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  • When you're a child,


  • anything and everything is possible.


  • The challenge, so often, is hanging on to that as we grow up.

    成長するにつれ 夢にしがみつくのは至難の業になります

  • And as a four-year-old,


  • I had the opportunity to sail for the first time.


  • I will never forget the excitement as we closed the coast.

    海岸に近づいていくときの 興奮は忘れられません

  • I will never forget


  • the feeling of adventure as I climbed on board the boat


  • and stared into her tiny cabin for the first time.

    冒険に行くんだという気持ちも 忘れられません

  • But the most amazing feeling was the feeling of freedom,


  • the feeling that I felt when we hoisted her sails.

    帆を揚げた時感じた 自由でした

  • As a four-year-old child,


  • it was the greatest sense of freedom that I could ever imagine.


  • I made my mind up there and then that one day, somehow,

    そして 私はいつか どうにかして

  • I was going to sail around the world.


  • So I did what I could in my life to get closer to that dream.

    その夢に近づくため 自分が出来ることをしました

  • Age 10, it was saving my school dinner money change.

    10歳の時 学校給食のお金を貯めました

  • Every single day for eight years, I had mashed potato and baked beans,

    8年間毎日ずっと マッシュポテトとベイクドビーンズを食べました

  • which cost 4p each, and gravy was free.

    値段は2つとも4ペンスで グレイビーソースは無料でした

  • Every day I would pile up the change on the top of my money box,

    毎日私は貯金箱の上に 小銭を重ねました

  • and when that pile reached a pound, I would drop it in

    重ねた小銭が1ポンドになると 貯金箱に入れ

  • and cross off one of the 100 squares I'd drawn on a piece of paper.

    紙に書いた100個の四角のうち 1つを線で消しました

  • Finally, I bought a tiny dinghy.

    そしてようやく 小型のヨットを買いました

  • I spent hours sitting on it in the garden dreaming of my goal.

    庭でヨットの上に何時間も座り 目標の達成を夢見ていました

  • I read every book I could on sailing,

    私はセーリングに関する あらゆる本を読み

  • and then eventually, having been told by my school


  • I wasn't clever enough to be a vet,


  • left school age 17 to begin my apprenticeship in sailing.

    17歳で学校を辞め セーリングのトレーニングを始めました

  • So imagine how it felt just four years later

    想像してみてください その4年後

  • to be sitting in a boardroom

    ある役員会議室で 夢をいよいよ

  • in front of someone who I knew could make that dream come true.


  • I felt like my life depended on that moment,

    自分の人生を左右する瞬間だと 感じていました

  • and incredibly, he said yes.

    驚いたことに 彼の答えは「イエス」

  • And I could barely contain my excitement as I sat in that first design meeting

    興奮が冷めやらぬまま 私は初めての設計会議に出席しました

  • designing a boat on which I was going to sail


  • solo nonstop around the world.


  • From that first meeting to the finish line of the race,


  • it was everything I'd ever imagined.


  • Just like in my dreams, there were amazing parts and tough parts.

    考えていた通り 素晴らしい部分と辛い部分がありました

  • We missed an iceberg by 20 feet.


  • Nine times, I climbed to the top of her 90-foot mast.

    9回も 30mのマストの てっぺんまで登りました

  • We were blown on our side in the Southern Ocean.


  • But the sunsets, the wildlife, and the remoteness

    でも夕焼けや野生生物 どこまでも人のいない世界

  • were absolutely breathtaking.


  • After three months at sea, age just 24,

    3カ月後 24歳の頃

  • I finished in second position.


  • I'd loved it, so much so that within six months

    心の底から惹きつけられて 半年も経たないうちに

  • I decided to go around the world again, but this time not in a race:

    もう一度世界一周をすると決めました でも今回はレースではなく

  • to try to be the fastest person ever to sail solo nonstop around the world.


  • Now for this, I needed a different craft:

    これを実現するためには 別のヨットが必要でした

  • bigger, wider, faster, more powerful.

    もっと大きく 幅ももっと広く もっと速く より強力な船です

  • Just to give that boat some scale, I could climb inside her mast

    どんな大きさかと言えば マストの内側を先端まで

  • all the way to the top.


  • Seventy-five foot long, 60 foot wide.

    全長23m 横幅18mです

  • I affectionately called her Moby.


  • She was a multihull.


  • When we built her, no one had ever made it solo nonstop

    モービィの着工時 多くの人が多胴艇でのノンストップの世界一周単独航海に挑みましたが

  • around the world in one, though many had tried,


  • but whilst we built her, a Frenchman took a boat 25 percent bigger than her

    しかし 建造中に フランス人男性がモービィより25%も大きい船を使い

  • and not only did he make it, but he took the record from 93 days

    成功させただけでなく 記録を93日間から

  • right down to 72.


  • The bar was now much, much higher.


  • And these boats were exciting to sail.

    このタイプの船の 帆走は刺激的です

  • This was a training sail off the French coast.


  • This I know well because I was one of the five crew members on board.

    5人の乗員の1人だったので よく覚えています

  • Five seconds is all it took from everything being fine

    全てが順調だったのに 5秒後には

  • to our world going black as the windows were thrust underwater,

    世界は真っ暗 窓は水中に沈んでいるのです

  • and that five seconds goes quickly.


  • Just see how far below those guys the sea is.

    5人の位置から 海面までがどんなに遠いかわかりますね

  • Imagine that alone in the Southern Ocean

    想像してみてください 岸から3-4,000kmくらい沖の南氷洋で

  • plunged into icy water, thousands of miles away from land.

    たった一人で投げ出されることを 想像してください

  • It was Christmas Day.


  • I was forging into the Southern Ocean underneath Australia.

    オーストラリアの南の南氷洋を 私はゆっくり進みました

  • The conditions were horrendous.


  • I was approaching a part in the ocean


  • which was 2,000 miles away from the nearest town.


  • The nearest land was Antarctica, and the nearest people

    南極大陸が一番近い陸地で 一番近い人は

  • would be those manning the European Space Station above me.

    頭上の宇宙ステーションの 乗組員かもしれない

  • (Laughter)


  • You really are in the middle of nowhere.


  • If you need help,


  • and you're still alive,


  • it takes four days for a ship to get to you


  • and then four days for that ship to get you back to port.

    そして船が港に戻るのに さらに4日かかるのです

  • No helicopter can reach you out there,


  • and no plane can land.


  • We are forging ahead of a huge storm.


  • Within it, there was 80 knots of wind,

    嵐の中では 風速150kmで

  • which was far too much wind for the boat and I to cope with.


  • The waves were already 40 to 50 feet high,


  • and the spray from the breaking crests


  • was blown horizontally like snow in a blizzard.

    ブリザードの雪のように 水平に飛んできました

  • If we didn't sail fast enough, we'd be engulfed by that storm,

    スピードが足りなかったら 嵐に飲み込まれ

  • and either capsized or smashed to pieces.

    転覆するか 粉々にされます

  • We were quite literally hanging on for our lives

    私たちは文字通り 生にしがみつき

  • and doing so on a knife edge.


  • The speed I so desperately needed brought with it danger.

    死にもの狂いで出すスピードには 危険が伴いました

  • We all know what it's like driving a car 20 miles an hour, 30, 40.

    時速 30、45、60km で 車を走らせる気分と言えば

  • It's not too stressful. We can concentrate.

    ストレスはそれほどでもなく 集中できます

  • We can turn on the radio.


  • Take that 50, 60, 70, accelerate through to 80, 90, 100 miles an hour.

    時速 80、100、120km さらに 加速して130、145、160km

  • Now you have white knuckles and you're gripping the steering wheel.


  • Now take that car off road at night

    さてそんな車が夜 道路から外れ

  • and remove the windscreen wipers, the windscreen,


  • the headlights and the brakes.


  • That's what it's like in the Southern Ocean.


  • (Laughter) (Applause)


  • You could imagine


  • it would be quite difficult to sleep in that situation,


  • even as a passenger.


  • But you're not a passenger.


  • You're alone on a boat you can barely stand up in,

    ヨットには自分だけで 立つこともままならず

  • and you have to make every single decision on board.

    あなたはあらゆることを 決めなくてはなりません

  • I was absolutely exhausted, physically and mentally.

    精神的にも体力的にも 憔悴しきっています

  • Eight sail changes in 12 hours.

    12時間のうちに8回 帆を交換

  • The mainsail weighed three times my body weight,


  • and after each change,


  • I would collapse on the floor soaked with sweat

    私は汗だくになり 床に崩れました

  • with this freezing Southern Ocean air burning the back of my throat.

    凍えるような南氷洋の空気が 喉の奥をヒリヒリさせます

  • But out there, those lowest of the lows

    そこでは こんな極限的な状況と

  • are so often contrasted with the highest of the highs.

    どこまでも素晴らしい状態とが 背中合わせです

  • A few days later, we came out of the back of the low.

    数日後 低気圧を抜けました

  • Against all odds, we'd been able to drive ahead of the record

    大きな困難にもかかわらず 記録に勝るペースで

  • within that depression.


  • The sky cleared, the rain stopped,

    空は晴れ 雨は止みました

  • and our heartbeat, the monstrous seas around us were transformed

    心臓のように休まず動き続けた 恐ろしい海は

  • into the most beautiful moonlit mountains.

    月明かりに照らされて 最も美しい山々に変容しました

  • It's hard to explain, but you enter a different mode when you head out there.

    説明しにくいのですが 海に出る時モードが変わるのです

  • Your boat is your entire world,


  • and what you take with you when you leave is all you have.

    出発時に持ってきたものが 持っているものの全てです

  • If I said to you all now, "Go off into Vancouver

    仮に私が今皆さんに 「バンクーバーへ行き

  • and find everything you will need for your survival for the next three months,"

    3か月間のサバイバルに必要なものを 揃えなさい」と言ったとしても

  • that's quite a task.


  • That's food, fuel, clothes,


  • even toilet roll and toothpaste.


  • That's what we do,


  • and when we leave we manage it

    出航すると ディーゼルの最後の一滴や

  • down to the last drop of diesel and the last packet of food.

    食べ物の最後の一袋に至るまで やりくりします

  • No experience in my life

    他のどんな経験も これより明確に

  • could have given me a better understanding of the definition of the word "finite."

    「限りある」という言葉の意味を 教えてくれはしなかったでしょう

  • What we have out there is all we have.


  • There is no more.


  • And never in my life had I ever translated that definition of finite

    船上で感じた 「限りある」ということの意味を

  • that I'd felt on board to anything outside of sailing


  • until I stepped off the boat at the finish line having broken that record.

    記録を樹立してゴールして ヨットを降りた後からです

  • (Applause)


  • Suddenly I connected the dots.

    突然 点が繋がりました

  • Our global economy is no different.


  • It's entirely dependent on finite materials

    私たちが人類史上 一度だけ持てる

  • we only have once in the history of humanity.

    限りある資源に 完全に依存しています

  • And it was a bit like seeing something you weren't expecting under a stone


  • and having two choices:


  • I either put that stone to one side


  • and learn more about it, or I put that stone back

    それとも 石を元の場所に戻し

  • and I carry on with my dream job of sailing around the world.

    夢の仕事である 世界一周の航海に向かって邁進するのか

  • I chose the first.


  • I put it to one side and I began a new journey of learning,

    石を脇にどかして 新しい学びの旅を始め

  • speaking to chief executives, experts, scientists, economists

    経営者や専門家 科学者や経済学者と話し

  • to try to understand just how our global economy works.

    世界経済がどのように機能するのかを 理解しようとしたのです

  • And my curiosity took me to some extraordinary places.

    好奇心に導かれ 私は特別な場所に行きました

  • This photo was taken in the burner of a coal-fired power station.

    これは石炭燃料の発電所のバーナーで 撮った写真です

  • I was fascinated by coal, fundamental to our global energy needs,

    世界のエネルギー需要を支える 石炭に私は魅せられました

  • but also very close to my family.


  • My great-grandfather was a coal miner,


  • and he spent 50 years of his life underground.


  • This is a photo of him, and when you see that photo,

    これは曽祖父の写真です この写真を見れば

  • you see someone from another era.

    時代が違うと お分かりいただけるでしょう

  • No one wears trousers with a waistband quite that high


  • in this day and age. (Laughter)

    最近では誰も穿きませんよね (笑)

  • But yet, that's me with my great-grandfather,


  • and by the way, they are not his real ears. (Laughter)

    曽祖父の耳は偽物ですよ (笑)

  • We were close. I remember sitting on his knee listening to his mining stories.

    私たちはとても仲良しで 膝の上に座り 炭鉱の話を聞いたのを覚えています

  • He talked of the camaraderie underground,


  • and the fact that the miners used to save the crusts of their sandwiches

    地下で一緒に働く小馬にやるために サンドイッチの耳を

  • to give to the ponies they worked with underground.

    炭鉱夫たちが集めていたことを 話してくれました

  • It was like it was yesterday.


  • And on my journey of learning,


  • I went to the World Coal Association website,

    私は世界石炭協会の ホームページを見ました

  • and there in the middle of the homepage, it said,


  • "We have about 118 years of coal left."

    「118年分の石炭が存在」 とありました

  • And I thought to myself, well, that's well outside my lifetime,


  • and a much greater figure than the predictions for oil.

    石油の予想より ずっと明るい数字だと思いました

  • But I did the math, and I realized that my great-grandfather

    でも計算してみると 曽祖父が生まれたのが

  • had been born exactly 118 years before that year,

    その年から数えて 118年前でした

  • and I sat on his knee until I was 11 years old,

    私は11歳まで 曽祖父の膝に座っていましたが

  • and I realized it's nothing


  • in time, nor in history.

    ごくわずかな時間に過ぎない と気付き

  • And it made me make a decision I never thought I would make:

    そして考えてもみなかったような ある決断をしました

  • to leave the sport of solo sailing behind me


  • and focus on the greatest challenge I'd ever come across:


  • the future of our global economy.

    世界経済の未来に 注力することにしたのです

  • And I quickly realized it wasn't just about energy.

    すぐに悟ったのが 単にエネルギーの問題だけでなく

  • It was also materials.


  • In 2008, I picked up a scientific study

    2008年 私はある科学研究を見つけました

  • looking at how many years we have


  • of valuable materials to extract from the ground:


  • copper, 61; tin, zinc, 40; silver, 29.

    銅は61年 錫と亜鉛は40年 銀は29年です

  • These figures couldn't be exact, but we knew those materials were finite.

    これらの数字が正確でなくとも 物質には「限りがある」のです

  • We only have them once.


  • And yet, our speed that we've used these materials has increased rapidly,


  • exponentially.


  • With more people in the world with more stuff,

    世界の人口が増えることで 物が溢れ

  • we've effectively seen 100 years of price declines

    100年に渡り緩やかに下がってきた 基本的物質の価格下降は

  • in those basic commodities erased in just 10 years.

    わずか10年で 帳消しになりました

  • And this affects all of us.


  • It's brought huge volatility in prices,

    2011年には 価格の乱高下を招きました

  • so much so that in 2011,


  • your average European car manufacturer


  • saw a raw material price increase


  • of 500 million Euros,


  • wiping away half their operating profits

    知れば知るほど 自分の人生が変わり始めたのです

  • through something they have absolutely no control over.

    移動も消費も 控えるようになりました

  • And the more I learned, the more I started to change my own life.

    私たちは 行動を控えるべきなのだと 感じたのです

  • I started traveling less, doing less, using less.


  • It felt like actually doing less was what we had to do.


  • But it sat uneasy with me.

    私たちは ただ時間稼ぎをしているだけだと 感じたのです

  • It didn't feel right.

    モノをあと少し 長く使えるように

  • It felt like we were buying ourselves time.

    皆さんが変わったとしても 問題解決にはならないし

  • We were eking things out a bit longer.


  • Even if everybody changed, it wouldn't solve the problem.

    消費形態の変化は避けられませんが 私の関心が向いたのは

  • It wouldn't fix the system.

    「どのように変化すればいいのか? 実際何が有効なのか?」ということでした

  • It was vital in the transition, but what fascinated me was,

    今の仕組みは 私たちが暮らしていく上で

  • in the transition to what? What could actually work?


  • It struck me that the system itself, the framework within which we live,


  • is fundamentally flawed,

    私たちのオペレーティング・システム- 経済の機能の方法や

  • and I realized ultimately

    経済が構築された方法 それ自体がシステムなのです

  • that our operating system, the way our economy functions,

    海では複雑なシステムを 理解するのは必須でした

  • the way our economy's been built, is a system in itself.


  • At sea, I had to understand complex systems.


  • I had to take multiple inputs,

    システムを理解しなければ 勝てませんでした

  • I had to process them,


  • and I had to understand the system to win.

    世界経済を見ると それもシステムで