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  • Translator: Joseph Geni Reviewer: Morton Bast


  • I've always written primarily about architecture,


  • about buildings, and writing about architecture


  • is based on certain assumptions.


  • An architect designs a building, and it becomes a place,

    いくつもの建物が建つと 「街」となります

  • or many architects design many buildings, and it becomes

    この様な 政治、文化、経済など いろいろな力が交じり合って

  • a city, and regardless of this complicated mix of forces


  • of politics and culture and economics that shapes

    実際に 出かけていって

  • these places, at the end of the day, you can go


  • and you can visit them. You can walk around them.

    匂いに触れ 感じを掴み

  • You can smell them. You can get a feel for them.


  • You can experience their sense of place.

    しかしここ数年 大きく変化したと思うのは

  • But what was striking to me over the last several years

    外の世界に触れる機会が 徐々に減り

  • was that less and less was I going out into the world,

    コンピューターの前に座っている時間が 増えたことです

  • and more and more, I was sitting in front of my computer screen.


  • And especially since about 2007, when I got an iPhone,


  • I was not only sitting in front of my screen all day,


  • but I was also getting up at the end of the day

    ポケットに入れて持ち運ぶ小さな画面を 見るようになりました

  • and looking at this little screen that I carried in my pocket.

    自分でもびっくりするほど あっという間に

  • And what was surprising to me was how quickly


  • my relationship to the physical world had changed.


  • In this very short period of time, you know, whether you

    常にネットを使う状態になってからは 4~5年ですが

  • call it the last 15 years or so of being online, or the last,


  • you know, four or five years of being online all the time,


  • our relationship to our surroundings had changed in that


  • our attention is constantly divided. You know,

    スクリーンの中にあるものと 自分の周囲と

  • we're both looking inside the screens and we're looking


  • out in the world around us.

    さらに 気になったのは

  • And what was even more striking to me, and what I really

    スクリーンの中の世界 それ自体は

  • got hung up on, was that the world inside the screen


  • seemed to have no physical reality of its own.


  • If you went and looked for images of the Internet,

    見つかるのは この有名なオプテの画像だけであり

  • this was all that you found, this famous image by Opte

    インターネットを銀河になぞらえた 無限に広がる空間には

  • of the Internet as the kind of Milky Way, this infinite expanse


  • where we don't seem to be anywhere on it.


  • We can never seem to grasp it in its totality.

    このイメージを見る度に アポロから撮影した

  • It's always reminded me of the Apollo image of the Earth,

    青いビー玉のような 地球の写真を思い出します

  • the blue marble picture, and it's similarly meant to suggest,

    全体を捉えることは不可能であり その広がりの中では

  • I think, that we can't really understand it as a whole.


  • We're always sort of small in the face of its expanse.


  • So if there was this world and this screen, and if there was

    私を取り巻く 実世界があっても

  • the physical world around me, I couldn't ever get them

    それらを一緒にすることは できないのです

  • together in the same place.

    そう考えているうちに こんな事が起こりました

  • And then this happened.

    たまにあるのですが インターネット回線が故障し

  • My Internet broke one day, as it occasionally does,


  • and the cable guy came to fix it, and he started with

    ソファの後ろの埃だらけの ケーブルを辿り

  • the dusty clump of cables behind the couch,

    家の入り口近くから 地下室 裏庭へと出ると

  • and he followed it to the front of my building and into the basement and out to the back yard,

    外壁の前でケーブルが ごちゃごちゃになっていました

  • and there was this big jumble of cables against the wall.

    彼はそこでケーブル沿いに走って 逃げるリスを目撃し

  • And then he saw a squirrel running along the wire,

    こう言いました 「これが原因だ

  • and he said, "There's your problem.

    インターネットが リスに かじられている」(笑)

  • A squirrel is chewing on your Internet." (Laughter)


  • And this seemed astounding. The Internet is

    インターネットは超越的な概念であり 買い物やデート

  • a transcendent idea. It's a set of protocols that has changed

    革命の方法までをも変えた 通信方法の取り決めです

  • everything from shopping to dating to revolutions.


  • It was unequivocally not something


  • a squirrel could chew on. (Laughter)

    でもどうやら 私のインターネットは

  • But that in fact seemed to be the case.

    リスの歯に やられてしまったようです (笑)

  • A squirrel had in fact chewed on my Internet. (Laughter)

    突然 こんな事が頭によぎりました

  • And then I got this image in my head of what would happen

    ケーブルを壁から引き抜いて それを辿ったら

  • if you yanked the wire from the wall and if you started


  • to follow it. Where would it go?

    インターネットは実際に訪れることのできる 場所でしょうか?

  • Was the Internet actually a place that you could visit?

    行けたら 誰に出会うでしょう?

  • Could I go there? Who would I meet?


  • You know, was there something actually out there?

    誰に聞いても その答えは「ノー」です

  • And the answer, by all accounts, was no.

    こちらがインターネット 赤ランプ付きの黒い箱

  • This was the Internet, this black box with a red light on it,

    イギリスのコメディー番組 「ハイっ、こちらIT課!」で使われました

  • as represented in the sitcom "The IT Crowd."

    通常は受信がしやすい様 ビッグベンのてっぺんに設置されているが

  • Normally it lives on the top of Big Ben,

    通常は受信がしやすい様 ビッグベンのてっぺんに設置されているが

  • because that's where you get the best reception,

    午後の会議で使えるよう インターネットの代表者から 借りてきたと

  • but they had negotiated that their colleague could borrow it

    2人のオタク社員が技術に無知な同僚を からかう全くウソの話です

  • for the afternoon to use in an office presentation.


  • The elders of the Internet were willing to part with it

    同僚は この箱を心配そうに眺めて訊きます

  • for a short while, and she looks at it and she says,


  • "This is the Internet? The whole Internet? Is it heavy?"

    彼らは答えます「もちろん違うよ インターネットには重さなんかありません」

  • They say, "Of course not, the Internet doesn't weigh anything."

    恥ずかしいことに 私が探していインターネットも

  • And I was embarrassed. I was looking for this thing

    人が聞いたら笑うような こんなものだったんです

  • that only fools seem to look for.


  • The Internet was that amorphous blob, or it was a silly

    赤ランプのピカピカする ばかげた黒い箱でした

  • black box with a blinking red light on it.


  • It wasn't a real world out there.

    しかし実際には 現実のインターネットの世界があるのです

  • But, in fact, it is. There is a real world of the Internet out there,

    そこで二年間 様々な

  • and that's what I spent about two years visiting,

    「インターネットの場」を訪ねて廻りました 建設された街同等の電力を使う

  • these places of the Internet. I was in large data centers


  • that use as much power as the cities in which they sit,

    こんな所にも行きました ニューヨークの60 Hudson Street ビルです

  • and I visited places like this, 60 Hudson Street in New York,


  • which is one of the buildings in the world,


  • one of a very short list of buildings, about a dozen buildings,


  • where more networks of the Internet connect to each other


  • than anywhere else.


  • And that connection is an unequivocally physical process.

    フェイスブックや グーグル B.T. コムキャスト

  • It's about the router of one network, a Facebook or

    タイムワーナー等の ネットワークのルーター同士が

  • a Google or a B.T. or a Comcast or a Time Warner, whatever it is,

    通常 黄色の 光ファイバーケーブルで

  • connecting with usually a yellow fiber optic cable up into

    天井をつたって 繋がれています

  • the ceiling and down into the router of another network,

    それは間違いなく物理的であり 親密ささえ感じます

  • and that's unequivocally physical, and it's surprisingly intimate.

    60 Hudson 級の場所は 他にも十数ヶ所あり

  • A building like 60 Hudson, and a dozen or so others,

    次のレベルのものと比べると 10倍ものネットワークが繋がり合っています

  • has 10 times more networks connecting within it

    次のレベルのものと比べると 10倍ものネットワークが繋がり合っています

  • than the next tier of buildings.


  • There's a very short list of these places.

    60 Hudson のビルが特別なのは

  • And 60 Hudson in particular is interesting because it's home

    ここが 5本の指に入る程重要な ネットワーク拠点だからです

  • to about a half a dozen very important networks,

    これら のネットワークは海底ケーブルで

  • which are the networks which serve the undersea cables

    海の底をつたって ヨーロッパとアメリカをつなぎ

  • that travel underneath the ocean


  • that connect Europe and America and connect all of us.

    このようなケーブルについて 特に考えてみたいのです

  • And it's those cables in particular that I want to focus on.


  • If the Internet is a global phenomenon, if we live

    国境のない縮まった世界に 住むようになったと感じるとしたら

  • in a global village, it's because there are cables underneath


  • the ocean, cables like this.

    こうやって見ると ケーブルは驚くほど細く

  • And in this dimension, they are incredibly small.

    片手で握ることができます 庭のホースのようです

  • You can you hold them in your hand. They're like a garden hose.

    しかし別の見方では ご想像の通り

  • But in the other dimension they are incredibly expansive,


  • as expansive as you can imagine.

    海を横断して広がっており 長さにして

  • They stretch across the ocean. They're three or five


  • or eight thousand miles in length, and

    材料科学や計算技術が すごく複雑なのに比べ

  • if the material science and the computational technology

    ケーブルの基本的な物理プロセスは 驚く程単純です

  • is incredibly complicated, the basic physical process


  • is shockingly simple. Light goes in on one end of the ocean


  • and comes out on the other, and it usually comes


  • from a building called a landing station that's often

    「ランディングステーション」と呼ばれる 建物から出てきます

  • tucked away inconspicuously in a little seaside neighborhood,

    海底にある 本マグロのように見える

  • and there are amplifiers that sit on the ocean floor

    増幅器にかけられ 80キロごとに

  • that look kind of like bluefin tuna, and every 50 miles

    信号が増幅されます 通信速度は信じられないくらい速いのです

  • they amplify the signal, and since the rate of transmission

    基本単位は 1波長につき10Gbps です

  • is incredibly fast, the basic unit is a 10-gigabit-per-second


  • wavelength of light, maybe a thousand times your own


  • connection, or capable of carrying 10,000 video streams,

    それに留まらず 1本の光ファイバーで

  • but not only that, but you'll put not just one wavelength of light

    1つでなく50, 60, 70もの

  • through one of the fibers, but you'll put maybe

    波長 つまり色が異なる光を 送ることができます

  • 50 or 60 or 70 different wavelengths or colors of light

    また1本のケーブルにはおそらく 8本の光ファイバーがあり

  • through a single fiber, and then you'll have maybe

    4本ずつそれぞれの方向に 信号を送っています

  • eight fibers in a cable, four going in each direction.

    一本一本はとても細く 髪の毛ほどの太さしかありません

  • And they're tiny. They're the thickness of a hair.

    ケーブルは どこかで陸地につながり

  • And then they connect to the continent somewhere.


  • They connect in a manhole like this. Literally,

    8000キロに及ぶケーブルが 実際 ここでつながっているのです

  • this is where the 5,000-mile cable plugs in.

    これはハリファックスにあるのですが ケーブルは ここからアイルランドまで伸びています

  • This is in Halifax, a cable that stretches from Halifax to Ireland.


  • And the landscape is changing. Three years ago,

    3年前 これについて調査を始めた頃

  • when I started thinking about this, there was one cable


  • down the Western coast of Africa, represented

    スティーブ・ソング作成の地図に 細い黒線で示されています

  • in this map by Steve Song as that thin black line.

    現在は6本のケーブルが東西の海岸に3本ずつありますが さらに増設される予定です

  • Now there are six cables and more coming, three down each coast.

    どの国も 世界につながるようになると

  • Because once a country gets plugged in by one cable,


  • they realize that it's not enough. If they're going to build

    海底ケーブルの力で産業を 発展させるつもりであるならば

  • an industry around it, they need to know that their connection

    安定した恒久性のある通信回線が 必要になります

  • isn't tenuous but permanent, because if a cable breaks,

    ケーブルが切断したら 船を出して

  • you have to send a ship out into the water, throw

    フックのついたツールを投げごみ 切れた両端を引き上げ

  • a grappling hook over the side, pick it up, find the other end,

    融着後 海に戻さなければ ならないからです

  • and then fuse the two ends back together and then dump it over.

    とても たいへんな作業です

  • It's an intensely, intensely physical process.


  • So this is my friend Simon Cooper, who until very recently

    つい最近まで インドの巨大財閥タタの通信部門を担う

  • worked for Tata Communications, the communications wing


  • of Tata, the big Indian industrial conglomerate.

    実際に直接 会った事はなく

  • And I've never met him. We've only communicated

    いつも テレプレゼンスのシステムで 会話をしたせいか

  • via this telepresence system, which always makes me

    彼はインターネットの 中の人だといつも思っていました (笑)

  • think of him as the man inside the Internet. (Laughter)

    彼はイギリス人です 海底ケーブル産業は

  • And he is English. The undersea cable industry

    圧倒的にイギリス人が多いんです 全員 42歳に見えます(笑)

  • is dominated by Englishmen, and they all seem to be 42.

    皆 20年前のブーム到来と同時に

  • (Laughter) Because they all started at the same time


  • with the boom about 20 years ago.


  • And Tata had gotten its start as a communications business


  • when they bought two cables, one across the Atlantic

    1本は大西洋 もう1本は太平洋を横断するもので

  • and one across the Pacific, and proceeded to add pieces

    その後もケーブルの増設を続け 世界中にベルトを形成するまでになり

  • onto them, until they had built a belt around the world,


  • which means they will send your bits to the East or the West.

    文字通り 光のビームを世界中に 飛ばしているのです

  • They have -- this is literally a beam of light around the world,


  • and if a cable breaks in the Pacific, it'll send it around


  • the other direction. And then having done that,

    その後 タタは次の接続先を探し始めました

  • they started to look for places to wire next.


  • They looked for the unwired places, and that's meant

    南北方向 つまりアフリカへと至るケーブルです

  • North and South, primarily these cables to Africa.

    しかし私が驚いたのは サイモンの 並外れた地理的な想像力でした

  • But what amazes me is Simon's incredible geographic imagination.


  • He thinks about the world with this incredible expansiveness.


  • And I was particularly interested because I wanted to see


  • one of these cables being built. See, you know, all the time


  • online we experience these fleeting moments of connection,

    メールなど ふと繋がっているとか 何かすぐ傍にあるような気がします

  • these sort of brief adjacencies, a tweet or a Facebook post


  • or an email, and it seemed like there was a physical corollary to that.


  • It seemed like there was a moment when the continent


  • was being plugged in, and I wanted to see that.

    サイモンは新しいケーブルの敷設に 取りかかっていました

  • And Simon was working on a new cable,

    西アフリカ・ケーブルシステム 通称「WACS」です

  • WACS, the West Africa Cable System, that stretched


  • from Lisbon down the west coast of Africa,

    コートジボワールやガーナ ナイジェリア カメルーンへと延びるものです

  • to Cote d'Ivoire, to Ghana, to Nigeria, to Cameroon.


  • And he said there was coming soon, depending

    日時が分かったら教えてくれると 約束してくれました

  • on the weather, but he'd let me know when,


  • and so with about four days notice, he said to go

    リスボン南岸のこのビーチに 行くように言われました

  • to this beach south of Lisbon, and a little after 9,

    9時をわずかに過ぎた頃 — この男が水中から出てきました (笑)

  • this guy will walk out of the water. (Laughter)


  • And he'll be carrying a green nylon line, a lightweight line,


  • called a messenger line, and that was the first link

    これが海と陸とをつなぐ 足がかりになり

  • between sea and land, this link that would then be

    後の1万4千キロを越す 光の通り道になるのです

  • leveraged into this 9,000-mile path of light.

    しばらくすると ブルドーザーがケーブル敷設船から

  • Then a bulldozer began to pull the cable in from this


  • specialized cable landing ship, and it was floated

    ケーブルはブイに浮かべられ 所定の位置まで運ばれます

  • on these buoys until it was in the right place.

    イギリス人の技師が 監督しているのが見えますね

  • Then you can see the English engineers looking on.

    所定の位置まで運ばれると 彼は海に戻り

  • And then, once it was in the right place, he got back

    大きなナイフを手にし ブイを切り離します

  • in the water holding a big knife, and he cut each buoy off,

    ブイは水面から跳ね上がり ケーブルは海底に沈みます

  • and the buoy popped up into the air, and the cable

    彼はこの作業を繰り返しながら 船まで戻り

  • dropped to the sea floor, and he did that all the way out


  • to the ship, and when he got there,


  • they gave him a glass of juice and a cookie,

    再び海に飛び込み 浜辺まで泳いで戻って来ると

  • and then he jumped back in, and he swam back to shore,

    タバコに火をつけました (笑)

  • and then he lit a cigarette. (Laughter)


  • And then once that cable was on shore,


  • they began to prepare to connect it to the other side,

    「ランディング・ステーション」から 延びているケーブルと接続するのです

  • for the cable that had been brought down from the landing station.

    まず 弓のこを手にし

  • And first they got it with a hacksaw, and then they start

    プラスチック内部を削ぎ落します シェフのようです

  • sort of shaving away at this plastic interior with a --


  • sort of working like chefs, and then finally they're working

    宝石職人さながらに 髪の毛程の太さのファイバーを

  • like jewelers to get these hair-thin fibers to line up

    陸地からのものと ぴったり付き合わせて

  • with the cable that had come down,


  • and with this hole-punch machine they fuse it together.

    この作業員たちが弓のこで ケーブル作業をしているのを見たら

  • And when you see these guys going at this cable with a hacksaw,

    インターネットは雲のような ものとは考えられなくなり

  • you stop thinking about the Internet as a cloud.


  • It starts to seem like an incredibly physical thing.


  • And what surprised me as well was that as much as this


  • is based on the most sophisticated technology, as much


  • as this is an incredibly new thing, the physical process

    物理プロセス自体は依然として変わっておらず 文化も同じだということです

  • itself has been around for a long time, and the culture is the same.

    地元の労働者もいれば 裏方で指示を与える

  • You see the local laborers. You see the English engineer

    イギリス人技師もいます さらに重要なのは —

  • giving directions in the background. And more importantly,

    場所は同じだということです これらのケーブルはいまだに

  • the places are the same. These cables still connect

    リスボン モンバサ ムンバイ

  • these classic port cities, places like Lisbon, Mombasa,

    シンガポール ニューヨークなどの 昔ながらの港町につながっています

  • Mumbai, Singapore, New York.


  • And then the process on shore takes around three or four days,

    それが終わったら マンホールの蓋をして

  • and then, when it's done, they put the manhole cover