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  • Welcome to Living English.

  • Today we'll join Anne and Steve.

  • They plan what to do on the day of Wildlife park.

  • Later we'll be looking at two of the smallest and most important words in English - 'the' and 'a'.

  • First though here's another episode of 'Sisters and Brothers'.

  • In the last episode Steve arranged to take Anne to Wildlife park.

  • Today we catch up with them as they enter to Wildlife park.

  • [...] please and a bag of food.

  • Here you are. And your [...].

  • Have a nice day.

  • How much do I owe you?

  • That's okay. That's my gift.

  • Thank you.

  • I'll buy lunch.

  • Is there somewhere to have lunch?

  • Of course. There's a cafe just over there.

  • What do you wanna do first?

  • I really want to hold a koala.

  • Is there a koala here?

  • Yes.

  • So much [...] of them.

  • Would you mind to [...]?

  • I don't mind.

  • What else is there? Are there some kangaroos?

  • Of course. There are lots.

  • And some birds. I've heard Australian birds are amazing.

  • Don't worry. You'll see lots of birds.

  • What shall we do first?

  • Well, the kangaroos are just over there.

  • Then I think the birds are next, and next...

  • ... we'll cuddle a koala!

  • Sure. And after that?

  • After that, I'll buy you lunch.

  • It's a deal.

  • Let's start today by looking at how we use the words 'a' and 'the'.

  • We call these words articles.

  • 'The' is the definite article.

  • And 'a' and 'an' are indefinite articles.

  • We use them before nouns.

  • Listen.

  • I really want to hold a koala.

  • Anne wants to hold a koala.

  • She's not talking about a definite or particular koala.

  • She does want to hold any koala.

  • If you say 'I want to hold the koala'...

  • ... you mean one that you can see or know about.

  • Try saying 'I really want to hold a koala' with Anne.

  • I really want to hold a koala.

  • We only use the word 'a' or 'an' with singular nouns, not plural nouns.

  • Koala is singular.

  • And the plural is 'koalas'.

  • You can't say 'I want to hold a koalas'.

  • It's correct to say 'I want to hold koalas'...

  • ... or 'I want to hold some koalas'.

  • But Anne only wants to hold one koala.

  • So she says...

  • I really want to hold a koala.

  • Is there a koala here?

  • Is there a koala here?

  • Koala is singular.

  • So Anne says 'a'.

  • She also says 'Is there?'

  • Now listen to Anne asking about the kangaroo.

  • Are there some kangaroos?

  • Notice that when Anne asks about more than one animal...

  • ... she says 'Are there some ... ?' instead of 'Is there a ... ?'

  • Listen to both of those clips again.

  • Is there a koala here?

  • Are there some kangaroos?

  • 'Is' and 'are' are both forms of the verb 'to be'.

  • With a singular noun such as koala we use 'is'.

  • Is there a koala here?

  • With a plural noun such as kangaroos we use 'are'.

  • Are there some kangaroos?

  • Now listen to how the order of the words changes when we're not asking a question.

  • Are there some kangaroos?

  • Of course. There are lots.

  • There are lots.

  • It's a statement.

  • We use 'there' before 'is' or 'are' in a statement.

  • Listen to another question.

  • I'll buy lunch.

  • Is there somewhere to have lunch?

  • 'Is there somewhere to have lunch?' is a question.

  • Listen to what Steve says in reply.

  • Of course. There's a cafe just over there.

  • There's a cafe.

  • 'There's' is short for 'there is'.

  • A cafe is singular.

  • So Steve says 'is'.

  • And because it's not a question he says 'is' after 'there'.

  • There is a cafe.

  • Steve says 'There's a cafe'.

  • If they see it later Steve can say 'There's the cafe'.

  • It becomes definite.

  • It's the one he told about before.

  • 'A' is used when you talk about a thing for the first time.

  • I might say that someone 'I'm going to a film tonight'.

  • They can be asked 'What's the film called?'

  • When Anne first asked about kangaroos she used the word 'some' which is indefinite.

  • Listen again.

  • Are there some kangaroos?

  • Now listen to what happens when Steve talks about them later.

  • Well, the kangaroos are just over there.

  • They become definite.

  • And we use 'the' instead of 'some' or 'a'.

  • Notice that Steve says 'the kangaroos are'.

  • What do you say if there's only one kangaroo?

  • The kangaroo...

  • ... is over there.

  • Now listen to Steve used the word 'are' with the plural noun 'birds'.

  • Then I think the birds are next...

  • And next is Michelle Crowden. Hello, Michelle.

  • Hello Brenton.

  • Hello everyone.

  • What have you got there?

  • A koala.

  • What's the koala for?

  • I'll show you later.

  • What I want to do today is look at the words we use for the order in which we do things.

  • First let's have another look at Anne and Steve...

  • ... planning what to do at the Wildlife Park.

  • What shall we do first?

  • Well, the kangaroos are just over there.

  • Then I think the birds are next, and next...

  • ... we'll cuddle a koala!

  • Sure. And after that?

  • After that, I'll buy you lunch.

  • Now Brenton you don't have to buy me lunch.

  • But...

  • I do want you to make me a sandwich.

  • Okay.

  • Listen carefully.

  • First...

  • ... I want you to slice two pieces of bread from this loaf.

  • Then I want you to spread butter on them.

  • Uhuh.

  • After that you can put on the filling...

  • ... lettuce first...

  • ... next some meat...

  • ... then some sauce.

  • ... followed by another piece of lettuce.

  • Finally close the sandwich.

  • And cut it in half.

  • That's all?

  • Yes.

  • Alright.

  • Er... First slice the bread.

  • Two slices

  • Very good.

  • Then it's spreading butter.

  • Uhuh.

  • Excuse me.

  • After that it's the filling.

  • Let's see... Lettuce first.

  • Meat next.

  • Sauce is after that.

  • What was next?

  • Another piece of lettuce.

  • Ah! That's right.

  • And finally...

  • ... close the sandwich.

  • And cut it in half.

  • Here you are.

  • Thank you Brenton.

  • And next here's Anne and Steve planning a day again.

  • What shall we do first?

  • Well, the kangaroos are just over there.

  • Then I think the birds are next, and next...

  • ... we'll cuddle a koala!

  • Sure. And after that?

  • After that, I'll buy you lunch.

  • So what words do we use for the order in which we do things?

  • We start with 'first'.

  • And then we can use words such as 'next', 'then', 'after', and 'followed by'.

  • Does it matter what order you use for me?

  • No.

  • Except we finish with 'finally' or 'lastly'.

  • Now you said that you'd show me later...

  • ... what we're going to do with the koala.

  • Yes.

  • I just want you to tell me what it is.

  • It's a koala, of course.

  • Why don't you call it 'the koala'?

  • Oh, you asked what it is in general.

  • For instance, I'm a man.

  • One of many.

  • The same as he is a koala.

  • Just one example of all koalas.

  • Very good.

  • He is a koala.

  • But what's a koala?

  • A koala is an animal.

  • An animal.

  • We use 'an' for those words that start with a vowel sound.

  • The vowel sound [...] the short vowel sounds.

  • a

  • An animal.

  • i

  • An igloo.

  • e

  • An egg.

  • o

  • An ostrich.

  • u

  • An umbrella.

  • Then the long vowel sounds.

  • A

  • An alien.

  • E

  • An eagle.

  • I

  • An island.

  • And o.

  • An open door.

  • U is a consonant sound.

  • And we say 'a university' and 'a European'.

  • So what's this Brenton?

  • It's an ant.

  • A big ant.

  • You changed 'an ant' to 'a big ant'.

  • Why?

  • We only use 'an' straight before a word that starts with a vowel sound.

  • 'Big' starts with a consonant.

  • So we say 'a big ant'.

  • Right again.

  • Now it's your turn.

  • This is...

  • ... a kangaroo.

  • This is...

  • ... an egg.

  • And this is...

  • ... a koala.

  • Let's listen to Anne one more time.

  • What else is there? Are there some kangaroos?

  • Yes, here are some kangaroos.

  • And here's the koala.

  • - Catch. - Oh!

  • In our next program we're going to learn some more about animals like this...

  • ... and how to describe them.

  • See you next time.

  • Here's today's episode of our story once again.

  • Bye.

  • [...] please and a bag of food.

  • Here you are. And your [...].

  • Have a nice day.

  • How much do I owe you?

  • That's okay. That's my gift.

  • Thank you.

  • I'll buy lunch.

  • Is there somewhere to have lunch?

  • Of course. There's a cafe just over there.

  • What do you wanna do first?

  • I really want to hold a koala.

  • Is there a koala here?

  • Yes.

  • So much [...] of them.

  • Would you mind to [...]?

  • I don't mind.

  • What else is there? Are there some kangaroos?

  • Of course. There are lots.

  • And some birds. I've heard Australian birds are amazing.

  • Don't worry. You'll see lots of birds.

  • What shall we do first?

  • Well, the kangaroos are just over there.

  • Then I think the birds are next, and next...

  • ... we'll cuddle a koala!

  • Sure. And after that?

  • After that, I'll buy you lunch.

  • It's a deal.

Welcome to Living English.