Placeholder Image

字幕表 動画を再生する

  • (Forest noises)

  • In the summer of 2011, as a tourist,

  • I visited the rainforests of Borneo for the very first time,

  • and as you might imagine,

  • it was the overwhelming sounds of the forest that struck me the most.

  • There's this constant cacophony of noise.

  • Some things actually do stick out.

  • For example, this here is a big bird, a rhinoceros hornbill.

  • This buzzing is a cicada.

  • (Forest sounds)

  • This is a family of gibbons.

  • It's actually singing to each other over a great distance.

  • The place where this was recorded was in fact a gibbon reserve,

  • which is why you can hear so many of them,

  • but in fact the most important noise

  • that was coming out of the forest that time

  • was one that I didn't notice,

  • and in fact nobody there had actually noticed it.

  • So, as I said, this was a gibbon reserve.

  • They spend most of their time rehabilitating gibbons,

  • these cute apes that you also just heard a few minutes ago.

  • But in fact, what I didn't realize when I got there,

  • was that they also have to spend a lot of their time

  • protecting their area from illegal logging that takes place on the side.

  • And so if we take the sound of the forest

  • and we actually turn down the gibbons, the insects, and the rest,

  • as you're hearing now,

  • in the background, the entire time, in recordings you heard,

  • was the sound of a chainsaw at great distance.

  • And in fact, as I said, these guards were there -

  • They had three full-time guards who were posted around this sanctuary

  • whose job was in fact to guard against illegal logging,

  • and one day, we went walking, again as tourists, out into the forest,

  • and within five minutes' walk,

  • we stumbled upon somebody who was just sawing a tree down,

  • five minutes' walk, a few hundred meters from the ranger station.

  • They hadn't been able to hear the chainsaws,

  • because as you heard, the forest is very, very loud.

  • It struck me as quite unacceptable that in this modern time,

  • just a few hundred meters away from a ranger station in a sanctuary,

  • that in fact nobody could hear it when someone who has a chainsaw gets fired up.

  • It sounds impossible, but in fact, it was quite true.

  • However, I did want to set out and try and find a way

  • to work on helping them, because again, they were there,

  • they wanted to protect the reserve.

  • It was just a matter of being able to hear the chainsaws.

  • So how do we stop illegal logging?

  • It's really tempting, as an engineer, always to come up with a high-tech,

  • super-crazy high-tech solution -

  • I'm from San Francisco, that's what we like to do there -

  • but in fact, you're in the rainforest.

  • It has to be simple, it has to be scalable,

  • and so what we also noticed while were there was that

  • everything we needed was already there.

  • We could build a system that would allow us to stop this

  • using what's already there.

  • So, in fact, who was there? What was already in the forest?

  • Well, we had people.

  • We had this group there that was dedicated, three full-time guards,

  • dedicated to go and stop it,

  • but they just needed to know what was happening out in the forest.

  • In fact, the real surprise, this is the big one,

  • was that there was connectivity out in the forest.

  • There was cell phone service way out in the middle of nowhere.

  • We're talking hundreds of kilometers from the nearest road,

  • there's certainly no electricity, but they had very good cell phone service,

  • these people in the towns were on Facebook all the time,

  • they're surfing the web on their phones,

  • and in fact they just charge their phones once a day.

  • And this sort of got me thinking that in fact it would be possible

  • to use the sounds of the forest,

  • pick up the sounds of chainsaws programmatically,

  • because people can't hear them,

  • and send an alert.

  • But you have to have a device to go up in the trees.

  • So if we can use some device to listen to the sounds of the forest,

  • connect to the cell phone network that's there,

  • and send an alert to people on the ground,

  • perhaps we could have a solution to this issue for them.

  • But let's take a moment to talk about saving the rainforest,

  • because it's something that we've definitely all heard about forever.

  • People in my generation have heard about saving the rainforest

  • since we were kids,

  • and it seems that the message has never changed:

  • We've got to save the rainforest, it's super urgent,

  • this many football fields have been destroyed yesterday.

  • and yet here we are today, about half of the rainforest remains,

  • and we have potentially more urgent problems like climate change.

  • But in fact, this is the little-known fact that I didn't realize at the time:

  • Deforestation accounts for more greenhouse gas

  • than all of the world's planes, trains, cars, trucks and ships combined.

  • It's the second highest contributor to climate change.

  • I was pretty amazed by that.

  • Also, according to Interpol,

  • as much as 90 percent of the logging that takes place in the rainforest

  • is illegal logging, like the illegal logging that we saw.

  • So if we can help people in the forest enforce the rules that are there,

  • in fact, there's a mandate to do so, because it is illegal,

  • then in fact we could eat heavily into this 17 percent

  • and potentially have a major impact in the short term.

  • It might just be the cheapest, fastest way to fight climate change -

  • would be to stop illegal logging.

  • And so here's the system that we imagine.

  • It looks super high tech.

  • The moment a sound of a chainsaw is heard in the forest,

  • the device picks up the sound of the chainsaw,

  • it sends an alert through the standard GSM network that's already there

  • to a ranger in the field

  • who can in fact show up in real time and stop the logging.

  • It's no more about going out and finding a tree that's been cut.

  • It's not about seeing a tree from a satellite

  • in an area that's been clear cut,

  • it's about real-time intervention.

  • So I said it was the cheapest and fastest way to do it,

  • but in fact, actually, as you saw, they weren't able to do it,

  • so it may not be so cheap and fast.

  • But if the devices in the trees were actually cell phones,

  • it could be pretty cheap.

  • Cell phones are thrown away by the hundreds of millions every year,

  • hundreds of millions in the U.S. alone,

  • not counting the rest of the world, which of course we should do,

  • but in fact, cell phones are great.

  • They're full of sensors.

  • They can listen to the sounds of the forest.

  • And because you guys probably each have hundreds of apps on your phones

  • so you know which is the most popular platform out there.

  • We do have to protect them.

  • We have to put them in this box that you see here,

  • and we do have to power them.

  • Powering them is one of the greater engineering challenges

  • that we had to deal with,

  • because powering a cell phone under a tree canopy,

  • any sort of solar power under a tree canopy,

  • was an as-yet-unsolved problem,

  • and that's this unique solar panel design that you see here,

  • which in fact is built also from recycled byproducts of an industrial process.

  • These are strips that are cut down.

  • So this is me putting it all together

  • in my parents' garage, actually.

  • Thanks very much to them for allowing me to do that.

  • As you can see, this is a device up in a tree.

  • And this is a device on me.

  • But of course you have to climb a tree to get there.

  • What you can see from here, perhaps, is that they are pretty well obscured

  • up in the tree canopy at a distance.

  • That's important, because although they are able to hear chainsaw noises

  • up to a kilometer in the distance, which is pretty big,

  • allowing them to cover about three square kilometers,

  • they should be well hidden,

  • because if someone were to take them, it would make the area unprotected.

  • So we had to test it, right, it's a great idea,

  • you saw that fancy infographic, but does it actually work?

  • Well, to test it, we took it back to Indonesia,

  • not the same place, but another place,

  • to another gibbon reserve

  • that was threatened daily by illegal logging.

  • In fact, we installed it in the trees, you see up here...

  • On the very second day that we installed it,

  • it picked up illegal chainsaw noises.

  • We were able to get a real-time alert.

  • I got an email on my phone.

  • Actually, we had just climbed the tree.

  • Everyone had just gotten back down.

  • All these guys are smoking cigarettes,

  • and then I get an email, and they all quiet down,

  • and in fact you can hear the chainsaw

  • really, really faint in the background,

  • but no one had noticed it until that moment.

  • And so then we took off to actually stop these loggers.

  • I was pretty nervous.

  • This is the moment where we've actually arrived close to where the loggers are.

  • This is the moment where you can see where I'm actually regretting

  • perhaps the entire endeavor.

  • I'm not really sure what's on the other side of this hill.

  • That guy's much braver than I am.

  • But he went, so I had to go, walking up,

  • and in fact, he made it over the hill,

  • and interrupted the loggers in the act.

  • For them, it was such a surprise -

  • they had never, ever been interrupted before -

  • that it was such an impressive event for them,

  • that we've heard from our partners they have not been back since,

  • to this one area to go logging there.

  • They were, in fact, great guys.

  • They showed us how the entire operation works,

  • and what they really convinced us on the spot was that

  • if you can show up in real time and stop people,

  • it's enough of a deterrent they won't come back.

  • So --

  • Thank you. (Applause)

  • Word of this spread, possibly because we told a lot of people,

  • and in fact, then some really amazing stuff started to happen.

  • People from around the world started to send us emails, phone calls.

  • They said that they could use this system, too.

  • As you can see, it was clearly built for this one, isolated instance

  • in the forest, that I experienced.

  • What we saw was that people throughout Asia,

  • people throughout Africa, throughout South America,

  • they told us that they could use it too,

  • and what's most important,

  • what we'd found that we thought might be exceptional,

  • in the forest there was pretty good cell phone service.

  • That was not exceptional, we were told,

  • we were told that in many areas there is very good cell phone service,

  • and that particularly is on the periphery of the forests that are most under threat.

  • And then something really amazing happened,

  • which was that people started sending us their own old cell phones.

  • So in fact what we have now is a system

  • where we can use people on the ground, people who are already there,

  • who can both improve and use the existing connectivity,

  • and we're using old cell phones that are being sent to us

  • by people from around the world

  • that want their phones to be doing something else in their afterlife,

  • so to speak.

  • And if the rest of the device can be completely recycled,

  • then we believe it's an entirely upcycled device.

  • So again, this didn't come because of any sort of high-tech solution,

  • despite - as an engineer what I was really driven to do.

  • It just came from using what's already there,

  • and I'm thoroughly convinced that if it's not phones,

  • that there's always going to be enough there

  • that you can build similar solutions

  • that can be very effective in new contexts.

  • Thank you very much.

  • (Applause)

(Forest noises)

字幕と単語

A2 初級

【TEDx】When a tree calls for help | Topher White | TEDxCERN

  • 3545 49
    獅子王   に公開 2015 年 03 月 23 日
動画の中の単語

前のバージョンに戻す