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  • CCUS19 - Battles of the Civil War

  • Hi, I’m John Green and this is Crash Course US History. Starting next week, were going

  • to be talking about the Civil War. As you may have noticed, Crash Course doesn’t usually

  • focus on military history, because were more interested in causes and effects and

  • that kind of stuff, but because some in our audience are likely to insist that a series

  • on American History has to include the battles of the Civil War, I am now going to tell you

  • about EVERY SINGLE fight of the war.

  • Oh. Stan, this says there were 8,000 instances of violence between the Union and the Confederate

  • States of America between 1861 and 1865. Can that be right?

  • Slight change of plan. I’m going to tell you about the MAJOR battles of the Civil War.

  • The shooting started in 1861. In April the first shots of the war were fired at the Battle

  • of Fort Sumter, South Carolina, which the South won. Next the Battle of Rich Mountain

  • went to the North. First Bull Run happened in Manassas, VA in July. The South won, General

  • Jackson got the nickname Stonewall, and the North realized this war was going to be serious

  • business. The South had another victory at Wilson’s Creek in August, but lost to the

  • Union at Carnifex Ferry in September. The North got another win at the Battle of Cheat

  • Mountain, but the South finished the year strong with wins at Ball’s Bluff and Chustenahlah.

  • The North came roaring back in 1862 with wins at the battles of Mill Springs, Fort Henry,

  • Roanoke Island, and Fort Donelson, where the Confederate general was named Simon Bolivar

  • Buckner. What!?

  • There was fighting in the west, with the South winning at Valverder, NM, and Pea Ridge, AR.

  • The Union won at New Madrid, MO. The Battle of Hampton Roads, VA in March was a draw,

  • and featured the first fight between two ironclad warships, the USS Monitor and the CSS Virginia.

  • The Union won the Battle of Bern, and the first battle of Kernstown, and then draws

  • at Glorieta Pass, NM, and Yorktown. The Union won the Battle of Shiloh, where future Ben

  • Hur author Lew Wallace was accused of incompetence and cowardice. The Union won the Battle of

  • Fort Pulaski and the Battle of Forts Jackson and St Philip, which gave the North control

  • of New Orleans. The North won the siege of Corinth, and McClellan fought one of the many

  • indecisive battles he would be involved in at Williamsburg, VA. Then Stonewall Jackson

  • had a great run, winning battles at McDowell, Front Royal, and Winchester. Union forces

  • captured Memphis, TN in May, but then lost a couple more to Jackson at Cross Keys and

  • Port Republic. In Virginia that June, Robert E Lee and Goerge McClellan fought a series

  • of six battles in seven days, which were called the seven days battles. There was a draw at

  • Oak Grove, Union victory at Beaver Dam Creek, a win for Lee at GainesMill, ties at Garnett’s

  • and Golding’s Farm, the Battle of Savage’s Station, and the battle of Glendale.

  • The Union finally won the Seven Days at Malvern Hill, but McClellan withdrew after the battle,

  • allowing Lee and the remaining confederates to escape. In July 1862, one of the least

  • consequential battles of the war took place in Stan’s hometown, Newburgh, IN. A force

  • of 35 Confederate irregulars built some fake cannons out of stovepipes that they called

  • Quaker guns, crossed the Ohio River, captured some weapons and a hospital full of wounded

  • Union soldiers, and then abandoned the town later the same day. This was the first town

  • in the North to be captured by Confederates. Later that summer came the Battles of Baton

  • Rouge, Cedar Mountain, Mannassas Station, the Second Battle of Bull Run, Richmond, KY,

  • Chantilly, and Harper’s Ferry, all of which the Confederates won. The Union won at South

  • Mountain, but lost at Munfordville. On September 17 McClellan ended Lee’s invasion of the

  • north at Anteitam, MD. This was the bloodiest single day of the war with 22,717 dead, wounded,

  • or missing. The rest of 1862 saw the battles of Perryville, Prairie Grove, Fredericksburg,

  • and Chickasaw Bayou.

  • 1863 started in Tennessee with a Union victory at the Battle of Stones River, but also with

  • a simultaneous Confederate victory at Galveston, TX. There were lots of smallish skirmishes

  • during the winter and early Spring, until the Battle of Chancellorsville in May, where

  • Lee defeated Hooker, but Stonewall Jackson was mortally wounded. He lost his arm, and

  • then died 8 days later of pneumonia. His arm buried with its own headstone near Chancellorsville.

  • The North won a bunch of battles in Mississippi at Port Gibson, Raymond, Jackson, Champion

  • Hill, Big Black River Ridge, and finally, Vicksburg. This victory, along with the victory

  • at Port Hudson effectively ended the Confederacy’s ability to use the Mississippi River. June,

  • 1863 in Virginia was inconclusive, with draws at Brandy Station, Winchester, Aldie, Middleburg,

  • and Upperville. July brought the Battle of Gettysburg, a major Union victory. This battle

  • featured Pickett’s famous charge, was the end of Lee’s second invasion of the north,

  • was the costliest of the war in terms of caualties, and led to, believe it or not, The Gettysburg

  • Address.

  • The rest of that summer brought split results with Union wins at Helena, AR, Honey Springs,

  • OK and Chattanooga, TN. The Confederates answered with two victories at Ft Wagner, SC. They

  • also won at Ft Sumter AGAIN, holding the fort against heavy Union bombardment, and they

  • perpetrated a massacre of civilians in Lawrence, KS. The rest of 1863 saw battles at Sabine

  • Pass, TX, Bayou Fourche, AR, a major confederate win at Chickamauga, the battles of Bristow

  • Station, Wauhatchie, Rappahannock Station, Chattanooga again, Ringgold Gap, Fort Sanders,

  • and Mossy Creek.

  • Oh man, were only to 1864. Gotta keep it moving. Stan, can you just indicate who won

  • these on screen? Great

  • The first major battles of 1864 were in February at Olustee, FL and Okolona, MS.

  • The spring saw battles at Fort De Russy, Mansfield, Prairie D’Ane, AR, Pleasant Hill, LA, and

  • Fort Pillow, TN. There were The Battles of the Wilderness, Spottsylvania Courthouse,

  • Procter’s Creek, New Market, North Anna, Old Church, Cold Harbor, and the Battle of

  • the Piedmont all in Virginia.

  • Summer brought the battles of Marietta, GA, and Brice’s Crossroads, MS. The battles

  • of Trevillian Station, Petersburg, Lynchburg, and Jerusalem Plank Road were all fought in

  • Virginia. Also Kennesaw Mountain, GA, Monocacy, Maryland, and Fort Stevens, in the District

  • of Columbia. Abraham Lincoln himself went to observe this battle, and the guy standing

  • next to him got shot. Next were the battles of Tupelo, MS, Peachtree Creek, GA, and Atlanta,

  • GA, a major Union victory won by General Sherman. Also fought were the battles of Kernstown,

  • VA, Ezra Church, GA, the Battle of the Crater in Virginia, the battles of Mobile Bay, AL,

  • Deep Bottom, Globe Tavern, and Reams station in VA, and the battle of Jonesborough, GA

  • which solidified Union control of Atlanta.

  • Ok. Autumn of 1864, were in the home stretch here. The battles of Opequon, Fisher’s Hill,

  • Chaffin’s Farm, PeeblesFarm, and Cedar Creek were all fought in Virginia. The battles

  • of Byram’s Ford, Newtonia, and Westpory all happened in Missouri. Johnsonville, TN,

  • Griswoldville, GA, Spring Hill, TN, The Sand Creek Massacre, The Battle of Franklin, TN,

  • Fort McAllister, GA, and Nashville, TN finished out the year.

  • Whew. 1865, here we go. The Battles of Fort Fisher, NC, Hatcher’s Run, VA, Waynesboro,

  • Virginia, Bentonville, NC, Fort Stedman, VA, Spanish Fort, AL, White Oak Road, VA, Five

  • Forks, VA, Selma, AL, the THIRD battle of Petersburg, VA, Fort Blakely, AL, Saylor’s

  • Creek, VA, Appomattox Station, VA, and finally, the decisive battle at Appomattox Courthouse,

  • VA, on April 8, 1865 which resulted in Lee’s surrender to Grant. There were a few more

  • minor skirmishes, but the war was OVER.

  • So there you have it, an episode of Crash Course ENTIRELY about battles. I know that

  • we missed many, many battles of the war, but these are most of the big ones. There’s

  • not even a big finish this week, because I’m just exhausted from all the fighting. Thanks

  • for watching, and well see you next week.

CCUS19 - Battles of the Civil War

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南北戦争の戦い:クラッシュコース アメリカ史 #19 (Battles of the Civil War: Crash Course US History #19)

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    Ji Zhi Chen に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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