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  • What causes, say, heroin addiction?

    薬物中毒の原因は何か?

  • This is a really stupid question, right?

    変な質問かもしれない

  • It's obvious; we all know it;

    そう 薬物が薬物中毒を起こすのだ

  • heroin causes heroin addiction.

    仕組みはこう

  • Here's how it works:

    麻薬を20日間使用した場合

  • if you use heroin for 20 days, by day 21,

    体はさらに麻薬を求めるようになる

  • your body would physically crave the drug ferociously

    それが中毒だ

  • because there are chemical hooks in the drug.

    いや 実は違う

  • That's what addiction means.

    中毒への正しい認識を持とう

  • But there's a catch.

    もしお尻を骨折したら 入院して

  • Almost everything we think we know about addiction is wrong.

    モルヒネを数週間打たれる

  • If you, for example, break your hip, you'll be taken to a hospital

    モルヒネは麻薬だ

  • and you'll be given lots of diamorphine for weeks or even months.

    これは道端で買うものよりも強い

  • Diamorphine is heroin.

    売人は薄めて売っているからだ

  • It's, in fact, much stronger heroin than any addict can get on the street

    今も病院で 人々は麻薬を打っている

  • because it's not contaminated by all the stuff drug dealers dilute it with.

    中毒にはならないのか?

  • There are people near you being given

    大丈夫 そうはならない

  • loads of deluxe heroin in hospitals right now.

    おばあちゃんも薬物中毒にならない

  • So at least some of them should become addicts?

    なぜだろう?

  • But this has been closely studied; it doesn't happen.

    20世紀からの一連の実験により

  • Your grandmother wasn't turned into a junkie by her hip replacement.

    中毒の理論は作られた

  • Why is that?

    単純な実験だ

  • Our current theory of addiction comes in part from a series of experiments

    ネズミを檻に入れ 水を2つ置く

  • that were carried out earlier in the 20th century.

    普通の水と コカインを混ぜた水だ

  • The experiment is simple:

    するとネズミは麻薬入りの水を飲み

  • you take a rat and put it in a cage with two water bottles.

    やがて飲み過ぎて死んでしまう

  • One is just water, the other is water laced with heroin or cocaine.

    しかし1970年代に ある心理学者が

  • Almost every time you run this experiment,

    実験に疑問を持った

  • the rat will become obsessed with the drugged water

    なぜ1匹で実験するのか?

  • and keep coming back for more and more, until it kills itself.

    孤独なのではないか?

  • But in the 1970s, Bruce Alexander, a professor of psychology,

    違う条件ならどうなるのか?

  • noticed something odd about this experiment:

    そこで彼はネズミの楽園を作った

  • the rat is put in the cage all alone.

    広い芝生におもちゃや遊び場

  • It has nothing to do but take the drugs.

    友達も恋人も作れるようにした

  • What would happen, he wondered, if we tried this differently?

    ネズミの夢の国だ

  • So he built Rat Park, which is basically heaven for rats;

    そしてここに2つの水を置いた

  • it’s a lush cage where the rats would have colored balls, tunnels to scamper down,

    結果は違った

  • plenty of friends to play with, and they could have loads of sex

    ネズミは普通の水を飲んだのだ

  • everything a rat about town could want.

    快楽の誘惑も 中毒死もなかった

  • And they would have the drugged water and the normal water bottles.

    ネズミだけだろうか?

  • But here's the fascinating thing:

    人間にも同様の事例がある

  • in Rat Park, rats hardly ever use the drugged water;

    ベトナム戦争だ

  • none of them ever use it compulsively; none of them ever overdose.

    当時 米兵の20%が麻薬を使った

  • But maybe this is a quirk of rats, right?

    終戦後 国に中毒患者が溢れるのでは

  • Well, helpfully, there was a human experiment along the same lines:

    という心配がなされていた

  • the Vietnam War.

    しかし追跡調査でそれは否定された

  • 20% of American troops in Vietnam were using a lot of heroin.

    中毒にも 病気にもならず

  • People back home were really panicked,

    95%が麻薬の使用をやめた

  • because they thought there would be hundreds of thousands of junkies

    古い理論では これは説明できない

  • on the streets of the United States when the war was over.

    心理学者の理論なら説明できる

  • But a study followed the soliders home and found something striking:

    異国の地で恐ろしい状況に置かれ

  • they didn't go to rehab; they didn't even go into withdrawal;

    緊張しているときは

  • 95% of them just stopped after they got home.

    麻薬が欲しくなる

  • If you believe the old theory of addiction, that makes no sense.

    だが家族の元に戻ったとき

  • But if you believe Prof. Alexander's theory, it makes perfect sense,

    人は最初の檻から出て

  • because if you're put into a horrific jungle in a foreign country

    楽園へと入ったのだ

  • where you don't want to be, and you could be forced to kill or die at any moment,

    化学ではなく 檻なのだ

  • doing heroin is a great way to spend your time;

    中毒の認識を変えよう

  • but if you go back to your nice home with your friends and your family,

    人間には繋がりが必要だ

  • it's the equivalent of being taken out of that first cage

    幸せは人との繋がりの中にある

  • and put into a human Rat Park;

    それができないと 人は孤独を感じ

  • it's not the chemicals, it's your cage.

    別の安らぎと繋がろうとする

  • We need to think about addiction differently.

    延々とスマホを見たり 動画を見たり

  • Human beings have an innate need to bond and connect.

    ゲーム 掲示板 またはコカインへ

  • When we are happy and healthy, we will bond with the people around us.

    そうすることが人間の本性なのだ

  • But when we can't,

    不健康な繋がりを断つには

  • because we're traumatized, isolated, or beaten down by life,

    健康な繋がりを持つことだ

  • we will bond with something that gives us some sense of relief.

    中毒は繋がりの危機を示す症状だ

  • It might be endlessly checking a smartphone;

    現代もそう

  • it might be pornography, video games, reddit, gambling, or it might be cocaine.

    アメリカ国民の親友の数は

  • But we will bond with something, because that is our human nature.

    年々減っているという

  • The path out of unhealthy bonds is to form healthy bonds,

    一方で 一部屋の広さの方は

  • to be connected to people you want to be present with.

    増えている

  • Addiction is just one symptom of the crisis of disconnection

    友情より 部屋の広さが大切だろうか

  • that's happening all around us.

    1世紀に渡る麻薬戦争は 今が最悪だ

  • We all feel it.

    人を助けるというより

  • Since the 1950s, the average number of close friends an American has

    追い出している

  • has been steadily declining.

    一度麻薬に手を出した人は

  • At the same time, the amount of floor space in their homes

    社会からより遠ざけられて

  • has been steadily increasing.

    文字通り 檻に入れられる

  • To choose floor space over friends, to choose stuff over connection.

    孤独を感じる状況に置かれ

  • The War on Drugs we've been fighting for almost a century now

    憎悪が向けられる

  • has made everything worse.

    中毒は個人の問題だと語られてきた

  • Instead of helping people heal and getting their life together,

    しかし現代においては

  • we have cast them out from society,

    社会で語るべきだろう

  • we have made it harder for them to get jobs and become stable,

    私たちは楽園を作る必要がある

  • we take benefits and support away from them if we catch them with drugs,

    孤独の檻は必要ない

  • we throw them in prison cells, which are literally cages,

    人は互いに歩み寄ることで

  • we put people who are not well

    互いを再発見する

  • in a situation which makes them feel worse and hate them for not recovering.

    中毒の反対は正常ではない

  • For too long, we've talked only about individual recovery from addiction.

    中毒の反対は繋がりだ

  • But we need now to talk about social recovery.

    Subtitles by the Amara.org community

  • Because something has gone wrong with us as a group.

  • We have to build a society that looks a lot more like Rat Park

  • and a lot less like those isolated cages.

  • We are going to have to change the unnatural way we live

  • and rediscover each other.

  • The opposite of addiction is not sobriety; the opposite of addiction is connection.

  • This video is a collaboration with Johann Hari,

  • the author of the book

  • Chasing the Scream: The First and Last Days of the War on Drugs”.

  • He was very kind to work with us on this video to spread the world.

  • We recommend that you give the book a try.

  • Our videos are made thanks to your support on Patreon.com.

  • If you want to help us make more of them, we really appreciate your support.

  • We made an interactive version of this video together with some friends.

  • See the link in the description.

  • Subtitles by the Amara.org community

What causes, say, heroin addiction?

薬物中毒の原因は何か?

字幕と単語

動画の操作 ここで「動画」の調整と「字幕」の表示を設定することができます

B1 中級 日本語 中毒 麻薬 ネズミ 繋がり 薬物 孤独

中毒について知っていると思っていることはすべて間違っている (Everything We Think We Know About Addiction Is Wrong)

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    Ray Du に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日
動画の中の単語