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  • If you ask people whether they think stealing is wrong,

    もし 盗みは悪い事かと聞かれれば

  • most of them would answer, "Yes."


  • And yet, in 2013, organizations all over the world

    しかし 世界中の組織における

  • lost an estimated total of 3.7 trillion dollars to fraud,

    2013年の不正行為による被害は 推定3.7 兆ドルに上ります

  • which includes crimes like embezzlement, pyramid scheme, and false insurance claims.


  • This wasn't just the work of a few bad apples.


  • The truth is that many people are susceptible

    保険金の不正請求といった犯罪が 含まれます

  • not only to the temptation to commit fraud

    これは一部の悪い奴らの 仕業ではありません

  • but to convincing themselves that they've done nothing wrong.

    実際には ほとんどの人は

  • So why does fraud happen?


  • While individual motivations may differ from case to case,

    何ら悪いことはしていないと 自分に言い聞かせさえするのです

  • the fraud triangle,


  • a model developed by criminologist Donald Cressey,


  • shows three conditions that make fraud likely:


  • pressure, opportunity, and rationalization.


  • Pressure is often what motivates someone to engage in fraud to begin with.

    不正行為が起きやすくなる 3つの条件を示しています

  • It could be a personal debt,

    それは プレッシャー、 機会、そして正当化です

  • an addiction,

    プレッシャーは多くの場合 人が最初に不正行為に手を染める動機です

  • an earnings quota,


  • a sudden job loss,


  • or an illness in the family.


  • As for opportunity, many people in both public and private sectors


  • have access to tools that enable them to commit and conceal fraud:


  • corporate credit cards,

    機会とは公僕であれ 民間企業であれ

  • internal company data,

    不正を行ったりそれを隠す手段に 多くの人がアクセスできることです

  • or control over the budget.

    例えば コーポレート・カードや

  • The combination of pressure


  • and being exposed to such opportunities on a daily basis


  • can create a strong temptation.


  • But even with these two elements,


  • most fraud still requires rationalization.


  • Many fraudsters are first time offenders,

    ただし この2つの要素だけではなく

  • so in order to commit an act most would regard as wrong,

    不正行為の大半では さらに正当化が必要とされます

  • they need to justify it to themselves.


  • Some feel entitled to the money because they are underpaid and overworked


  • and others believe their fraud is victimless,


  • perhaps even planning to return the money once their crisis is resolved.

    給料は安いのに仕事量が多いのだから 報われる権利があると感じている人もいれば

  • Some of the most common types of fraud

    犠牲者はひとりも出ないと 思い込む人もあり

  • don't even register as such to the perpetrator.

    お金は急場をしのいだ後で 返すつもりだったという人もいます

  • Examples include employees fudging time sheets or expense reports,


  • taxpayers failing to report cash earnings,

    自分が加害者だという 認識すらないこともあります

  • or service providers overbilling insurance companies.

    例えば 従業員がタイムシートや 経費報告書をごまかしたり

  • Though these may seem small,


  • and can sometimes only involve hundreds of dollars,

    サービス提供者が 保険金を過大請求するといったことです

  • they all contribute to the big picture.


  • And then there's fraud on a massive scale.

    たとえ 数百ドルであったとしても

  • In 2003, Italian dairy food giant Parmalat went bankrupt

    それが積もり積もると 大変な損失になります

  • after it was found to have fabricated a 4 billion dollar bank account


  • and falsified financial statements to hide the fact that its subsidiaries had been losing money.

    2003年 イタリアの乳製品会社大手の パルマラットが破産しました

  • Because it was family controlled,


  • corporate governance and regulator supervision were difficult,


  • and the company likely hoped that the losses could be recouped

    子会社の赤字を隠していたのが 分かったためです

  • before anyone found out.


  • And it's not just corporate greed.

    企業統治や 定期的監査が難しかったのです

  • Governments and non-profits are also susceptible to fraud.

    そしてこの会社は 不正が発覚する前に

  • During her time as City Comptroller for Dixon, Illinois,

    損失を埋め合わせられると 考えていたようです

  • Rita Crundwell embezzled over 53 million dollars.


  • Rita was one of the country's leading quarter horse breeders

    政府やNPOでも不正行為が 起きやすいのです

  • and winner of 52 world championships.

    イリノイ州ディクソン市の 会計責任者だった

  • But the cost of maintaining the herd ran to 200,000 dollars per month.

    リタ・クランドウェルは 5千3百万ドル以上を横領していました

  • Because her position gave her complete control over city finances,

    リタは全米屈指の クォーター馬のブリーダーでもあり

  • she was easily able to divert money

    52頭もの世界チャンピオンを 生み出しました

  • to an account she used for private expenses,

    しかし この馬の世話には 毎月20万ドルが必要でした

  • and the scheme went unnoticed for 20 years.

    彼女は市の財政を 完全に掌握できる地位にいたため

  • It is believed that Crundwell felt entitled to a lavish lifestyle


  • based on her position,


  • and the notoriety her winnings brought to the city.

    20年もの間 誰にも気づかれることはなかったのです

  • It's tempting to think of fraud as a victimless crime

    クランドウェルは 自分の地位に見合う 豪奢な生活を送ることは

  • because corporations and civic institutions aren't people.


  • But fraud harms real people in virtually every case:


  • the employees of Parmalat who lost their jobs,


  • the citizens of Dixon whose taxes subsidized horse breeding,

    不正行為をしても被害者は出ないと 考えがちですが

  • the customers of companies which raise their prices to offset losses.

    実は不正行為は どんな場合でも人を傷つけるのです

  • Sometimes the effects are obvious and devestating,


  • like when Bernie Madoff caused thousands of people to lose their life savings.

    ディクソン市民の税金は 競争馬の飼育に使われてしまい

  • But often they're subtle and not easy to untangle.

    企業の損失の埋め合わせとして 顧客には値上げがもたらされます

  • Yet someone, somewhere is left holding the bill.

    時に 明らかに悲惨な結果が もたらされる場合もあります

If you ask people whether they think stealing is wrong,

もし 盗みは悪い事かと聞かれれば


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B1 中級 日本語 TED-Ed 行為 企業 リタ 口座 ドル

TED-ED】人はいかにして詐欺を合理化するか - ケリー・リッチモンド・ポープ (【TED-Ed】How people rationalize fraud - Kelly Richmond Pope)

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    Ann に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日