字幕表 動画を再生する 字幕スクリプトをプリント 翻訳字幕をプリント 英語字幕をプリント (applauding) 今ご紹介に預かった通り、カーンアカデミーは、 Salman: As I just introduced what Khan Academy is most known for 5,6年前から始めたビデオ教材によって is this library of videos that I started producing 非常によく知られています。 almost five, six years ago now. まず、それらのビデオが実際どのようなものであったか Before I go any further, let me just show you all a little bit of a mix 説明させていただいてから、 of what the videos actually look like 核心の話に移らせてください。 and then we can go a little deeper from there. これらの動物の化石は南アメリカの、 So the hypotenuse is now going to be five. 素晴らしく、またきれいなこの地帯と、アフリカの一部でのみ発見されます。 These animals fossils are only found in this area of South America a nice, clean band here and this part of Africa. We can integrate over the surface in the notation usually is a capital sigma. National Assembly they create the committee of public safety which sounds like a very nice committee. Notice this is an aldehyde and it's an alcohol start differentiating it to affect or, and memory cells. A galaxy, hey there's another galaxy. Oh look there's another galaxy. For dollars is there 30 million plus the 20 million dollars from the American manufacturer if this does not blow your mind then you have no emotion. (audience laughing) You know the videos there's now 2,200 of them. That's kind of what I want to do until I get a hit by a bus or hopefully it won't be for a while. We're doing a lot more than that,I mean the videos are reaching ... Actually now, on the order of about two million unique users a month. We've had almost 45 million video views they are being watched 2 to 300,000 times a day. Before I go any deeper, I actually just gave a talk at TED down in Long Beach a couple weeks ago, I don't want this to be a repetition of that talk. I want this to kind of be a part two. But before I go any further, I want to get a sense just so I know how much background and depth I need to give. How many of you all seen that talk? Okay, good. How many of you all have been to the site? Because I want to know how much background, okay very good, very good. What I want to focus on today is kind of going a little bit deeper. I will give a background about what we're doing beyond the video portion. Now that it isn't just me. We are actually kind of a team now, we're at six people. (audience laughing) Some of the questions that I think have surfaced is we've gotten a little bit more popular and we started to enter into domains, but frankly I never thought we would enter. Especially into the classroom itself. Before I do that,I want to give you all a little bit of a thought experiment. Imagine if we're in a juggling class and I'm your juggling instructor. This week we are going to learn to juggle oranges. I give you all your orange juggling kits, I give you all each four oranges and I give you all a lecture on juggling oranges. I say practice and in a week I will assess your orange juggling ability. You practice and a week later I come back with my clipboard and I say juggle. You try the best you can to juggle and different three oranges, four oranges, all the rest and I say, "You can't juggle four oranges at all." "Three oranges, barely can keep the oranges in the air" "for more than a few seconds." You are a 70% orange juggler, you are a D orange juggler. I place that label on your forehead. I put it in your permanent record making it all but impossible for you to go in an elite juggling school. (audience laughing) Despite those deficiencies that you clearly have in your abilities, there's the state mandated a juggling curriculum that we have to follow and there's a calendar that specifies how we have to move forward. We have this kind of assembly line and so I say, "Well give me back the oranges. The next lesson here are some knives." (audience laughing) As crazy as that might appear to be that's exactly what's happening in our classrooms right now. It might not be as physically dangerous but it is just as mentally dangerous. We have students they take an exam, they get 10% wrong, 20% wrong, 30% wrong, you can even fail an exam. Regardless of the fact that we've identified those deficiencies, we know that the student doesn't know those concepts, we have to move on to the next concept, we have this assembly line. That the only thing were using the test for is to put labels on peoples foreheads to separate them, to track them. Though we know there's weaknesses we push them forward and we're pretty much ensuring that at some future point they'r going to fail. We're pretty much ensuring that motivated kids, even if they have awesome teachers at some point those gaps are going to come back and they're not going to be able to perform once they get to some more advanced mathematics. Now that we've gotten a funding ... just so you know a little bit of the story how all of this happened. I was literally making videos in my closet for about five years. Then about a year ago Google brought me over to their campus and I thought it was just like a lot of the Google engineers, as parents they were using these videos for their children and all of that. But they brought me in to a conference room and they said, "Sal, what would you do with two million dollars?" (audience laughing) I said, "Is this an education context? Or is just a broader question?" (audience laughing) There are very different answers. That happened and a little bit later, I mean this is like last year, I was still in the closet. (audience laughing) I get a call from Larry Cohen, who's Bill Gates chief of staff, and says, "I don't know if you realize this but Bill Gates likes your videos." "He watches them, he uses it with his kids, and he would like to support you." "Do you have some time to meet him in the near future?" I said, "I think I can move around my calendar a little bit." (audience laughing) I think I can push back a few of the video recordings here or there. But you fast forward to October of this year, we got funding from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. We got the funding from Google. In a sense it allowed me to come out of the closet. What we're now trying to do there is take these videos to their natural conclusion, and address that juggling mastery problem. What we're doing, if you go to the site it's all free, it's a not for profit, not trying to sell anything. You can start at 1 + 1 = 2 and we'll give you as many problems as you need. As you get 10 in a row, you can keep advancing to more and more advanced concepts. The paradigm here is don't move on to a next concept until you master the one you already know. As an organization what we're trying to do and it seems like there's already a little bit, we're getting the traction here and we'll talk later and to talk about why we think we're getting that traction. What we're trying to do is enable anyone, anywhere in the world for free to get one an education but when we say an education, to get an education that really is a mastery based education. One that really ensures that someone understands the basics before they move forward and they can do it all at their own pace. I want to be clear, this is actually ... We'll talk more about this in the second half of the talk. This isn't a new idea, it's actually nothing that Khan Academy doing is fundamentally new. Doing videos either online or even on TV or whatever, it's not a new idea when the radio was first invented, when TV was first invented, people thought it was going to revolutionize education. Put the best teachers, broadcast them, it never happened. Even when the internet kind of came out, they thought that was going to be the killer [happen] for the internet. When the PC was first invented, they thought this was the first time we can give people self-pace learning but it never got traction. In the second half of my talk I'd like to think a little bit about maybe why we're getting a traction. It's a super important question for us as an organization because we don't want to lose whatever that secret sauce might be. The other interesting thing that's happened and I talk a lot more about this in the other TED talk, and is actually a big surprise to me, is that our software and video start to get adapted in the classroom. I mentioned the previous talk that it happened early on even before we got funding or anything. I started getting letters from teachers who's saying that they were using just the videos to flip the education model. They were now assigning the videos for a lecture, they were assigning the videos for homework and instead of doing a lecture in the classroom, they were actually allowing their students to interact with each other in doing problems. Just with that simple technology, just the on demand video they were actually able to kind of personalize and make the actual classroom experience interactive. Now with this kind of self-paced mastery base learning software, we were approached by the Los Altos School District not to far from here, "What would you do with a classroom?" We said, "Well we would let every student work at their own pace." The teachers role would be, they have a dashboard, they would have all of the data and only intervene on the students that are stuck. So you could do a very focused intervention and be armed with the right data to do it. Or even better get a student who's already proficient in that to intervene on that student and then you get all the benefits of learning something even deeper when you yourself are the teacher. They decided to do it. In Los Altos we have two fifth grade classes and two seventh grade classes and they're using this as their core curriculum. What I want to emphasize here and it's not always made clear is when I talk about this to people, a lot of people will say, "Oh this awesome." Self-pace learning, mastery based, differentiate in instruction but there is a crowd that starts to get a little suspicious. They start saying well, "This sounds like you're automating things" "but it sounds like it's very robotic." "It sounds like kids in front of a computer just doing exercises all day," "listening to videos, not interacting with each other." "It sounds like you're marginalizing the teacher." "It sounds your deskilling the teacher," "that you're making them just do what the computers can't." What I want to emphasize here is the exact opposite. What we're seeing in those classrooms in Los Altos, is we're seeing every moment of that teachers time is spent interacting with her students, being a mentor. These students are getting one on one with the teacher multiple times a week. When I was in school I was lucky to get that even a few times, and even in your whole career. Multiple times a week. They aren't doing this at the expense of project based learning or investigations. What this is allowing the teacher to do, it liberates the classroom. So now that they can do more of the project based learning, they can do more of the investigations. These classrooms in Los Altos, there is more of that creative activity, more of this interaction, more of this experimenting with the world than you would see in any other classroom. So for the first time because we have this technology it's not an either or proposition. You have this kind of camps of mathematical instruction. Do you do kind of the traditional, do a lot of problems, lecture and see a lot of traditional problems? Or do you do the project based learning where you investigate things? Our answer is now we can do both. Even better, even on the instruction itself there's these debates between old Math and new Math, how you to it? The value when you have on demand video, you can do both. You can actually expose the students to every possible way that there is to learn Mathematics. In the same classroom, you have one kid doing third grade Math and you have one kid doing Algebra, and that's great. The student doing the third grade Math needs to be doing the third grade Math. Here she needs to fill out those gaps, and the student who's doing the Algebra should be able to run forward and do the Algebra. Then some people say, "Oh this is bad." "Already the smart kids have the advantage" "and the slow kids they already have every disadvantage." "Now you're making the spread even wider." But what they don't realize is in these same classes it's becoming impossible to figure out over a longer term who those smart kids are and who the slower kids are. Because even though one kid is working on third grade Math for a little while, once he or she has getting those [cuts] and we see it over and over again, they're able to race ahead. Then three weeks later they passed up the kid who is in Algebra.