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  • To be honest, by personality,

    正直に言うと 私は性格的に

  • I'm just not much of a crier.


  • But I think in my career that's been a good thing.

    しかし 仕事の上で それは良い事だったと思います

  • I'm a civil rights lawyer,


  • and I've seen some horrible things in the world.

    世界の身の毛のよだつ出来事を 見てきました

  • I began my career working police abuse cases in the United States.

    初めての仕事は アメリカで警官の権力乱用事件でした

  • And then in 1994, I was sent to Rwanda

    そして1994年 私はルワンダへ

  • to be the director of the U.N.'s genocide investigation.

    国連の大虐殺調査のディレクターとして 派遣されました

  • It turns out that tears just aren't much help


  • when you're trying to investigate a genocide.


  • The things I had to see, and feel and touch

    見たり 感じたり 触れたりしなければ ならなかったことは

  • were pretty unspeakable.


  • What I can tell you is this:


  • that the Rwandan genocide


  • was one of the world's greatest failures of simple compassion.

    たんなる思いやりだけでは敵わない 世界の大失策でした

  • That word, compassion, actually comes from two Latin words:

    compassion ( 思いやり ) という言葉は

  • cum passio, which simply mean "to suffer with."

    cum passio 「共に苦しむ」という意味の 2つのラテン語に由来しています

  • And the things that I saw and experienced

    ルワンダで見たり 経験したことから

  • in Rwanda as I got up close to human suffering,


  • it did, in moments, move me to tears.

    私はときに 涙しました

  • But I just wish that I, and the rest of the world,

    しかし 私は自分や他国がもっと早く

  • had been moved earlier.

    行動していたならと願わずには いられませんでした

  • And not just to tears,


  • but to actually stop the genocide.


  • Now by contrast, I've also been involved

    一方で 私は思いやりが

  • with one of the world's greatest successes of compassion.

    世界規模で とても上手く機能した件にも 関わってきました

  • And that's the fight against global poverty.


  • It's a cause that probably has involved all of us here.

    この会場にいる 私たち全員が関わったであろう運動です

  • I don't know if your first introduction

    皆さんが貧困撲滅のために 初めてしたのは

  • might have been choruses of "We Are the World,"

    ""We Are the World""の合唱だったり

  • or maybe the picture of a sponsored child on your refrigerator door,

    金銭的に支援した子供の写真を 冷蔵庫の扉に貼ることだったり

  • or maybe the birthday you donated for fresh water.

    新鮮な水が飲めるよう 自分の誕生日に寄付したことかもしれません

  • I don't really remember what my first introduction to poverty was

    私は貧困撲滅のために 初めて何をしたのかよく覚えていませんが

  • but I do remember the most jarring.

    一番動揺したことが何だったか 覚えています

  • It was when I met Venus --

    それは ヴィーナスに会った時のことでした

  • she's a mom from Zambia.


  • She's got three kids and she's a widow.


  • When I met her, she had walked about 12 miles

    私がヴィーナスに会ったとき 彼女は着の身着のまま

  • in the only garments she owned,


  • to come to the capital city and to share her story.


  • She sat down with me for hours,


  • just ushered me in to the world of poverty.

    それが私が貧困の世界で 働くきっかけになりました

  • She described what it was like when the coals on the cooking fire


  • finally just went completely cold.

    調理用暖炉の石炭が 完全に冷たくなった時

  • When that last drop of cooking oil finally ran out.


  • When the last of the food, despite her best efforts,

    物凄く頑張ったのに 最後の食べ物がなくなった時のことを

  • ran out.


  • She had to watch her youngest son, Peter,

    彼女の一番下の息子の ピーターは栄養失調で

  • suffer from malnutrition,

    彼女の一番下の息子の ピーターは栄養失調で

  • as his legs just slowly bowed into uselessness.


  • As his eyes grew cloudy and dim.


  • And then as Peter finally grew cold.


  • For over 50 years, stories like this have been moving us to compassion.

    半世紀以上に渡り このような話が 私たちを思いやりへと突き動かしてきました

  • We whose kids have plenty to eat.

    私たちの子供には 食べ物がたくさんあります

  • And we're moved not only to care about global poverty,


  • but to actually try to do our part to stop the suffering.

    私たちは実際に苦しみを 止めるための活動をしていますが

  • Now there's plenty of room for critique that we haven't done enough,

    活動が十分でなく 又 活動しても

  • and what it is that we've done hasn't been effective enough,

    十分な成果が出ていない という批判も多々あります

  • but the truth is this:

    でも 真実はこうなのです

  • The fight against global poverty is probably the broadest,

    世界の貧困撲滅運動は おそらく人類史において

  • longest running manifestation of the human phenomenon of compassion

    最も幅広く 長期に渡って 人の思いやりの心を

  • in the history of our species.


  • And so I'd like to share a pretty shattering insight

    しかし私は 心が打ち砕かれそうな見解をお話しします

  • that might forever change the way you think about that struggle.

    この話で貧困との戦いに対する認識が すっかり変わるかもしれません

  • But first, let me begin with what you probably already know.

    まず 皆さんがご存じのことから お話ししましょう

  • Thirty-five years ago, when I would have been graduating from high school,

    35年前 私が高校を卒業した頃は

  • they told us that 40,000 kids every day died because of poverty.

    貧困により毎日4万人の 子供が亡くなると言われていました

  • That number, today, is now down to 17,000.


  • Way too many, of course,

    もちろん それでも多いのです

  • but it does mean that every year,


  • there's eight million kids who don't have to die from poverty.


  • Moreover, the number of people in our world

    更に 世界で赤貧状態で暮らす人数―

  • who are living in extreme poverty,


  • which is defined as living off about a dollar and a quarter a day,


  • that has fallen from 50 percent,


  • to only 15 percent.


  • This is massive progress,


  • and this exceeds everybody's expectations about what is possible.

    皆さんと私とで 素直に

  • And I think you and I,

    誇りを感じ 勇気づけられることとして

  • I think, honestly, that we can feel proud and encouraged

    思いやりの力によって 何百人もの貧困に喘ぐ人々を

  • to see the way that compassion actually has the power


  • to succeed in stopping the suffering of millions.

    しかし あまり知られていませんが

  • But here's the part that you might not hear very much about.


  • If you move that poverty mark just up to two dollars a day,

    私が高校生の時 厳しい貧困に喘いでいた20億人は

  • it turns out that virtually the same two billion people

    私が高校生の時 厳しい貧困に喘いでいた20億人は

  • who were stuck in that harsh poverty when I was in high school,


  • are still stuck there,


  • 35 years later.

    なぜ何十億人も 赤貧に取り残されたのか?

  • So why, why are so many billions still stuck in such harsh poverty?


  • Well, let's think about Venus for a moment.

    何十年も妻と私はよくある思いやりの形に 心を動かされていました

  • Now for decades, my wife and I have been moved by common compassion

    子供たちへの援助 マイクロローンへの出資

  • to sponsor kids, to fund microloans,


  • to support generous levels of foreign aid.

    でも ヴィーナスに会う前までは

  • But until I had actually talked to Venus,


  • I would have had no idea that none of those approaches

    ヴィーナスの息子が死ぬ理由が 分かりませんでした

  • actually addressed why she had to watch her son die.


  • "We were doing fine," Venus told me,

    よかったのです」と ヴィーナスが私に言いました

  • "until Brutus started to cause trouble."

    ブルータスはヴィーナスの隣人で トラブルメーカーでした

  • Now, Brutus is Venus' neighbor and "cause trouble"


  • is what happened the day after Venus' husband died,

    ブルータスがやって来て ヴィーナスと子供たちを家から追い出し

  • when Brutus just came and threw Venus and the kids out of the house,

    土地を盗み 露店を奪いました

  • stole all their land, and robbed their market stall.

    暴力によって ヴィーナスは貧しくなったのでした

  • You see, Venus was thrown into destitution by violence.


  • And then it occurred to me, of course,


  • that none of my child sponsorships, none of the microloans,

    マイクロローンも 従来の貧困撲滅運動も

  • none of the traditional anti-poverty programs


  • were going to stop Brutus,


  • because they weren't meant to.

    これはグリセルダに会って より明確になってきました

  • This became even more clear to me when I met Griselda.

    彼女はグアテマラの貧困地域に暮らす 魅力的な若い少女です

  • She's a marvelous young girl living in a very poor community

    彼女はグアテマラの貧困地域に暮らす 魅力的な若い少女です

  • in Guatemala.


  • And one of the things we've learned over the years


  • is that perhaps the most powerful thing


  • that Griselda and her family can do


  • to get Griselda and her family out of poverty


  • is to make sure that she goes to school.

    専門家はこれを 「ガールエフェクト」と呼んでいます

  • The experts call this the Girl Effect.

    私たちがグリゼルダに会った時 彼女は学校に行っていませんでした

  • But when we met Griselda, she wasn't going to school.

    事実 彼女はほとんど自宅から 出ていませんでした

  • In fact, she was rarely ever leaving her home.


  • Days before we met her,


  • while she was walking home from church with her family,


  • in broad daylight,

    同じ村の男が 彼女を路上から連れ去り

  • men from her community just snatched her off the street,


  • and violently raped her.

    グリセルダには 学校に行くさまざまな機会がありました

  • See, Griselda had every opportunity to go to school,

    でも 危なくて学校に行けなかったのです

  • it just wasn't safe for her to get there.


  • And Griselda's not the only one.


  • Around the world, poor women and girls


  • between the ages of 15 and 44,


  • they are -- when victims of the everyday violence


  • of domestic abuse and sexual violence --

    マラリアや自動車事故 戦争関連の合計よりも多いのです

  • those two forms of violence account for more death and disability

    実は 世界の貧しい人々は 暴力の罠に嵌っているのです

  • than malaria, than car accidents, than war combined.

    例えば 南アジアで 私がこの精米所を車で通り過ぎた時

  • The truth is, the poor of our world are trapped in whole systems of violence.


  • In South Asia, for instance, I could drive past this rice mill


  • and see this man hoisting these 100-pound sacks

    後になって 分かったことでしたが

  • of rice upon his thin back.

    彼は実は奴隷で 私が高校生の頃から

  • But I would have no idea, until later,


  • that he was actually a slave,

    彼の村には数多くの 貧困撲滅プログラムがありますが

  • held by violence in that rice mill since I was in high school.

    彼のことも 他の百人の奴隷も

  • Decades of anti-poverty programs right in his community

    鞭打ちやレイプ 精米所の内部での拷問から

  • were never able to rescue him or any of the hundred other slaves


  • from the beatings and the rapes and the torture

    事実 貧困撲滅プログラムが行われて 50年経ちますが

  • of violence inside the rice mill.

    人類史上 どの時代よりも多数の

  • In fact, half a century of anti-poverty programs


  • have left more poor people in slavery

    専門家によると 今日 約3千5百万人の奴隷がいます

  • than in any other time in human history.


  • Experts tell us that there's about 35 million people in slavery today.


  • That's about the population of the entire nation of Canada,


  • where we're sitting today.


  • This is why, over time, I have come to call this epidemic of violence

    イナゴの大群のように 貧しい人々の暮らしを襲い

  • the Locust Effect.


  • Because in the lives of the poor, it just descends like a plague

    事実 赤貧に喘ぐ村を調査すると

  • and it destroys everything.


  • In fact, now when you survey very, very poor communities,

    でも ここで言う暴力とは

  • residents will tell you that their greatest fear is violence.


  • But notice the violence that they fear


  • is not the violence of genocide or the wars,

    もちろん弁護士として 私が最初にする対応は

  • it's everyday violence.

    全ての法律を 変えるべきだと考えることです

  • So for me, as a lawyer, of course, my first reaction was to think,

    貧しい人への暴力が違法と なるようにしなければなりません

  • well, of course we've got to change all the laws.

    でも 既にそういう法律はあるのです

  • We've got to make all this violence against the poor illegal.


  • But then I found out, it already is.

    貧しい人を守るため 法が執行されないことなのです

  • The problem is not that the poor don't get laws,


  • it's that they don't get law enforcement.

    執行制度が かなり破綻しているのです

  • In the developing world,


  • basic law enforcement systems are so broken

    「赤貧に喘ぐ人々は法に守られていない」 というのです

  • that recently the U.N. issued a report that found


  • that "most poor people live outside the protection of the law."


  • Now honestly, you and I have just about no idea

    法に守られないという体験を したことはないからです

  • of what that would mean

    私達には警察機関が機能することが まったく当たり前のことです

  • because we have no first-hand experience of it.

    この3つの番号―911が それを最も明確に表しています

  • Functioning law enforcement for us is just a total assumption.

    911に電話すると ここカナダやアメリカでは

  • In fact, nothing expresses that assumption more clearly than three simple numbers:


  • 9-1-1,

    911に電話してから約10分で 警察が来ます

  • which, of course, is the number for the emergency police operator


  • here in Canada and in the United States,

    もし皆さんを守る警察組織が なかったらどうなるでしょうか?

  • where the average response time to a police 911 emergency call

    最近オレゴン州の女性が こんな体験をしました

  • is about 10 minutes.

    彼女は土曜日の夜 暗い家に一人でいると

  • So we take this just completely for granted.

    男が彼女の家に押し入ろうと するのでした

  • But what if there was no law enforcement to protect you?


  • A woman in Oregon recently experienced what this would be like.


  • She was home alone in her dark house on a Saturday night,


  • when a man started to tear his way into her home.

    恐怖に怯え 彼女は電話を取り

  • This was her worst nightmare,

    誰もがするように 911に電話するのですが

  • because this man had actually put her in the hospital from an assault

    しかし 郡の予算削減により

  • just two weeks before.

    週末には警察が 休業だと知らされるのです

  • So terrified, she picks up that phone and does what any of us would do:


  • She calls 911 --

    (911) 誰も派遣できません

  • but only to learn that because of budget cuts in her county,

    (被害者) そう

  • law enforcement wasn't available on the weekends.

    (911) 男が家に入り襲ってきたら

  • Listen.


  • Dispatcher: I don't have anybody to send out there.


  • Woman: OK

    (被害者) 帰ってと言いました 通報したとも言いました

  • Dispatcher: Um, obviously if he comes inside the residence and assaults you,

    前にもドアを蹴破って入ってきて 暴行してきたんです

  • can you ask him to go away?

    (911) そうですか

  • Or do you know if he is intoxicated or anything?

    (被害者) だから…

  • Woman: I've already asked him. I've already told him I was calling you.

    (911) ご自宅から逃げられますか?

  • He's broken in before, busted down my door, assaulted me.

    (被害者) 無理です 完全に逃げ道を塞がれています

  • Dispatcher: Uh-huh.

    (911) アドバイスしかできませんが

  • Woman: Um, yeah, so ...

    明日 保安官に電話してください

  • Dispatcher: Is there any way you could safely leave the residence?

    明らかに男が家に入ってきて 不運にも武器を所持しているとか

  • Woman: No, I can't, because he's blocking pretty much my only way out.

    危害を加えようとしているのなら 話は別です

  • Dispatcher: Well, the only thing I can do is give you some advice,


  • and call the sheriff's office tomorrow.


  • Obviously, if he comes in and unfortunately has a weapon

    (ゲイリー・ホーゲン) ひどいことに その家にいる女性は

  • or is trying to cause you physical harm, that's a different story.

    暴行され 首を締められ レイプされました

  • You know, the sheriff's office doesn't work up there.


  • I don't have anybody to send."

    何十億という貧しい人々は そういう場所に暮らしています

  • Gary Haugen: Tragically, the woman inside that house


  • was violently assaulted, choked and raped

    例えばボリビアで 男が貧しい子供に性的暴行を加えたとき

  • because this is what it means to live outside the rule of law.

    統計的に見て その男がシャワーで滑って死ぬリスクの方が

  • And this is where billions of our poorest live.

    その罪で刑務所に行く 可能性よりも高いのです

  • What does that look like?

    南アジアでは 貧しい人を奴隷にしたとき

  • In Bolivia, for example, if a man sexually assaults a poor child,


  • statistically, he's at greater risk of slipping in the shower and dying


  • than he is of ever going to jail for that crime.

    日常生活における暴力は 勢いを増しているのです

  • In South Asia, if you enslave a poor person,

    何十億もの人々を 1日2ドルの地獄から救おうとする

  • you're at greater risk of being struck by lightning


  • than ever being sent to jail for that crime.


  • And so the epidemic of everyday violence, it just rages on.


  • And it devastates our efforts to try to help billions of people


  • out of their two-dollar-a-day hell.


  • Because the data just doesn't lie.

    長期的に成果が上がらず 失敗に終わるのです

  • It turns out that you can give all manner of goods and services

    開発途上国では基本的な 警察機構の崩壊への対処が

  • to the poor,


  • but if you don't restrain the hands of the violent bullies

    最優先課題となっていると 考えることでしょう

  • from taking it all away,


  • you're going to be very disappointed in the long-term impact of your efforts.


  • So you would think that the disintegration of basic law enforcement

    日常的に蔓延する無法な暴力から 貧しい人を守るためには

  • in the developing world would be a huge priority

    支援額の1%も使われていないことが わかります

  • for the global fight against poverty.

    正直に言うと 貧しい人に向けられた暴力の話になると

  • But it's not.


  • Auditors of international assistance recently couldn't find

    水を提供する団体は 水を汲みに行く途中でレイプされた