search term for the whole month of May,

    月全体では 『アメリカン・アイドル』に次ぐ

  • runner-up only to "American Idol."


  • The al-Qaeda-linked website that first showed Nick Berg's beheading

    斬首映像が初公開された アルカイダ関係のウェブサイトは

  • had to close down within a couple of days due to overwhelming traffic to the site.

    大量アクセスが集中し 数日で閉鎖を余儀なくされました

  • One Dutch website owner said that his daily viewing figures

    あるサイトの運営者によれば イラクでの斬首シーンが出るたび

  • rose from 300,000 to 750,000


  • every time a beheading in Iraq was shown.


  • He told reporters 18 months later

    1年半後の取材では 動画ダウンロード数が

  • that it had been downloaded many millions of times,

    このサイトだけで 何百万件にも上ったと答えています

  • and that's just one website.


  • A similar pattern was seen again and again

    イラク戦争中 斬首映像が出回るたびに

  • when videos of beheadings were released during the Iraq War.


  • Social media sites have made these images more accessible than ever before,

    ソーシャルメディアの浸透で こういった画像の入手が

  • but if we take another step back in history,

    かつてなく容易になりましたが 歴史をもう少しさかのぼってみると

  • we'll see that it was the camera that first created a new kind of crowd

    民衆の娯楽としての 斬首刑の歴史上に初めて

  • in our history of beheadings as public spectacle.

    新種の観衆が現れたきっかけが カメラでした

  • As soon as the camera appeared on the scene,

    まる一世代前 1939年6月17日のこと

  • a full lifetime ago on June 17, 1939,


  • it had an immediate and unequivocal effect.

    一瞬で この歴史が塗り替えられました

  • That day, the first film of a public beheading was created in France.

    その日 フランスでは史上初の 公開斬首の記録映像が登場

  • It was the execution, the guillotining, of a German serial killer, Eugen Weidmann,


  • outside the prison Saint-Pierre in Versailles.

    ベルサイユのサンピエール刑務所の外で ギロチン処刑した映像です

  • Weidmann was due to be executed at the crack of dawn,


  • as was customary at the time,


  • but his executioner was new to the job,


  • and he'd underestimated how long it would take him to prepare.


  • So Weidmann was executed at 4:30 in the morning,


  • by which time on a June morning,


  • there was enough light to take photographs,


  • and a spectator in the crowd filmed the event,


  • unbeknownst to the authorities.


  • Several still photographs were taken as well,


  • and you can still watch the film online today

    この映像は今でも オンラインで観られますし

  • and look at the photographs.


  • The crowd on the day of Weidmann's execution

    ヴァイトマンの処刑があった日 集まった観衆を

  • was called "unruly" and "disgusting" by the press,

    メディアは「粗野」「最低」などと 批判しましたが

  • but that was nothing compared to the untold thousands of people

    しかし今の世の中 斬首シーンが 隅々まで鮮明に写った画像を

  • who could now study the action

    何度でも じっくり観察できる人々が

  • over and over again,


  • freeze-framed in every detail.


  • The camera may have made these scenes more accessible than ever before,

    カメラの登場で こういった場面に アクセスしやすくなったのは確かですが

  • but it's not just about the camera.


  • If we take a bigger leap back in history,


  • we'll see that for as long as there have been


  • public judicial executions and beheadings,


  • there have been the crowds to see them.


  • In London, as late as the early 19th century,

    ロンドンでは 19世紀初頭になっても

  • there might be four or five thousand people to see a standard hanging.

    通常の死刑が行われるときは 4〜5千人の見物人が集まり

  • There could be 40,000 or 50,000 to see a famous criminal killed.

    有名な犯罪者だと 4〜5万人集まったと言われています

  • And a beheading, which was a rare event in England at the time,

    当時イギリスでは珍しかった 斬首刑になると

  • attracted even more.


  • In May 1820,


  • five men known as the Cato Street Conspirators

    政府閣僚の暗殺を企てた 「カトー街の陰謀事件」の

  • were executed in London for plotting


  • to assassinate members of the British government.


  • They were hung and then decapitated.

    絞首刑の後 首を切るという

  • It was a gruesome scene.


  • Each man's head was hacked off in turn and held up to the crowd.

    一人一人順番に首が切り取られ 公衆に晒されました

  • And 100,000 people,


  • that's 10,000 more than can fit into Wembley Stadium,


  • had turned out to watch.

    ウェンブリー・スタジアム収容人数を 一万人もオーバーする人数です

  • The streets were packed.


  • People had rented out windows and rooftops.


  • People had climbed onto carts and wagons in the street.


  • People climbed lamp posts.


  • People had been known to have died in the crush on popular execution days.

    当時 こういう日は 混雑がひど過ぎて 圧死が出ることで有名でした

  • Evidence suggests that throughout our history

    公開処刑・斬首刑が 人類史に登場して以来

  • of public beheadings and public executions,

    こういったイベントを見に来るのは 処刑を見るのが好きな人

  • the vast majority of the people who come to see

    ましな方でも 見て何も感じない というような人が

  • are either enthusiastic or, at best, unmoved.

    圧倒的大多数だったことが 記録に残っています

  • Disgust has been comparatively rare,


  • and even when people are disgusted and are horrified,

    いたとしても ゾッとするなどと言いながら

  • it doesn't always stop them from coming out all the same to watch.

    結局 皆と同じように 見に来てしまうのでした

  • Perhaps the most striking example


  • of the human ability to watch a beheading and remain unmoved

    なお平気だったり むしろがっかりするなどという

  • and even be disappointed

    人間の性質が もっとも顕著に現れたのは

  • was the introduction in France in 1792 of the guillotine,

    1792年フランスで ギロチンが登場したときでしょう

  • that famous decapitation machine.

    皆さんご存知の いわゆる首切りマシーンです

  • To us in the 21st century,


  • the guillotine may seem like a monstrous contraption,

    恐ろしい怪物のような装置に 思えるかもしれません

  • but to the first crowds who saw it, it was actually a disappointment.

    しかしギロチンを初めて見た人々には むしろ期待外れだったのです

  • They were used to seeing long, drawn-out, torturous executions on the scaffold,

    それまでは処刑台上で 焼かれたり 切り刻まれたり

  • where people were mutilated and burned and pulled apart slowly.

    ゆっくりと八つ裂きにされる 長く痛々しい処刑を

  • To them, watching the guillotine in action,

    観慣れていた観衆にとって ギロチンでの処刑は

  • it was so quick, there was nothing to see.

    あっという間で 見どころがない というわけでした

  • The blade fell, the head fell into a basket, out of sight immediately,

    刃が落下すると頭が落ちて かごに入りすぐに片付けられる

  • and they called out,


  • "Give me back my gallows, give me back my wooden gallows."

    「首切りはつまらん!絞首刑に戻せ!」 と叫んだとか

  • The end of torturous public judicial executions in Europe and America

    欧米で 残酷な公開処刑がなくなった理由は

  • was partly to do with being more humane towards the criminal,

    死刑囚への配慮から という面もありますが

  • but it was also partly because the crowd obstinately refused to behave

    見物に来る観衆の振る舞いが あまりにひどく

  • in the way that they should.


  • All too often, execution day

    処刑があるとその日は 厳かな儀式どころか

  • was more like a carnival than a solemn ceremony.

    お祭り騒ぎになることが あまりに多かったそうですからね

  • Today, a public judicial execution in Europe or America is unthinkable,

    現代の欧米で 法の下での公開処刑はありえませんが

  • but there are other scenarios that should make us cautious

    だからといって 時代が変わったんだとか

  • about thinking that things are different now

    現代人はそんな 野蛮なことはしない

  • and we don't behave like that anymore.


  • Take, for example, the incidents of suicide baiting.

    ここで「自殺のけしかけ」について 考えてみましょう

  • This is when a crowd gathers


  • to watch a person who has climbed to the top of a public building

    ビルの屋上に上がった人を 見に来た人々で

  • in order to kill themselves,


  • and people in the crowd shout and jeer,


  • "Get on with it! Go on and jump!"


  • This is a well-recognized phenomenon.

    これはかなり よく知られた現象です

  • One paper in 1981 found that in 10 out of 21 threatened suicide attempts,

    1981年発表の とある論文によれば 自殺予告のあった21件のうち10件に

  • there was incidents of suicide baiting and jeering from a crowd.

    見物人の野次や「けしかけ」が あったそうです

  • And there have been incidents reported in the press this year.

    今年も同様の事件が 報道されています

  • This was a very widely reported incident

    イギリスでは テルフォードと シュロップシャーで

  • in Telford and Shropshire in March this year.

    3月に起こった事件が 大いに紙面を賑わせました

  • And when it happens today,

    今の時代 こういう場面を

  • people take photographs and they take videos on their phones


  • and they post those videos online.


  • When it comes to brutal murderers who post their beheading videos,

    斬首動画を投稿する 残忍な殺人集団に関しては

  • the Internet has created a new kind of crowd.

    インターネットが また新種の観衆を作り出しました

  • Today, the action takes place in a distant time and place,

    昨今は こういった事件が 時間も場所も遠くで起こるため

  • which gives the viewer a sense of detachment from what's happening,


  • a sense of separation.


  • It's nothing to do with me.


  • It's already happened.

    もう終わったことだという 反応をします

  • We are also offered an unprecedented sense of intimacy.

    同時に かつてないほど身近に 体験できるのも事実です

  • Today, we are all offered front row seats.

    今では誰もが 最前列で 見物できるのです

  • We can all watch in private, in our own time and space,

    自分だけの時間と空間の中 クリックしたことを誰にも知られず

  • and no one need ever know that we've clicked on the screen to watch.


  • This sense of separation --

    この距離感 つまり

  • from other people, from the event itself --

    他人との距離や 事件との距離感こそが

  • seems to be key to understanding our ability to watch,

    残酷な映像を平気で観られる現代人を 理解する鍵となります

  • and there are several ways


  • in which the Internet creates a sense of detachment

    物事への距離感が生まれ 各人の倫理的責任感が薄れてしまう

  • that seems to erode individual moral responsibility.

    これには いくつか理由が考えられます

  • Our activities online are often contrasted with real life,

    人は オンラインで行う活動を リアルとは区別し

  • as though the things we do online are somehow less real.

    まるで現実のものでないかのように 捉えがちです

  • We feel less accountable for our actions


  • when we interact online.

    リアルほど責任が伴わないように 感じるのです

  • There's a sense of anonymity, a sense of invisibility,

    匿名性や 顔が見えないことにより

  • so we feel less accountable for our behavior.


  • The Internet also makes it far easier to stumble upon things inadvertently,

    また ネット上では いつもなら避けるような物事に

  • things that we would usually avoid in everyday life.

    何の気なしに 行き当たってしまうことも よくあります

  • Today, a video can start playing before you even know what you're watching.

    見る気がないのに 勝手に ビデオ再生が始まることもあるし

  • Or you may be tempted to look at material that you wouldn't look at in everyday life

    普段の生活の中や 他の人と一緒のときだと

  • or you wouldn't look at if you were with other people at the time.

    見ないようなものを 見てみたくなります

  • And when the action is pre-recorded

    さらに これがすでに録画済で

  • and takes place in a distant time and space,

    遠く離れた時と空間で 起こったことになると

  • watching seems like a passive activity.

    観ることが受身であるように 錯覚してしまいます

  • There's nothing I can do about it now.


  • It's already happened.

    すでに起こったことだ と思うわけです

  • All these things make it easier as an Internet user

    こういった要素すべてが働き 人は ネット上では

  • for us to give in to our sense of curiosity about death,


  • to push our personal boundaries,


  • to test our sense of shock, to explore our sense of shock.

    ショック耐性テストのごとく 動画を見てしまうのです

  • But we're not passive when we watch.

    しかし 観るという行為は 受身の正反対です

  • On the contrary, we're fulfilling the murderer's desire to be seen.

    見せたいという殺人者の 思惑通りに動いているのですから

  • When the victim of a decapitation is bound and defenseless,

    縛られ 無力な状態で 今にも 殺されようという被害者は

  • he or she essentially becomes a pawn in their killer's show.

    必然的に 犯人のショーの中の 手駒と化しています

  • Unlike a trophy head that's taken in battle,


  • that represents the luck and skill it takes to win a fight,

    戦士の運の力や戦闘力の証明だと 言えるかもしれませんね

  • when a beheading is staged,


  • when it's essentially a piece of theater,


  • the power comes from the reception the killer receives as he performs.

    その場で犯人が振りかざす力は 観る側がいて初めて生まれます

  • In other words, watching is very much part of the event.

    つまり「観ること」こそが この手の犯罪に 欠かせない要素なのです

  • The event no longer takes place in a single location

    あるとき ある特定の場所で起こった

  • at a certain point in time as it used to and as it may still appear to.

    過去の出来事のように見えても 実際は違うのです

  • Now the event is stretched out in time and place,

    今では あらゆる場所で現在進行形で 起こり続ける出来事です

  • and everyone who watches plays their part.

    観る人は誰もが 見物人という役を演じているのです

  • We should stop watching,


  • but we know we won't.

    でも 無理ですよね

  • History tells us we won't,