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  • - WELCOME TO THE SECOND SECTION ON OUR SERIES ON MINERALS.

  • AND THIS SECTION IS GOING TO COVER CALCIUM AND PHOSPHORUS.

  • WE'RE GOING TO START BY TALKING ABOUT CALCIUM.

  • CALCIUM IS THE MOST ABUNDANT MINERAL IN THE BODY.

  • AND WHEN MOST PEOPLE HEAR ABOUT CALCIUM,

  • THEY DEFINITELY THINK OF BONE.

  • AND BONE MINERALIZATION IS ONE OF CALCIUM'S MAIN ROLES.

  • AND CALCIUM IS STORED IN THE BONE,

  • WHICH IS WHY IT'S THE MOST ABUNDANT MINERAL IN THE BODY.

  • BUT CALCIUM ALSO HAS A NUMBER OF OTHER ROLES, INCLUDING:

  • NERVE TRANSMISSION, TRANSPORT OF IONS,

  • BLOOD PRESSURE, BLOOD CLOTTING, AND MUSCLE CONTRACTION.

  • THE BODY KEEPS CALCIUM WITHIN THE BLOODSTREAM

  • UNDER REALLY TIGHT CONTROL.

  • IT DOESN'T LET IT GET TOO HIGH OR TOO LOW.

  • IN GENERAL WHAT HAPPENS IS WE CONSUME FOOD WITH CALCIUM,

  • CALCIUM IS ABSORBED INTO THE BLOODSTREAM.

  • NOW THAT WILL ELEVATE THE CALCIUM A LITTLE BIT.

  • IF THAT'S THE CASE,

  • CALCIUM CAN BE USED TO MINERALIZE BONE.

  • BUT IF CALCIUM LEVELS DROP THEN ABSORPTION

  • WITHIN THE INTESTINES ACTUALLY INCREASES,

  • PULLING MORE CALCIUM INTO THE BLOODSTREAM.

  • IN ADDITION, BONE IS ACTUALLY BROKEN DOWN

  • AND CALCIUM IS RELEASED INTO THE BLOODSTREAM,

  • TO BRING THE LEVEL OF BLOOD CALCIUM

  • BACK UP TO ITS NORMAL RANGE.

  • THERE ARE A NUMBER OF SOURCES OF CALCIUM.

  • AND I THINK MOST OF US THINK OF DAIRY WHEN WE THINK OF CALCIUM.

  • AND YOU CAN SEE IT AT THE TOP OF THE LIST HERE.

  • WE HAVE MILK AND YOGURT.

  • NOW I WANT TO POINT OUT MOST PEOPLE, MOST ADULTS,

  • WILL NEED ABOUT A THOUSAND MILLIGRAMS OF CALCIUM A DAY.

  • AND IF YOU REMEMBER BACK

  • WHAT OUR DEFINITIONS OF GOOD SOURCE AND HIGH-END ARE,

  • 10-19 PERCENT IS A GOOD SOURCE.

  • THAT MEANS THAT 10-19 PERCENT THAT MEANS THAT 100 MILLIGRAMS

  • OF CALCIUM OR MORE WILL BE A GOOD SOURCE PER SERVING.

  • AND 200 MILLIGRAMS OR MORE WILL BE HIGH-END,

  • THAT MEANS HER SERVING THAT FOOD OR FOOD PRODUCT

  • WOULD BE HIGH-END CALCIUM.

  • SO YOGURT, DEFINITELY GETS A STAR.

  • MILK GETS A STAR.

  • BUT ALSO LOOK AT COLLARD, COLLARD GREENS,

  • AND THEY'RE GOING TO BE UP THERE, AS WELL.

  • CAN SALMON, THAT'S WITH THE BONES,

  • 180 MILLIGRAMS, SO THIS IS DEFINITELY

  • A GOOD SOURCE ALONG WITH CALCIUM SET-TOFU.

  • MOST TOFU IS ACTUALLY SET IN CALCIUM

  • SO YOU CAN PRETTY MUCH RELY ON CALCIUM TO BE A GOOD SOURCE.

  • THE AMERICAN CHEESE,

  • I DON'T RECOMMEND EATING AMERICAN CHEESE;

  • IT'S HIGHLY PROCESSED AND DOESN'T REALLY RESEMBLE CHEESE.

  • BUT IT IS A GOOD SOURCE,

  • AS IS COTTAGE CHEESE, BLACK-EYED PEAS AS WELL.

  • THERE ARE OTHER SOURCES OF CALCIUM THAT, YOU KNOW,

  • WHAT I WANT YOU TO GET FROM THIS IS THAT

  • ARE OTHER SOURCES OF CALCIUM AND I'M GONNA--

  • THE NEXT SLIDE IS GOING TO SHOW EVEN MORE SOURCES THAT

  • CAN GIVE YOU ENOUGH CALCIUM WITHOUT EATING DAIRY PRODUCTS.

  • SO IF YOU CAN'T EAT DIARY, AND A LOT OF PEOPLE CAN'T,

  • DON'T FEEL LIKE YOU HAVE TO RELY ON THAT

  • OR ON SUPPLEMENTS TO OBTAIN ENOUGH CALCIUM.

  • NOW, I PUT THESE DOWN HERE.

  • THESE ARE NOT TECHNICALLY GOOD

  • SOURCES BUT THEY ARE SOURCES OF CALCIUM,

  • BUT THEY DON'T FIT OUR DEFINITION.

  • SO: SOY MILK;

  • A LOT OF PEOPLE ALWAYS SAY ORANGES ARE GOOD

  • SOURCE OF CALCIUM, THEY'RE REALLY NOT;

  • ALMONDS DO HAVE CALCIUM BUT YOU CERTAINLY HAVE TO

  • EAT ENOUGH A LOT OF THEM, TO GET ENOUGH OF THE CALCIUM.

  • THIS CHART, ACTUALLY THIS IS FORM A

  • STUDY FROM THE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION,

  • LOOKING AT HOW--

  • LOOKING AT THE BIO-AVAILABILITY OF CALCIUM.

  • WHAT THAT MEANS IS HOW MUCH CALCIUM

  • IS ACTUALLY ABSORBED FROM THE FOOD.

  • AND YOU MIGHT BE SURPRISED BY THIS.

  • WE USE MILK AS OUR COMPARATIVE,

  • SO EVERYTHING IS COMPARED TO MILK.

  • AND MILK HAS 300 MILLIGRAMS OF CALCIUM PER SERVING.

  • SO REMEMBER, 200 MILLIGRAMS OR MORE WOULD BE 20 PERCENT;

  • THAT WOULD BE HIGH-END.

  • SO THIS IS HIGH-END CALCIUM.

  • SO EVERYTHING IS RELATED TO MILK.

  • SO LET'S START BY LOOKING AT SOME MILK PRODUCTS,

  • SIMILAR MILK PRODUCTS:

  • CHEDDAR CHEESE IS 300;

  • CHEESE-TYPE FOODS, THAT'S NOT REAL FOOD,

  • BUT CHEESE FOODS; YOGURT;

  • AND THEN WE TALKED ABOUT OUR CALCIUM WITH TOFU.

  • THESE ARE ALL SOURCES OF CALCIUM AND YOU CAN SEE

  • THEY'RE IN BETWEEN THE 250-300 RANGE.

  • AND LOOK OVER HERE.

  • HOW MANY SERVINGS WOULD YOU NEED TO EAT OF EACH

  • OF THESE FOODS TO EQUAL ONE SERVING OF MILK?

  • AND YOU NEED ABOUT ONE.

  • FOR EACH OF THESE YOU NEED ABOUT ONE

  • SERVING TO EQUAL A SERVING OF MILK.

  • SO THAT MEANS IT ACTUALLY EQUALS 300 MILLIGRAMS

  • OF CALCIUM BECAUSE OF THE RATE IT'S ABSORBED.

  • WELL, LET'S LOOK AT SOME OF THE CRUCIFEROUS VEGETABLES.

  • SO IN PARTICULAR THEY HAVE THE CHINESE

  • CABBAGE AND CHINESE MUSTARD GREENS.

  • AND THESE ACTUALLY WILL HAVE A--

  • LOOK AT IT, SO LOW 200s FOR HOW MANY

  • MILLIGRAMS OF CALCIUM PER SERVING.

  • REMEMBER MILK HAS 300 MILLIGRAMS PER SERVING.

  • BUT YOU ONLY NEED TO EAT ONE SERVING TO

  • EQUAL 300 MILLIGRAMS OF CALCIUM IN MILK.

  • AND WHAT THAT MEANS IS THAT EVEN THOUGH THEY

  • HAVE LOWER LEVELS OF CALCIUM TO START WITH,

  • THEY'RE ABSORBED AT A GREATER RATE.

  • SO YOU'RE GETTING THE SAME AMOUNT OF CALCIUM ACTUALLY

  • ABSORBED INTO THE BLOODSTREAM, AS YOU WOULD WITH MILK,

  • EVEN THOUGH IT STARTS WITH A LOWER AMOUNT OF CALCIUM.

  • NOW, IF WE GO UP, BUMP UP TO SOME OF THE DIFFERENT BEANS,

  • BEANS DO HAVE SOME CALCIUM.

  • ONLY THE WHITE BEANS REALLY ARE A REASONABLE SOURCE,

  • A GOOD SOURCE, BUT YOU NEED TO EAT

  • FOUR SERVINGS TO EQUAL ONE SERVING OF MILK.

  • AND THEN SPINACH.

  • SPINACH IS, YOU KNOW,

  • LOOKS LIKE A GOOD SOURCE OF CALCIUM, 115 MILLIGRAMS.

  • SO IT'S NOT QUITE AS HIGH AS THIS.

  • BUT HOW MANY SERVINGS DO YOU NEED TO EAT TO

  • EQUAL ONE CUP OF MILK, ONE SERVING OF MILK?

  • 16, SO EVEN THOUGH IT LOOKS LIKE

  • SPINACH IS A GOOD SOURCE OF CALCIUM,

  • JUST BASED ON HOW MANY MILLIGRAMS IT HAS PER SERVING,

  • IT'S ACTUALLY NOT A GOOD SOURCE

  • BECAUSE IT HAS LOW BIO-AVAILABILITY.

  • IT DOESN'T GET ABSORBED WELL.

  • SO ON YOUR DIET STUDY,

  • IF YOU'RE LOW ON CALCIUM AND YOU SAY YOU'RE GOING TO ADD SPINACH,

  • I'M NOT AGAINST ADDING SPINACH TO YOUR DIET.

  • BUT YOU'RE DEFINITELY NOT GOING TO BE

  • INCREASING CALCIUM BY EATING SPINACH.

  • THE SAME IS TRUE FOR RHUBARB.

  • AND ALTHOUGH SWEET POTATOES AREN'T REALLY A GOOD SOURCE,

  • YOU CAN SEE THE SAME TYPE OF THING HAPPENS.

  • THERE ARE ENOUGH INHIBITORS IN THERE

  • TO LIMIT THE ABSORPTION OF CALCIUM.

  • A COUPLE FEW THINGS ON PHOSPHORUS.

  • PHOSPHORUS AND CALCIUM GO TOGETHER BECAUSE

  • THEY'RE BOTH IMPORTANT IN THE FORMATION AND

  • THE MINERALIZATION OF BONE, ALSO IN TEETH.

  • BUT PHOSPHORUS IS ALSO PART OF PHOSPHOLIPIDS.

  • NOW, WHAT'S A PHOSPHOLIPID?

  • IF YOU CAN REMEMBER BACK TO CHAPTER 5,

  • WE HAVE A TRIGLYCERIDE AND THEN THREE FATTY ACIDS.

  • AND THAT WOULD BE OUR TRIGLYCERYOL,

  • A GLYCEROL BACKGROUND AND THREE FATTY ACIDS.

  • BUT IF YOU REPLACE ONE FATTY ACID WITH

  • A PHOSPHATE YOU GET A PHOSPHOLIPID.

  • AND NOW REMEMBER, PHOSPHOLIPIDS WILL:

  • ONE, THEY ACT AS EMULSIFIERS;

  • THEY ALSO ARE PART OF CELL MEMBRANES.

  • THEY DO HELP BRING FAT,

  • ALLOW FAT TO TRAVEL IN AN AQUEOUS OR A LIQUID ENVIRONMENT,

  • SUCH AS THE BLOODSTREAM.

  • PHOSPHORUS ACTUALLY ALSO ACTS AS A

  • BUFFER AND IN THE RELEASE OF ENERGY.

  • YOU REMEMBER BACK FROM BIOLOGY?

  • HOPEFULLY YOU'LL REMEMBER FROM BIOLOGY ATP,

  • ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE.

  • WHEN YOU LOSE ONE OF THESE PHOSPHATES AND MAKE ADP,

  • THERE IS A RELEASE OF ENERGY.

  • HERE ARE SOME SOURCES OF PHOSPHORUS, SOME FOOD SOURCES.

  • SOME OF THEM YOU'LL NOTICE ARE SIMILAR TO CALCIUM,

  • LIKE YOGURT AND MILK.

  • BUT ALSO SOME OTHER SOURCES, ANIMAL SOURCES:

  • CHICKEN AND BEEF, SALMON.

  • AND THEN LENTILS AND ALMONDS, AS WELL.

  • WELL, THIS IS GOING TO CONCLUDE THIS

  • SECTION ON CALCIUM AND PHOSPHORUS.

  • AND THE NEXT SECTION, WE'LL TALK ABOUT OSTEOPOROSIS.

  •  

- WELCOME TO THE SECOND SECTION ON OUR SERIES ON MINERALS.

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C1 上級

10.2 ミネラルカルシウムとリン (10.2 Minerals: Calcium and Phosphorus)

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    wenwen に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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