Placeholder Image

字幕表 動画を再生する

審査済み この字幕は審査済みです
  • The stories we tell about each other

    お互いを語り合う物語は

  • matter very much.

    大切です

  • The stories we tell ourselves about our own lives matter.

    自分の人生を語ることも大切です

  • And most of all,

    そして何よりも

  • I think the way that we participate in each other's stories

    お互いの物語にいかに関わって行くかが

  • is of deep importance.

    非常に大切だと思います

  • I was six years old

    6歳のときのこと

  • when I first heard stories about the poor.

    初めて 貧しい人の話を聞きました

  • Now I didn't hear those stories from the poor themselves,

    貧しい人から直接聞いたのではなくて

  • I heard them from my Sunday school teacher

    日曜学校の先生を通じて

  • and Jesus, kind of via my Sunday school teacher.

    キリストの話を聞いたのです

  • I remember learning that people who were poor

    彼らは いろんな物を必要としていると

  • needed something material --

    教わったことを覚えています

  • food, clothing, shelter -- that they didn't have.

    衣食住で困っているのです

  • And I also was taught, coupled with that,

    またそれと合わせて

  • that it was my job -- this classroom full of five and six year-old children --

    日曜学校に通う5-6歳の自分たちの務めは

  • it was our job, apparently, to help.

    助けることだと教わりました

  • This is what Jesus asked of us.

    これはキリストからのお願いなのです

  • And then he said, "What you do for the least of these, you do for me."

    「最も小さな者への行いは わたしへの行いである」

  • Now I was pretty psyched.

    私はすごく楽しみだと思い

  • I was very eager to be useful in the world --

    世界の役に立ちたいと思いました

  • I think we all have that feeling.

    誰もが感じたことのある あの感覚です

  • And also, it was kind of interesting that God needed help.

    神が助けを求めているとは

  • That was news to me,

    初耳でしたが これに貢献することが

  • and it felt like it was a very important thing to get to participate in.

    重要だと感じました

  • But I also learned very soon thereafter

    でも その後すぐにキリストが

  • that Jesus also said, and I'm paraphrasing,

    こんなことを言っていたと学びました

  • the poor would always be with us.

    貧者は常に共にいるというのです

  • This frustrated and confused me;

    このことには不満で困惑しました

  • I felt like I had been just given a homework assignment

    やるべき宿題が出されて

  • that I had to do, and I was excited to do,

    わくわくする課題なのに

  • but no matter what I would do, I would fail.

    どう頑張っても失敗すると言われては

  • So I felt confused, a little bit frustrated and angry,

    混乱するし 不服で腹も立ちます

  • like maybe I'd misunderstood something here.

    何か私が誤解しているように思えて

  • And I felt overwhelmed.

    気後れしてしまいました

  • And for the first time,

    このとき初めて

  • I began to fear this group of people

    貧しい人たちに対する恐れと

  • and to feel negative emotion towards a whole group of people.

    不快感を感じるようになりました

  • I imagined in my head, a kind of long line of individuals

    脳裏に浮かんだのは一列に並んだ人々が

  • that were never going away, that would always be with us.

    いつも付きまとうイメージです

  • They were always going to ask me to help them and give them things,

    救いの手や物資をいつも求め

  • which I was excited to do,

    私の助けたいという気持ちも

  • but I didn't know how it was going to work.

    どう役に立つのかがわかりません

  • And I didn't know what would happen when I ran out of things to give,

    差し出すものも尽きたらどうなるのでしょう

  • especially if the problem was never going away.

    まして 永遠に続く問題だというのです

  • In the years following,

    私は大人になるまで

  • the other stories I heard about the poor growing up

    貧困の話をいろいろ聞きましたが

  • were no more positive.

    暗い話ばかりでした

  • For example, I saw pictures and images

    例えば 悲しみにくれて苦しんでいる人たちの

  • frequently of sadness and suffering.

    写真や映像を見たり

  • I heard about things that were going wrong in the lives of the poor.

    困難に陥る貧しい人たちの話や

  • I heard about disease, I heard about war --

    病気や戦争の話を聞きました

  • they always seemed to be kind of related.

    互いにつながりがあるように見える

  • And in general,

    それらの話から私は

  • I got this sort of idea

    こんな状況であろうと理解しました

  • that the poor in the world lived lives

    世界中の貧しい人たちは

  • that were wrought with suffering and sadness,

    苦しみや悲しみや破壊や絶望が

  • devastation, hopelessness.

    つきまとう人生を送るのです

  • And after a while, I developed what I think many of us do,

    やがて 多くの人と同じように

  • is this predictable response,

    こんなふうに反応するようになりました

  • where I started to feel bad every time I heard about them.

    貧困の話を耳にするたびに可哀想に思い

  • I started to feel guilty for my own relative wealth,

    相対的に豊かな自分に罪悪感を覚えるのです

  • because I wasn't doing more, apparently, to make things better.

    十分な貢献をできていないからです

  • And I even felt a sense of shame because of that.

    そのために恥ずかしさも感じました

  • And so naturally,

    そこで自然に

  • I started to distance myself.

    私は距離をおくようになり

  • I stopped listening to their stories

    貧しい人たちの話を 以前のように

  • quite as closely as I had before.

    こと細かに聞かなくなりました

  • And I stopped expecting things to really change.

    事態が改善するとも思えなくなりました

  • Now I still gave -- on the outside it looked like I was still quite involved.

    でも 時間とお金を積極的に

  • I gave of my time and my money,

    割いているように見えたでしょう

  • I gave when solutions were on sale.

    買える解決策には お金を出していました

  • The cost of a cup of coffee can save a child's life, right.

    コーヒー1杯分のお金で

  • I mean who can argue with that?

    子ども1人が救えるのは事実です

  • I gave when I was cornered, when it was difficult to avoid

    気持ちが追いつめられたら寄付しました

  • and I gave, in general, when the negative emotions built up enough

    哀れみの感情が高まったときも寄付して

  • that I gave to relieve my own suffering,

    他の誰でもない自分の苦しみが

  • not someone else's.

    和らぐのです

  • The truth be told, I was giving out of that place,

    本当はそんな理由で寄付していました

  • not out of a genuine place of hope

    純粋に希望を抱いての行為ではなく

  • and excitement to help and of generosity.

    援助の心とか親切心でもないのです

  • It became a transaction for me,

    私に取って単なる取引や

  • became sort of a trade.

    売買に成り下がりました

  • I was purchasing something --

    日々を過ごす権利のような物を

  • I was buying my right to go on with my day

    買っていたのです

  • and not necessarily be bothered by this bad news.

    悲しいニュースに悩まされない権利です

  • And I think the way that we go through that sometimes

    悩みを切り抜けようとするあまり

  • can, first of all,

    なによりもまず 彼らの

  • disembody a group of people, individuals out there in the world.

    人間性や個性のことを忘れて

  • And it can also turn into a commodity,

    ある種の商品のように扱ってしまうのは

  • which is a very scary thing.

    実に恐ろしい振る舞いです

  • So as I did this, and as I think many of us do this,

    私と同じように 対処した人も多いでしょう

  • we kind of buy our distance,

    いわば距離を買うようなものです

  • we kind of buy our right to go on with our day.

    日常の暮らしを続ける権利を買うのです

  • I think that exchange can actually get in the way of the very thing that we want most.

    この取引は 一番望んでいるはずの

  • It can get in the way of our desire

    意味ある形で誰かの人生に

  • to really be meaningful and useful in another person's life

    役立ちたいという願いを妨げます

  • and, in short to love.

    つまり簡単に言えば愛の妨げになります

  • Thankfully, a few years ago, things shifted for me

    ありがたいことに 数年前に転機がありました

  • because I heard this gentleman speak, Dr. Muhammad Yunus.

    私はムハマド・ユヌス博士の講演を聞いたのです

  • I know many in the room probably know exactly who he is,

    多くの皆さんは彼のことをよくご存知でしょうが

  • but to give the shorthand version

    知らない方のために

  • for any who have not heard him speak,

    ごく簡単に紹介します

  • Dr. Yunus won the Nobel Peace Prize a few years ago

    ユヌス博士はマイクロファイナンスを

  • for his work pioneering modern microfinance.

    確立した功績でノーベル平和賞を受賞しました

  • When I heard him speak, it was three years before that.

    私が彼の話を聞いたのは受賞の3年前でした

  • But basically, microfinance -- if this is new to you as well --

    簡単にマイクロファイナンスを説明します

  • think of that as financial services for the poor.

    貧しい人のための金融サービスです

  • Think of all the things you get at your bank

    銀行が提供するサービスを

  • and imagine those products and services

    一日数ドルで暮らす人に合わせて

  • tailored to the needs of someone living on a few dollars a day.

    提供する仕組みです

  • Dr. Yunus shared his story,

    ユヌス博士は彼の物語と

  • explaining what that was,

    グラミン銀行で成し遂げたことを

  • and what he had done with his Grameen Bank.

    語りました

  • He also talked about, in particular, microlending,

    特に小額貸与について説明しました

  • which is a tiny loan

    これは小額の融資で

  • that could help someone start or grow a business.

    起業と事業の成長を支援するものです

  • Now, when I heard him speak, it was exciting for a number of reasons.

    彼の話を聞いて いくつかの理由で興奮しました

  • First and foremost, I learned about this new method of change in the world

    まず何より 世界を変える新しい方法を学んだのです

  • that, for once, showed me, maybe,

    関わり合いを持ちながら

  • a way to interact with someone

    資金を貸与するのは

  • and to give, to share of a resource in a way that wasn't weird

    無理のない方法だと知りました

  • and didn't make me feel bad --

    可哀想だからすることではありません

  • that was exciting.

    これには わくわくしました

  • But more importantly, he told stories about the poor

    さらに重要なことは 貧しい人についての話は

  • that were different than any stories I had heard before.

    これまで聞いたこともないような話でした

  • In fact, those individuals he talked about who were poor was sort of a side note.

    たまたま貧しいけれども

  • He was talking about strong, smart,

    力と知恵と熱意のある起業家が

  • hardworking entrepreneurs who woke up every day

    自分と家族の生活を良くするために

  • and were doing things to make their lives and their family's lives better.

    努力しているという話だったのです

  • All they needed to do that more quickly and to do it better

    それをもっと素早く 適切に実行するために

  • was a little bit of capital.

    彼らに必要なのは少しの資金でした

  • It was an amazing sort of insight for me.

    この見方には 驚かされました

  • And I, in fact, was so deeply moved by this --

    大きく心を動かされました

  • it's hard to express now how much that affected me --

    どれほど心を捉えられたのか言葉にできません

  • but I was so moved that I actually quit my job a few weeks later,

    とても感動したので 数週間後には仕事を辞めて

  • and I moved to East Africa

    東アフリカに向かい

  • to try to see for myself what this was about.

    自分の眼で確かめることにしました

  • For the first time, actually, in a long time

    人生で初めて 一人ひとりの個人と

  • I wanted to meet those individuals, I wanted to meet these entrepreneurs,

    会いたいと思いました 起業家たちと会って

  • and see for myself what their lives were actually about.

    その暮らしを 自分で確かめたかったのです

  • So I spent three months in Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania

    ケニアとウガンダとタンザニアで3ヶ月を過ごし

  • interviewing entrepreneurs that had received 100 dollars

    100ドルで起業や事業拡大をした

  • to start or grow a business.

    起業家にインタビューしました

  • And in fact, through those interactions,

    そしてこれらの交流を通して

  • for the first time, I was starting to get to be friends

    形の見えない 遠い存在だと

  • with some of those people in that big amorphous group out there

    ずっと思っていた人たちと

  • that was supposed to be far away.

    初めて友人になりました

  • I was starting to be friends and get to know their personal stories.

    友達になって一人ずつの話を知りました

  • And over and over again,

    そしてインタビューを何度も

  • as I interviewed them and spent my days with them,

    繰り返して 彼らと過ごす日々の中で

  • I did hear stories of life change

    人生が変化した話を

  • and amazing little details of change.

    細部にわたって聴きました

  • So I would hear from goat herders

    融資でヤギを数頭買ったという

  • who had used that money that they had received to buy a few more goats.

    ヤギ飼いの話を聞くのです

  • Their business trajectory would change.

    商売を軌道に乗せて

  • They would make a little bit more money;

    もう少しの収入を得ると

  • their standard of living

    生活水準を高めて

  • would shift and would get better.

    より良い暮らしを送れます

  • And they would make really interesting little adjustments in their lives,

    暮らしの中の小さな改善が興味深いのです

  • like they would start to send their children to school.

    子どもを学校にやるとか

  • They might be able to buy mosquito nets.

    蚊帳を買えるようになるとか

  • Maybe they could afford a lock for the door and feel secure.

    扉の鍵を買って安心できるようになるとか

  • Maybe it was just that they could put sugar in their tea

    客をもてなすお茶をいれるときに

  • and offer that to me when I came as their guest

    砂糖も入れられることが

  • and that made them feel proud.

    誇らしいとか

  • But there were these beautiful details, even if I talked to 20 goat herders in a row,

    20人のヤギ飼いに順番に話を聞いても

  • and some days that's what happened --

    素敵なディテールがいろいろあるのです

  • these beautiful details of life change

    あるとき生じた素晴らしい人生の変化が

  • that were meaningful to them.

    どれだけ意味あるものなのかを知って

  • That was another thing that really touched me.

    私は感動しました

  • It was really humbling to see for the first time,

    魔法の杖があれば

  • to really understand

    全ての問題が解決するかのように

  • that even if I could have taken a magic wand and fixed everything,

    考えていた自分の思い違いに

  • I probably would have gotten a lot wrong.

    初めて気がつきました

  • Because the best way for people to change their lives

    本人が最善だと思う方法こそが

  • is for them to have control and to do that in a way that they believe is best for them.

    人生を変える一番良い方法だからです

  • So I saw that and it was very humbling.

    こうして自分の思い込みに気づきました

  • Anyway, another interesting thing happened while I was there.

    向こうではさらに面白いことがありました

  • I never once was asked for a donation,

    一度たりとも 寄付を求められなかったのです

  • which had kind of been my mode, right.

    貧困と援助を結びつけていた私は

  • There's poverty, you give money to help --

    寄付を求められるだろうと覚悟していました

  • no one asked me for a donation.

    だれ一人として寄付を求めませんでした

  • In fact, no one wanted me to feel bad for them at all.

    可哀想と思ってほしい人などいなかったのです

  • If anything, they just wanted to be able to do more of what they were doing already

    強いて言えば すでに取り組んでいることを

  • and to build on their own capabilities.

    さらに進めて能力を高めたいというのです

  • So what I did hear, once in a while,

    時々私が耳にしたことは

  • was that people wanted a loan --

    お金を借りたい人がいること

  • I thought that sounded very reasonable and really exciting.

    合理的で素晴らしいことだと思いました

  • And by the way, I was a philosophy and poetry major in school,

    私の専攻は哲学と詩学だったので

  • so I didn't know the difference between profit and revenue when I went to East Africa.

    現地訪問の時には 利益と収入の区別もつかず

  • I just got this impression that the money would work.

    ただお金が役に立つという印象を受けただけでした

  • And my introduction to business

    私がビジネスに触れたのは

  • was in these $100 little infuses of capital.

    わずか100ドルの資本提供からでした

  • And I learned about profit and revenue, about leverage, all sorts of things,

    利益と収入やレバレッジなどについては

  • from farmers, from seamstresses, from goat herders.

    農家や仕立て屋やヤギ飼いたちから学びました

  • So this idea

    さて ビジネスと希望についての

  • that these new stories of business and hope

    こんな新しい話を

  • might be shared with my friends and family,

    友人や家族に伝えて

  • and through that, maybe we could get some of the money that they needed

    必要とするお金を集めて貸し出し

  • to be able to continue their businesses as loans,

    ビジネスを続けられるようにできるはずです

  • that's this little idea that turned into Kiva.

    この小さなアイデアから Kiva が生まれました

  • A few months later, I went back to Uganda

    数ヶ月後 デジカメを手に

  • with a digital camera and a basic website

    ウガンダに戻って 簡単なウェブサイトを

  • that my partner, Matthew, and I had kind of built,

    パートナーのマシューと作ると

  • and took pictures of seven of my new friends,

    新しい友人たち 7 人の写真を載せて

  • posted their stories, these stories of entrepreneurship, up on the website,

    彼らの起業家としてのエピソードを添えて

  • spammed friends and family and said, "We think this is legal.

    周囲に嘆願メールを送りました

  • Haven't heard back yet from SEC on all the details,

    「法律面もOK SECからの問い合わせも受けていません

  • but do you say, do you want to help participate in this,

    この人たちが必要なお金を

  • provide the money that they need?"

    提供してもらえませんか?」

  • The money came in basically overnight.

    資金はほぼ一晩で集まりました

  • We sent it over to Uganda.

    ウガンダに送金して

  • And over the next six months, a beautiful thing happened;

    そのあと6ヶ月 素晴らしい展開です

  • the entrepreneurs received the money,

    起業家たちはお金を受け取り

  • they were paid, and their businesses, in fact, grew,

    受け取ったお金で事業を発展させて

  • and they were able to support themselves

    自立を進めることができ

  • and change the trajectory of their lives.

    人生の軌道を変えることができました

  • In October of '05,

    2005年の10月には

  • after those first seven loans were paid,

    最初の7件のローンは返済され

  • Matt and I took the word beta off of the site.

    ウェブサイトもベータ版ではなくなりました

  • We said, "Our little experiment has been a success.

    「ささやかな実験は成功した

  • Let's start for real." That was our official launch.

    ここからが本番だ」 公式なスタートでした

  • And then that first year, October '05 through '06,

    2005年10月から2006年までの初年度に

  • Kiva facilitated $500,000 in loans.

    Kiva は50万ドルの貸出を行い

  • The second year, it was a total of 15 million.

    2年目には1500万ドルになりました

  • The third year, the total was up to around 40.

    3年目には4000万ドルでした

  • The fourth year, we were just short of 100.

    4年目は1億ドル弱

  • And today, less than five years in,

    そして今日 まだ5年に満たないのですが

  • Kiva's facilitated

    一口25ドルからの融資を

  • more than 150 million dollars, in little 25-dollar bits,

    Kiva は1億5千万ドル以上行いました

  • from lenders and entrepreneurs --

    貸主と借主合わせて100万人以上が

  • more than a million of those, collectively in 200 countries.

    200ヶ国に広がっています

  • So that's where Kiva is today, just to bring you right up to the present.

    Kiva の現状をご理解いただけたと思います

  • And while those numbers and those statistics

    これらの数字と統計についての