字幕表 動画を再生する 英語字幕をプリント Summer is on it’s way and that means more sun, more heat, and unfortunately, more ticks. Hey everyone Julia here for DNews Lyme disease is weird, mysterious, and can be pretty stubborn. Every tick season 300,000 Americans will become infected according to The U.S. Centers for Disease Control. The symptoms are similar to a flu like fever and aches, so a lot of cases go untreated. Only 30,000 cases get reported each year. But other symptoms can get worse. much worse. Like chronic debilitating joint pain. You can get lyme disease from the bite of a blacklegged (deer) tick. But not all ticks carry the disease. According to Paul Mead, chief of epidemiology and surveillance activity at the CDC, one out of every four or five ticks might be infected in areas where the disease is very common. There are a lot of misconceptions about lyme disease. Some people think that everyone who gets the disease will get a telltale bulls eye redness around the tick bite. But that’s not always the case. The CDC says around 70 percent of people get the mark, but it can vary by region. But lyme disease doesn’t vary too much, it’s been reported in every state except Hawaii. The disease is caused by the bacteria Borrelia burgdorferi. This bacteria is old. Like really old. Researchers from Ohio State University found ticks infected with it trapped in amber in the Dominican Republic. In a study published in the journal Historical Biology, they found they could be around 15 to 20 MILLION YEARS OLD. Basically as long as people have been getting bit by ticks, there’s been lyme disease. You know that famous Ice mummy otzi? Yeah, he might’ve had Lyme disease. In analyzing his genome, scientists found fragments of the bacteria’s genetic material. At 5,300 years old, that could be the oldest case ever found of the disease. Otzi, like others, would have suffered some of the nasty symptoms like pain. Most of the symptoms are caused by the way the disease targets the immune system. It triggers inflammation and can attack the peripheral nervous system, causing pain spreading from the back to the arms and legs, and hands and feet. One study published in the journal The American Journal of Pathology found that this inflammation can also affect the central nervous system, causing headaches and fatigue and even scary symptoms like memory loss, learning disability, or depression. Lyme disease can be cured if it’s caught early, but it’s often misdiagnosed. So sometimes these symptoms persist becoming chronic and debilitating in about 10-20 percent of patients. It’s estimated that about a million Americans live with what’s called post-treatment Lyme disease (PTLD). A recent study published in Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy found why it’s just so hard to get rid of. Even though lyme disease is caused by bacteria, antibiotics often don’t work to treat the pathogen. So the bacteria forms what’s called dormant persister cells which evade antibiotics. And just like their name suggests these guys aren’t killed by antibiotics. They lie dormant. Then might wake up after a round of treatment and wreck havoc on the nervous system. But the researchers also identified two potential treatments for PTLD. One is a treatment for cancer called Mitomycin C, which wiped out all cultures of the bacteria. But the treatment is pretty toxic, so probably not the best way to go. Another way involves multiple doses of antibiotics. In what’s called “pulse dosing” the researchers repeatedly dosed the bacteria. In the first round, some cells died, but those dormant persister cells didn’t. They woke up and tried to establish a population. But before they did, researchers hit them with another round of antibiotics. After four rounds of treatment, the bacteria were all eradicated. But this was only in a testtube, so more research is needed. IF you’re worried about lyme disease and tick bites, the CDC recommends knowing where deer ticks are commonly found, wearing protective clothing and insect repellent if you go into those areas and to do daily checks of your body if you’ve been outside, even in your own backyard. If a tick is attached to your body for less than 24 hours, your chances of getting the disease is small. Speaking of tiny things that could potentially harm you, have you ever wondered what a virus is? I’ve got the short & sweet answer for you in this episode of my new show, Test Tube 101. Check it out and subscribe.